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Animal Sciences

2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 84

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Communication For Mate Selection In Anurans: Dominant Frequency Versus Snout-Vent-Length, Shari Jean Kunert Dec 2010

Communication For Mate Selection In Anurans: Dominant Frequency Versus Snout-Vent-Length, Shari Jean Kunert

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

No abstract provided.


Thermal Acclimation Of Heart Rates In Reptilian Embryos, Wei-Guo Du, Hua Ye, Bo Zhao, Daniel A. Warner, Richard Shine Dec 2010

Thermal Acclimation Of Heart Rates In Reptilian Embryos, Wei-Guo Du, Hua Ye, Bo Zhao, Daniel A. Warner, Richard Shine

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

In many reptiles, the thermal regimes experienced by eggs in natural nests vary as a function of ambient weather and location, and this variation has important impacts on patterns of embryonic development. Recent advances in non-invasive measurement of embryonic heart rates allow us to answer a long-standing puzzle in reptilian developmental biology: Do the metabolic and developmental rates of embryos acclimate to local incubation regimes, as occurs for metabolic acclimation by post-hatching reptiles? Based on a strong correlation between embryonic heart rate and oxygen consumption, we used heart rates as a measure of metabolic rate. We demonstrate acclimation of heart ...


Is Orthoptera Abundance And Distribution Across A Small Grassland Area Affected By Plant Biomass, Plant Species Richness, And Plant Quality?, Caitlin Falcone Dec 2010

Is Orthoptera Abundance And Distribution Across A Small Grassland Area Affected By Plant Biomass, Plant Species Richness, And Plant Quality?, Caitlin Falcone

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

The choice of a specific microhabitat represents a compromise among a number of different factors organisms use to monitor habitat suitability. Grassland vegetation structure can vary widely along environmental gradients over a relatively small area. This vegetation structure can have a large influence on habitat selection by grasshoppers (Orthoptera). However, it is not clear which vegetation characteristics are most important in determining grasshopper abundance. We found that plant biomass, plant species richness, and plant quality all have an effect on grasshopper abundance and distribution. We observe that these affects vary both within and among the two years of data collection ...


Design Standards Within Constructed Wetlands For The Reduction Of Mosquito Populations In Clark County, Nevada, Phillip C. Bondurant Dec 2010

Design Standards Within Constructed Wetlands For The Reduction Of Mosquito Populations In Clark County, Nevada, Phillip C. Bondurant

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Wetlands are considered one of the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide many benefits to the environment. However, the slow moving and sometimes stagnant water created by the vegetation in the wetland creates an ideal environment for the proliferation of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are the most important insect disease vector worldwide. The presence of mosquitoes within wetlands increases the risk of disease transmission among workers and visitors creating a public health concern. Effective design standards aimed at reducing mosquito breeding habitat should be implemented during the construction and planning phase of wetland development to effectively reduce the mosquito populations ...


Assessing Linkages Among Landscape Characteristics, Stream Habitat, And Macroinvertebrate Communities In The Idaho Batholith Ecoregion, Andrew C. Hill Dec 2010

Assessing Linkages Among Landscape Characteristics, Stream Habitat, And Macroinvertebrate Communities In The Idaho Batholith Ecoregion, Andrew C. Hill

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the composition of lotic communities and the landscape processes and habitat characteristics that shape them is one of the main challenges confronting stream ecologists. In order to better understand the linkages among landscape processes, stream habitat, and biological communities and to understand how accurately our measurements represent important factors influencing biological communities, it is important to test explicit hypotheses regarding these linkages. Increasing our understanding of aquatic communities in a hierarchical context and recognizing how well our measurements represent factors structuring aquatic communities will help managers better evaluate the influence of land management practices on aquatic ecosystems, direct conservation ...


Multi-Scale Perspectives On Paddlefish Populations: Implications For Species Conservation And Management, Brenda M. Pracheil Nov 2010

Multi-Scale Perspectives On Paddlefish Populations: Implications For Species Conservation And Management, Brenda M. Pracheil

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The Order of fishes containing paddlefish and sturgeon has been named the most endangered group of organisms on the planet by the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Population trajectories of paddlefish, whose native range is entirely encompassed within the United States of America, are currently unknown, although the IUCN has considered them to have a high extinction risk in the wild. The declaration of the vulnerability of paddlefish to extinction, coupled with the global plight of other sturgeon species create urgency to establish population and species-level population trajectories. Moreover, this declaration creates a great need for swift management ...


Home Ranges Of Rusty Blackbirds Breeding In Wetlands: How Much Would Buffers From Timber Harvest Protect Habitat?, Luke L. Powell, Thomas P. Hodgman, William E. Glanz Nov 2010

Home Ranges Of Rusty Blackbirds Breeding In Wetlands: How Much Would Buffers From Timber Harvest Protect Habitat?, Luke L. Powell, Thomas P. Hodgman, William E. Glanz

Biology and Ecology Faculty Scholarship

We calculated the home ranges and core areas of 13 adult Rusty Blackbirds (Euphagus carolinus) in Maine to determine (1) the area requirements of breeding adults, (2) whether area requirements of the sexes and of colonial and noncolonial individuals differ, and (3) the proportion of the home range and core area that would be protected by a buffer of no logging of 50–100 m around occupied wetlands. Mean home ranges (37.5 ± 12.6 ha) and core areas (11.1 ± 2.8 ha) were large in comparison to those of other breeding icterids, and adults often foraged in multiple ...


Unlv Magazine, Tony Allen, Shane Bevell, Donna Mcaleer, Ched Whitney, Cate Weeks Oct 2010

Unlv Magazine, Tony Allen, Shane Bevell, Donna Mcaleer, Ched Whitney, Cate Weeks

UNLV Magazine

No abstract provided.


Stop Pummeling My Primates: Effects Of Land Use Change On Behaviors Of Papio Anubis Near Lake Manyara National Park In Mto Wa Mbu, Tanzania, Hannah Young Oct 2010

Stop Pummeling My Primates: Effects Of Land Use Change On Behaviors Of Papio Anubis Near Lake Manyara National Park In Mto Wa Mbu, Tanzania, Hannah Young

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The ever-increasing human population means more land is required for housing and agricultural needs to sustain the growing population. This study involves a group of olive baboons living in and on the boundary of Lake Manyara National Park in Mto wa Mbu, Tanzania. They leave the park everyday and travel to surrounding areas. There are three different habitats near the baboons’ exit point of the park, a residential area with houses and some people, an undisturbed area without homes and residents, and an agricultural area, full of farms and the most densely populated area. The object of this study was ...


Field Scale Evaluation Of Volatile Organic Compound Production Inside Biosecure Swine Mortality Composts, Neslihan Akdeniz, Jacek A. Koziel, Hee-Kwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Benjamin P. Crawford Oct 2010

Field Scale Evaluation Of Volatile Organic Compound Production Inside Biosecure Swine Mortality Composts, Neslihan Akdeniz, Jacek A. Koziel, Hee-Kwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Benjamin P. Crawford

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Emergency mortality composting associated with a disease outbreak has special requirements to reduce the risks of pathogen survival and disease transmission. The most important requirements are to cover mortalities with biosecure barriers and avoid turning compost piles until the pathogens are inactivated. Temperature is the most commonly used parameter for assessing success of a biosecure composting process, but a decline in compost core temperature does not necessarily signify completion of the degradation process. In this study, gas concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced inside biosecure swine mortality composting units filled with six different cover/plant materials were monitored to ...


Estuarine Blue Infrastructure: Final Priority Conservation Areas For Chesapeake Bay And Its Tidal Tributaries And Back Bay – Version 2.0 (Revised 09/2010), Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Sep 2010

Estuarine Blue Infrastructure: Final Priority Conservation Areas For Chesapeake Bay And Its Tidal Tributaries And Back Bay – Version 2.0 (Revised 09/2010), Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

This project is an extension of earlier efforts within the coastal zone of Virginia to build a platform for enhanced Blue and Green Infrastructure planning. This project is motivated by an interest in extending statewide conservation efforts into estuarine systems and recognition that land use decisions on the upland effect water quality and habitat health in the receiving waters. The project in its entirety has been accomplished in distinct parts. Part one develops a Cumulative Resource Assessment to evaluate the distribution of aquatic natural resources within waters of Virginia’s Chesapeake Bay waters, Back Bay of Virginia Beach, Virginia, and ...


Evaluating Recruitment Of American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Potomac River (Spring 2010), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Sep 2010

Evaluating Recruitment Of American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Potomac River (Spring 2010), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) adopted the Interstate Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the American eel in November 1999. The FMP focuses on increasing coastal states’ efforts to collect American eel data through both fishery-dependent and fishery-independent studies. Consequently, member jurisdictions agreed to implement an annual survey for young of year (YOY) American eels. The survey is intended to “…characterize trends in annual recruitment of the YOY eels over time [to produce a] qualitative appraisal of the annual recruitment of American eel to the U.S. Atlantic Coast” (ASMFC 2000). The development of these surveys began in 2000 ...


In Vitro Enabling Technologies For Use In The Aquatic Environment, Colm J. O'Dowd Jul 2010

In Vitro Enabling Technologies For Use In The Aquatic Environment, Colm J. O'Dowd

Doctoral

O’Dowd, C., Mothersill, C.E., Cairns, M.T., Austin, B., Lyng, F.M., McClean, B. and Murphy, J.E.J. Assessing the mitochondrion as a biomarker of fish tissue damage using g radiation as a stress model in vitro.

There is an ever-increasing need for biomarkers to identify toxic stress in the aquatic environment. Such techniques need to be accurate, expeditious, ethical and economical. Typically, in vitro based platforms fit these criteria however many of these systems often undergo ‘assay drift’ and consequently do not fully represent the real-life situation.

In recent years, there has been growing interest in ...


Sex-Related Dispersal In The Mountain Plover (Charadrius Montanus), Paul D. B. Skrade, Stephen J. Dinsmore Jul 2010

Sex-Related Dispersal In The Mountain Plover (Charadrius Montanus), Paul D. B. Skrade, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The rapid multiclutch mating system of the Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus) provides an opportunity to examine sex differences in natal, within-year, and between-year breeding dispersal. We used nest locations over a 14-year period from a population of Mountain Plovers breeding on prairie dog colonies in Montana to examine sex-related patterns in natal and within-year breeding dispersal. Additionally, we modeled between-year dispersal distances in relation to sex, previous nest fate, and the occurrence of sylvatic plague in the colonies. We also modeled successive nest fate using dispersal distance and these same covariates. We found no evidence of sex differences in distances ...


Basking Behavior Of Emydid Turtles (Chysemys Picta Marginata, Graptemys Geographica, And Trachemys Scripta Elegans) In An Urban Landscape, W. Peterman, Travis Ryan Jun 2010

Basking Behavior Of Emydid Turtles (Chysemys Picta Marginata, Graptemys Geographica, And Trachemys Scripta Elegans) In An Urban Landscape, W. Peterman, Travis Ryan

Travis J. Ryan

Basking is common in emydid turtles and is generally accepted to be in thermoregulatory behavior. In 2004, we quantified and described the basking behavior of turtles in the Central Canal of Indianapolis. This canal system runs through an urban landscape that is dominated by fragmented woodlots, residential areas. and commercial areas. We observed that basking turtles exhibited variable basking behavior. with spatial and temporal shins in basking behavior from east-facing banks in the morning to west-facing banks in the afternoon. Turtles in the Central Canal are subject to frequent disturbance, which altered basking behavior. Many turtles forewent aerial basking on ...


Poisonous Rangeland Plants In San Luis Obispo County, Sara Litten, Amanda Ou Jun 2010

Poisonous Rangeland Plants In San Luis Obispo County, Sara Litten, Amanda Ou

Animal Science

Poisonous Rangeland Plants in San Luis Obispo County is a comprehensive educational guide to rangeland plants that are toxic to domestic livestock. This guide begins with an exploration of how the biological systems are affected by the poisonous plant toxins. The biochemistry behind these toxins is included in the discussion. Next, reference material for fourteen plants that inhabit San Luis Obispo County is provided. This information includes specific toxins found in poisonous plants, affected animals, symptoms of poisoning, stages of growth, lethal dose, and distribution of the plant in California. This section of the guide is filled with helpful photos ...


Evaluating Captive-Breeding Techniques And Reintroduction Success Of The California Condor (Gymnogyps Californianus), Amy C. Utt Jun 2010

Evaluating Captive-Breeding Techniques And Reintroduction Success Of The California Condor (Gymnogyps Californianus), Amy C. Utt

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

In this dissertation, I present two original research studies on the behavior and survival of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). I also provide a comprehensive review of the role of captive-rearing to the conservation of birds.

The first study examined the behavioral differences of puppet- and parent-reared condor juveniles reared in captivity. This study further defined and examined the behaviors of adult conspecific mentors and their interactions with juveniles. Dominance hierarchy analyses for two cohorts of juveniles and their adult mentors indicated the establishment of a linear hierarchy. Although puppet-reared juveniles engaged in fewer social behaviors in captivity ...


Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Situation And Outlook Report : Results Of The 2009 Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Crop Reporting Survey, Thomas J. Murray, Michael J. Oesterling Jun 2010

Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Situation And Outlook Report : Results Of The 2009 Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Crop Reporting Survey, Thomas J. Murray, Michael J. Oesterling

Reports

Virginia’s shellfish aquaculture industry continues to add significant value to the State’s seafood marketplace. While Virginia’s watermen harvest hard clams and oysters from the State’s public resources, they also grow shellfish for consumers. In recent years, following the lead of the hard clam industry, there has been a significant transition toward intensive aquaculture of native oysters. The once-extensive oyster planting has disappeared primarily as a result of endemic oyster diseases and wildlife predation of seed oysters. It has been replaced by an expanding aquaculture sector, which is based on improved culture techniques and disease-resistant oyster seed ...


Estuarine Blue Infrastructure: Priority Conservation Areas For The Seaside Of Virginia’S Eastern Shore, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science May 2010

Estuarine Blue Infrastructure: Priority Conservation Areas For The Seaside Of Virginia’S Eastern Shore, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

This project is an extension of earlier efforts within the coastal zone of Virginia to build a platform for enhanced Blue and Green Infrastructure planning. This project is motivated by an interest in extending statewide conservation efforts into estuarine systems and recognition that land use decisions on the upland effect water quality and habitat health in the receiving waters. The project in its entirety has been accomplished in distinct parts. Part one develops a Cumulative Resource Assessment to evaluate the distribution of aquatic natural resources within waters of Virginia’s Chesapeake Bay waters, Back Bay of Virginia Beach, Virginia, and ...


Winter Ecology Of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) In The Central Great Plains, Charles R. Brown, Stephanie A. Strickler, Amy T. Moore, Sarah A. Knutie, Abinash Padhi, Mary Bomberger Brown, Ginger R. Young, Valerie A. O'Brien, Jerome E. Foster, Nicholas Komar May 2010

Winter Ecology Of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) In The Central Great Plains, Charles R. Brown, Stephanie A. Strickler, Amy T. Moore, Sarah A. Knutie, Abinash Padhi, Mary Bomberger Brown, Ginger R. Young, Valerie A. O'Brien, Jerome E. Foster, Nicholas Komar

Papers in Natural Resources

A largely unanswered question in the study of arboviruses is the extent to which virus can overwinter in adult vectors during the cold winter months and resume the transmission cycle in summer. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an unusual arbovirus that is vectored primarily by the swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) and amplified by the ectoparasitic bug’s main avian hosts, the migratory cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and resident house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Bugs are sedentary and overwinter in the swallows’ mud nests. We evaluated the prevalence of BCRV and extent of infection in swallow bugs collected ...


A Spatio-Temporal Analysis Of Landscape Change Within The Eastern Terai, India : Linking Grassland And Forest Loss To Change In River Course And Land Use, Tanushree Biswas May 2010

A Spatio-Temporal Analysis Of Landscape Change Within The Eastern Terai, India : Linking Grassland And Forest Loss To Change In River Course And Land Use, Tanushree Biswas

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Land degradation is one of the most important drivers of landscape change around the globe. This dissertation examines land use-land cover change within a mosaic landscape in Eastern Terai, India, and shows evidence of anthropogenic factors contributing to landscape change. Land use and land cover change were examined within the Alipurduar Subdivision, a representative of the Eastern Terai landscape and the Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected area nested within Alipurduar through the use of multi-temporal satellite data over the past 28 years (1978 – 2006).

This study establishes the potential of remote sensing technology to identify the drivers of landscape change ...


Gene Expression In Hypothalamus, Liver, And Adipose Tissues And Food Intake Response To Melanocortin-4 Receptor Agonist In Pigs Expressing Melanocortin-4 Receptor Mutations, C. Richard Barb, Gary J. Hausman, Romdhane Rekaya, Clay A. Lents, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver P. Couture, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle May 2010

Gene Expression In Hypothalamus, Liver, And Adipose Tissues And Food Intake Response To Melanocortin-4 Receptor Agonist In Pigs Expressing Melanocortin-4 Receptor Mutations, C. Richard Barb, Gary J. Hausman, Romdhane Rekaya, Clay A. Lents, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver P. Couture, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle

Animal Science Publications

Transcriptional profiling was used to identify genes and pathways that responded to intracerebroventricular injection of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist [Nle4, D-Phe7]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH) in pigs homozygous for the missense mutation in the MC4R, D298 allele (n = 12), N298 allele (n = 12), or heterozygous (n = 12). Food intake (FI) was measured at 12 and 24 h after treatment. All pigs were killed at 24 h after treatment, and hypothalamus, liver, and back-fat tissue was collected. NDP-MSH suppressed (P < 0.004) FI at 12 and 24 h in all animals after treatment. In response to NDP-MSH, 278 genes in hypothalamus (q ≤ 0.07, P ≤ 0.001), 249 genes in liver (q ≤ 0.07, P ≤ 0.001), and 5,066 genes in ...


Effects Of Variable Oceanographic Conditions On Forage Fish Lipid Content And Fatty Acid Composition In The Northern California Current, Marisa N. C. Litz, Richard D. Brodeur, Robert L. Emmett, Selina S. Heppell, Rosalee S. Hellberg, Linda O'Higgins, Matthew S. Morris Apr 2010

Effects Of Variable Oceanographic Conditions On Forage Fish Lipid Content And Fatty Acid Composition In The Northern California Current, Marisa N. C. Litz, Richard D. Brodeur, Robert L. Emmett, Selina S. Heppell, Rosalee S. Hellberg, Linda O'Higgins, Matthew S. Morris

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Lipids and fatty acids (FA) were investigated in 4 species of forage fish: northern anchovy Engraulis mordax, Pacific sardine Sardinops sagax, Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and whitebait smelt Allosmerus elongatus, for their ability to serve as biological indicators of ocean conditions in the California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). Samples were collected during the oceanographically contrasting years of 2005 and 2006. Upwelling was severely curtailed in the spring and early summer of 2005, leading to delayed biological productivity, whereas upwelling was relatively normal in spring 2006. Principal components analysis described 78% of the variance within the lipid and FA dataset ...


Herbicides And Amphibian Populations, Zach Shirk Apr 2010

Herbicides And Amphibian Populations, Zach Shirk

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

Amphibians are a unique class of species that are found worldwide except Antarctica and Greenland. They range in size from a few millimeters to over six feet long. Amphibian’s habitats are as various as their size, but one thing in common is that amphibians require an aquatic location to breed. Amphibians live in deserts, mountain prairies, rain forest, wetlands, and almost everywhere in between. Amphibians are an integrated part of most natural ecosystems across the world. Amphibians are a critical part of many food chains; they provide the important link between secondary and tertiary consumers. Amphibians are indicator species ...


The Effects Of Ornamentation On Wolf Spider Foraging, Mari Pesek Apr 2010

The Effects Of Ornamentation On Wolf Spider Foraging, Mari Pesek

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

ABSTRACT: As a secondary sexual trait that can increase reproductive success, ornamentation is believed to be costly for organisms to acquire and possess. This study investigates possible costs of ornamentation on wolf spider foraging by comparing foraging abilities of two male forms that differ in ornamentation upon maturation. The two male forms, found syntopically in a mixed population in Mississippi, USA, resemble two sibling species: Schizocosa ocreata, in which males develop large black brushes on their forelegs upon maturation, and Schizocosa rovneri, in which males lack ornamentation following maturation. Individuals of both forms participated in foraging trials as penultimates (juveniles ...


Shark Bay Prawn And Scallop Fisheries: Final Review Report, Western Australia. Department Of Fisheries Apr 2010

Shark Bay Prawn And Scallop Fisheries: Final Review Report, Western Australia. Department Of Fisheries

Fisheries management papers

The Shark Bay Prawn Fishery and Shark Bay Scallop Fishery operate in the same general areas of Shark Bay (although there are some differences in their areas of operation). The interrelationship between trawling activities for the two target species (prawns and scallops) has raised both management challenges and industry conflicts over time. Harvest level settings for each fishery (in the form of effort levels and the timing and/or location of fishing) are independently set, on the basis of recruitment and abundance surveys of each target species. However, each industry sector strongly believes that the interactions between the fisheries arise ...


Monitoring Relative Abundance Of American Shad In Virginia Rivers 2009 Annual Report, John E. Olney, Brian Watkins, Eric J. Hilton Mar 2010

Monitoring Relative Abundance Of American Shad In Virginia Rivers 2009 Annual Report, John E. Olney, Brian Watkins, Eric J. Hilton

Reports

Concern about the decline in landings of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) along the Atlantic coast prompted the development of an interstate fisheries management plan (FMP) under the auspices of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Management Program (ASMFC 1999). Legislation enables imposition of federal sanctions on fishing in those states that fail to comply with the FMP. To be in compliance, coastal states are required to implement and maintain fishery-dependent and fishery-independent monitoring programs as specified by the FMP. For Virginia, these requirements include spawning stock assessments, the collection of biological data on the spawning run (e.g., age-structure, sex ratio ...


Egg Size Of The Mountain Plover, Paul D. B. Skrade, Stephen J. Dinsmore Mar 2010

Egg Size Of The Mountain Plover, Paul D. B. Skrade, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

The Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus) is a shorebird of conservation concern that breeds in disturbed areas of the Great Plains and Great Basin. This species has an uncommon mating system known as a “rapid multi-clutch” in which male and female plovers tend to separate nests. The male sets up a territory and displays to attract a female. After mating she lays a three-egg clutch and leaves, abandoning him to incubate the eggs and tend to the chicks by himself (Knopf and Wunder 2006). The female lays another three-egg clutch and cares for those entirely by herself. Assuming a female lays ...


Parallel Evolution Of Character Displacement Driven By Competitive Selection In Terrestrial Salamanders, Dean C. Adams Mar 2010

Parallel Evolution Of Character Displacement Driven By Competitive Selection In Terrestrial Salamanders, Dean C. Adams

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Parallel evolution can occur when common environmental factors exert similar selective forces on morphological variation in populations in different geographic localities. Competition can also generate morphological shifts, and if competing species co-occur in multiple geographic regions, then repeated instances of competitively-driven morphological divergence (character displacement) can occur. Despite the importance of character displacement for inferring the role of selection in morphological evolution however, replicated instances of sympatric morphological divergence are understudied. I tested the hypothesis that interspecific competition generated patterns of parallel morphological divergence in multiple geographic locations where two competing salamander species, Plethodon jordani and P. teyahalee, come into ...


Conserving Migratory Land Birds In The New World: Do We Know Enough?, John Faaborg, Richard T. Holmes, Angela D. Anders, Keith L. Bildstein Mar 2010

Conserving Migratory Land Birds In The New World: Do We Know Enough?, John Faaborg, Richard T. Holmes, Angela D. Anders, Keith L. Bildstein

Dartmouth Scholarship

Migratory bird needs must be met during four phases of the year: breeding season, fall migration, wintering, and spring migration; thus, management may be needed during all four phases. The bulk of research and management has focused on the breeding season, although several issues remain unsettled, including the spatial extent of habitat influences on fitness and the importance of habitat on the breeding grounds used after breeding. Although detailed investigations have shed light on the ecology and population dynamics of a few avian species, knowledge is sketchy for most species. Replication of comprehensive studies is needed for multiple species across ...