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Animal Sciences

2001

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Articles 1 - 30 of 55

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Evaluation Of Striped Bass Stocks In Virginia, Monitoring And Tagging Studies, 1999-2003 Annual Report, 1 September 2000 - 31 October 2001, Philip W. Sadler, Robert J. Latour, Robert E. Harris, John E. Olney Dec 2001

Evaluation Of Striped Bass Stocks In Virginia, Monitoring And Tagging Studies, 1999-2003 Annual Report, 1 September 2000 - 31 October 2001, Philip W. Sadler, Robert J. Latour, Robert E. Harris, John E. Olney

Reports

This report presents the results of striped bass (Marone saxatilis) tagging and monitoring activities in Virginia during the penod 1 September 2000 through 31 October 2001. It includes an assessment of the biological characteristics of striped bass taken from the 2001 spring spawning run, estimates of annual survtval based on annual spring tagging, and the results of the fall 2000 directed mortality study that is cooperative with the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. The information contained in this report is required by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission and is used to implement a coordinated management plan for striped bass ...


Bulletin No. 37: Living Resources And Habitats Of The Lower Connecticut River, Glenn D. Dreyer, Marcianna Caplis Dec 2001

Bulletin No. 37: Living Resources And Habitats Of The Lower Connecticut River, Glenn D. Dreyer, Marcianna Caplis

Bulletins

No abstract provided.


An Historical Analysis Of Mussel Propagation And Culture: Research Performed At The Fairport Biological Station, James A. Pritchard Dec 2001

An Historical Analysis Of Mussel Propagation And Culture: Research Performed At The Fairport Biological Station, James A. Pritchard

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The U.S. Bureau of Fisheries was an important institution for Progressive era conservation. At the same time that Gifford Pinchot sought to use scientific principles to rationalize forest resource use, so a conservation-oriented government sought to rationalize and improve fisheries. The ideas of eliminating waste, putting resources on planned schedules of harvest and renewal, and the use of resources for the public good proved compelling rationales during Teddy Roosevelt’s presidential administration. Finally, scientists working for the Bureau (more so than academic ecologists often emphasized in the histories we read) also provided a primary motivating force in conceptualizing and ...


Diet Dynamics Of The Juvenile Piscivorous Fish Community In Spirit Lake, Iowa, Usa, 1997–1998, M. E. Pelham, Clay L. Pierce, Joe G. Larscheid Dec 2001

Diet Dynamics Of The Juvenile Piscivorous Fish Community In Spirit Lake, Iowa, Usa, 1997–1998, M. E. Pelham, Clay L. Pierce, Joe G. Larscheid

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

We assessed temporal dynamics and variation among species and age-classes in the diets of age 0 and age 1 piscivorous fish species in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA during 1997 and 1998. Species included walleye Stizostedion vitreum, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white bassMorone chrysops. Thirty taxa were identified in diets, including 12 species of fish. We found dramatic differences in diets among species, among age-classes within species and over time. Walleye, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass and white bass were piscivorous at age 0. Black crappie began piscivory ...


Effects Of An Increasing Harbor Seal Population On Changes In Sites Used For Pupping, Nikolina Guldager Dec 2001

Effects Of An Increasing Harbor Seal Population On Changes In Sites Used For Pupping, Nikolina Guldager

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Aerial survey data from 198 1 to 1997 of an increasing harbor seal (Phoca vitulina concolor) population in Penobscot and Blue Hill bays, Maine, were used to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns of use of pupping sites by mother-pup pairs. Pupping sites refer to haul-out sites where pups were observed during surveys, and are assumed to be used consistently from birth to weaning. Sites with pups were spatially clustered to remove spatial auto-correlation, reduce temporal variability and provide biologically cohesive and independent sample units. Spatial, temporal and habitat analyses were completed for 2 spatial scales: individual sites and clusters of ...


Gametogenic Cycles Of Marine Mussels, Mytilus Edulis And Mytilus Trossulus, In Cobscook Bay, Maine, Aaron P. Maloy Dec 2001

Gametogenic Cycles Of Marine Mussels, Mytilus Edulis And Mytilus Trossulus, In Cobscook Bay, Maine, Aaron P. Maloy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Mytilus edulis species complex includes three smooth-shelled blue mussels, M. edulis (Linnaeus 1 75 8), M trossulus (Gould 1 850), and M galloprovincialis (Lamarck 18 19). When any two of theses species occur sympatrically, hybridization and backcrossing of hybrid and parental genotypes is evident. Despite introgression of genes between taxa their genetic integrity is maintained. To test the hypothesis that a temporal variation in species-specific spawning times is the mechanism limiting hybridization and maintaining genetic integrity in a M edulis and M. trossulus hybrid zone in eastern Maine, mussels were sampled on monthly to semi-monthly intervals throughout 2000 from ...


Variables Influencing Nest Success Of Eastern Wild Turkeys In Connecticut: Nesting Habitat, Home Range-Scale Fragmentation, And Nest Attentiveness, Shelley M. Spohr Dec 2001

Variables Influencing Nest Success Of Eastern Wild Turkeys In Connecticut: Nesting Habitat, Home Range-Scale Fragmentation, And Nest Attentiveness, Shelley M. Spohr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nest success is the most important demographic parameter influencing rates of population change of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo si1vestris) and many variables operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales may influence whether a nest is successful. Most studies of nest success and survival of turkeys have occurred in forested or agricultural landscapes; variables influencing nest success have not been studied in suburban landscapes. My objectives were to: 1 ) quantify survival and reproductive parameters of eastern wild turkey hens in the suburban environment of southeastern Connecticut and compare results to studies conducted in other northeastern states; 2) determine which within ...


Intermediate Rings Between A Local Domain And Its Completion, Ii, William Heinzer, Christel Rotthaus, Sylvia Wiegand Oct 2001

Intermediate Rings Between A Local Domain And Its Completion, Ii, William Heinzer, Christel Rotthaus, Sylvia Wiegand

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

We present results connecting flatness of extension rings to the Noetherian property for certain intermediate rings between an excellent normal local domain and its completion. We consider conditions for these rings to have Cohen-Macaulay formal fibers. We also present several examples illustrating these results.


Short-Term Variability And Long-Term Change In The Composition Of The Littoral Zone Fish Community In Spirit Lake, Iowa, Clay L. Pierce, Mark D. Sexton, Mark E. Pelham, Joe G. Larscheid Oct 2001

Short-Term Variability And Long-Term Change In The Composition Of The Littoral Zone Fish Community In Spirit Lake, Iowa, Clay L. Pierce, Mark D. Sexton, Mark E. Pelham, Joe G. Larscheid

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

We assessed short-term variability and long-term change in the composition of the littoral fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa. Fish were sampled in several locations at night with large beach seines during spring, summer and fall of 1995-1998. Long-term changes were inferred from comparison with a similar study conducted over 70 y earlier in Spirit Lake. We found 26 species in the littoral zone. The number of species per sample ranged from 4 to 18, averaging 11.8. The average number of species per sample was higher at stations with greater vegetation density. A distinct seasonal pattern was evident in ...


Recreational Fishing Management Strategy For The West Coast. Minister's Initial Responses To Final Report Of The West Coast Recreational Fishing Working Group (Fisheries Management Paper No. 153), Kim Chance Oct 2001

Recreational Fishing Management Strategy For The West Coast. Minister's Initial Responses To Final Report Of The West Coast Recreational Fishing Working Group (Fisheries Management Paper No. 153), Kim Chance

Fisheries management papers

To ensure recreational fishing in WA has a bright futre, a series of regional management stategies are being developed with have the following objectives: 1. Review the appropriateness of current controls, given the significant growth in recreational fishing. 2. Ensure that effective management is in place for the recreational fishing sector that contributes to the sustainability of WA's fish stocks. 3. Position recreational fishing so it can be incorporated into tan integrated management framework in which resource sharing issues can be addressed.


Guidelines For The Establishment Of A Fish Habitat Protection Area., Fisheries Western Australia Oct 2001

Guidelines For The Establishment Of A Fish Habitat Protection Area., Fisheries Western Australia

Fisheries management papers

These guidelines are designed to guide the Department of Fisheries staff and community groups (the proponent) on the process for developing a proposal for a Fish Habitat Protection Area (FHPA). The guidelines: 1. Describe the role and function of Fish Habitat Protection Areas; 2. Guide proponents in selecting a suitable site for an FHPA; 3. Describe the process to be used to develop a proposal for an FHPA; 4. Describe the methodology to be used to develop a management plan for an FHPA; 5. Ensure consistency between applications.


The Crest, Fall 2001, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Oct 2001

The Crest, Fall 2001, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Table of Contents:

  • VIMS Named World Reference Laboratory for Shellfish Diseases
  • VIMS Scientists Receive 2001 Best Paper Award
  • Domestic Interest Grows in Cobia Culture VIMS Foundation Established
  • VIMS Environmental Scientists Spearheading BDE Research in USA
  • VIMS Capital Campaign for Kauffman Aquaculture Center Meets its Goal
  • Dr. William Reay Named New Manager of Chesapeake Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve
  • Summer Course Connects Scientists with Science Teachers
  • Beset near 68 degrees south, 69 degrees west
  • New researcher studies tiny organisms that play a big role
  • VIMS Welcomes New Students
  • VIMS to initiate coastal observing program
  • VIMS student Receives Dr. Nancy Foster Scholarship ...


Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young Of The Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay, Patrick J. Greer Sep 2001

Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young Of The Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay, Patrick J. Greer

Reports

The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) adopted the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for American Eel (FMP) in November 1999. The Plan focuses on increasing the states’ efforts to collect data on the resource and the fishery it supports through fishery dependent and independent studies. To this end, member jurisdictions (including Virginia) agreed to implement an annual abundance survey of young-of-year American eel (YOY). The survey is intended to “...characterize trends in annual recruitment of the young of the year eel over time [to produce a] qualitative appraisal of the annual recruitment of American eel to the U.S. Atlantic ...


Managing Birds And Controlling Aircraft In The Kennedy Airport–Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge Complex: The Need For Hard Data And Soft Opinions, John Tanacredi Ph.D., Kevin Brown, R. Michael Erwin, Milo E. Richmond, P A. Buckley, Dave Avrin Aug 2001

Managing Birds And Controlling Aircraft In The Kennedy Airport–Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge Complex: The Need For Hard Data And Soft Opinions, John Tanacredi Ph.D., Kevin Brown, R. Michael Erwin, Milo E. Richmond, P A. Buckley, Dave Avrin

Faculty Works: CERCOM

During the 1980s, the exponential growth of laughing gull (Larus atricilla) colonies, from 15 to about 7600 nests in 1990, in the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge and a correlated increase in the bird-strike rate at nearby John F. Kennedy International Airport (New York City) led to a controversy between wildlife and airport managers over the elimination of the colonies. In this paper, we review data to evaluate if: (1) the colonies have increased the level of risk to the flying public; (2) on-colony population control would reduce the presence of gulls, and subsequently bird strikes, at the airport; and (3 ...


A Five Year Management Strategy For Recreational Fishing In The Gascoyne Region Of Western Australia. Final Report Of The Gascoyne Recreational Fishing Working Group., Gascoyne Recreational Fishing Working Group. Aug 2001

A Five Year Management Strategy For Recreational Fishing In The Gascoyne Region Of Western Australia. Final Report Of The Gascoyne Recreational Fishing Working Group., Gascoyne Recreational Fishing Working Group.

Fisheries management papers

The recommendations contained within this paper were reached after careful consideration of the public submissions provided in response to the working group’s discussion paper A Quality Future for Recreational Fishing in the Gascoyne (Fisheries Management Paper 124). The working group would like to thank everyone who forwarded submissions on the discussion paper and attended public meetings to provide input. The wide variety of comments and views expressed reflect the diverse nature of the recreational fishing sector. I believe this range of views was also well represented by the various members of the working group.


Plan Management For The Cottesloe Reef Fish Habitat Protection Area., Fisheries Western Australia Aug 2001

Plan Management For The Cottesloe Reef Fish Habitat Protection Area., Fisheries Western Australia

Fisheries management papers

This document is the final Plan of Management for the Cottesloe Reef FHPA. The significant contribution made by the CMPG and members of the community in the preparation of this plan is acknowledged and appreciated by the Department of Fisheries. The overall objective of the Plan of Management is to promote and encourage protection of the Cottesloe Reef aquatic habitat and involve the community in its management. It is anticipated that the establishment of the Cottesloe Reef FHPA will provide a framework, through regulations and education, to manage human activities that have, or may have, a destructive impact on the ...


The Crest, Summer 2001, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jul 2001

The Crest, Summer 2001, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Table of Contents:

  • VIMS to Begin New Ecosystem Management Study
  • CBNERRVA Receives Coastal America Partnership Award
  • VIMS Shoreline Permit Application Reports Now Available Online
  • Marina Program Launched
  • Web Based Education Hub Developed by VIMS/Sea Grant Educators
  • In the middle of the storm... where VIMS scientists plan to be
  • Continental margins--where the action is
  • Aquaculture and agriculture--working together for solutions
  • Marine Finfish Culture Activities
  • Kauffman Aquaculture Center Campaign
  • New Graduate Courses for Science Teachers
  • VIMS scientists explore pollution of Antarctic sea ice
  • Mid-Atlantic Scallop Closed Areas Set to Reopen
  • VIMS study poses new questions on river carbon
  • Marine Industry Trends ...


Scott Coastal Plain A Strategy For A Sustainable Future, Department Of Agriculture And Food, Western Australia Jun 2001

Scott Coastal Plain A Strategy For A Sustainable Future, Department Of Agriculture And Food, Western Australia

Bulletins 4000 -

The Scott Coastal Plain has significant attributes that make it an area of State and regional significance for agricultural production. The climate, availability of good quality groundwater for irrigation, and large lot sizes provide opportunities for mechanised horticultural production which other parts of the State may not have.

An estimate of the area that could be used for each agricultural land use has been developed, at a broad study area level. The figures presented in this report show that diversified production combining tree plantation and/or irrigation (cropping or hay/silage) with grazing enterprises provides for potential increases in gross ...


Fish Protection Measures To Ensure Fish For The Future, Jo Bunting Jun 2001

Fish Protection Measures To Ensure Fish For The Future, Jo Bunting

Fisheries management papers

The protection of Western Australia's aquatic animals, plants and habitats is important for many reasons. Fish, and many aquatic invertebrates, have significant commercial, recreational and social importance. Aquatic habitats provide food, refuge and breeding areas for fish and other animals. In addition, some habitats, such as rocky reefs and seagrass meadows, act as nursery sites for juvenile animals. Some habitats and their inhabitants (such as coral reefs) also have aesthetic values which support economically and socially important industries, such as tourism.


Ecological Implications Of Rockweed, Ascophyllum Nodosum (L.) Le Jolis, Harvesting, Jill C. Fegley May 2001

Ecological Implications Of Rockweed, Ascophyllum Nodosum (L.) Le Jolis, Harvesting, Jill C. Fegley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Harvesting of natural resources usually entails substantial removal of the target species. Where such species are dominant members of natural communities, their removal can have important consequences for their own regeneration as well as for the species assemblages associated with them. Rockweed is an ecologically and commercially important intertidal alga in the North Atlantic, and is increasingly being harvested in Maine. The effects of harvesting on regrowth are well known but little is known about its effects on the species that use this alga as habitat. This research focused on the ecological implications of A. nodosum harvesting on the associated ...


The Foraging And Habitat Ecology Of Black Terns In Maine, Andrew Gilbert May 2001

The Foraging And Habitat Ecology Of Black Terns In Maine, Andrew Gilbert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The population of Black Terns in Maine is small and factors related to the ecology of this species’ foraging and habitat ecology might limit population growth and recovery. The objectives were to (1) determine if diet and provisioning rates are limiting chick growth, (2) identify and rank suitable habitat in Maine, and (3) determine if precipitation patterns and water level dynamics are limiting in Maine. I compared growth rates of chicks in 1998-2000 in Maine to rates from other studies, determined the influence of colony, year, and diet on growth rates and food deliveries and used an energetics model to ...


Effectiveness Of Earthen Escape Ramps In Reducing Big Game Mortality In Utah, Mary L. Hammer May 2001

Effectiveness Of Earthen Escape Ramps In Reducing Big Game Mortality In Utah, Mary L. Hammer

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One-way escape gates and earthen escape ramps are structures used to enable deer to exit the highway right-of-way along fenced roads. I compared the use of one-way escape gates and earthen escape ramps by mule deer on two highways in Utah to determine if deer exhibited a preference for either structure. Results showed that earthen escape ramps were used by mule deer 8-11 times more frequently than one-way gates. Highway mortality data suggest that the installation of the escape ramps likely reduced mortality of mule deer in both study locations, because we could not attribute reductions in mortality to decreased ...


Intensification In A Risky Environment: The Case Of Improving Private Grazing Land For Beef Production In Utah, Louise D. Sainsbury May 2001

Intensification In A Risky Environment: The Case Of Improving Private Grazing Land For Beef Production In Utah, Louise D. Sainsbury

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Utah ranchers commonly face risks to their livelihoods. The objective of this work was to determine if ranchers could make profitable improvements to private land forage given the combined threat of low beef prices, drought, and possible loss of public grazing.

We used linear programming (LINDO) to identify the most profitable solutions for private land investment with an 11-year simulation. Operations were divided into small, medium, and large size classes. Various forage improvements and public permits were options. Two phases of a beef price cycle (peak and trough) and 2 precipitation patterns (wet and drought) were combined as joint favorable ...


Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 2000 A Summary Of The Annual Monitoring Program, Lisa M. Ragone Calvo, Eugene M. Burreson May 2001

Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 2000 A Summary Of The Annual Monitoring Program, Lisa M. Ragone Calvo, Eugene M. Burreson

Reports

As a consequence of the relatively warm temperatures, high salinities, and high oyster parasite abundances in the fall of 1999, both P. marinus and H. nelsoni were widely distributed throughout oyster populations in Virginia in 2000. Fortunately, however, we did not see severe epizootics of the diseases as observed in some areas in 1999.


Monitoring Relative Abundance Of American Shad In Virginia’S Rivers 2000 Annual Report, John E. Olney, John M. Hoenig Apr 2001

Monitoring Relative Abundance Of American Shad In Virginia’S Rivers 2000 Annual Report, John E. Olney, John M. Hoenig

Reports

Since the moratorium, there have been no monitoring programs that provided direct assessment of stock recovery until this project began in 1998. The ban on in-river fishing in Virginia remained in effect, creating a dilemma for managers who needed reliable information in order to make a rational decision on when the in-river ban could safely be lifted. To address this deficiency, we proposed a method of scientific monitoring to estimate catch rates relative to those recorded before the prohibition of in-river fishing in 1994. This monitoring program began in 1998 and consisted of sampling techniques and locations that were consistent ...


Effects On The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker From Various Spatial And Temporal Applications Of Management Practices, Chad F. Schroeder Mar 2001

Effects On The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker From Various Spatial And Temporal Applications Of Management Practices, Chad F. Schroeder

Theses and Dissertations

The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker (RCW) is an endangered species endemic to southeastern pine forests in the United States. RCWs are cooperative breeding birds that live together in clusters of old-growth pine trees in which they construct their nesting cavities. The cavities are constructed in living pines, which are predominantly longleaf pines. RCWs also forage upon older pines, preferably longleaf pine. The Endangered Species Act, along with other DoD regulations, requires DoD installations to protect the RCWs and restore their habitat. A popular management practice converts off-site (non-native) pines back to a region's indigenous pines. Conversion provides the best long term ...


Sustainable Tourism Plan For The Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Fisheries Western Australia Feb 2001

Sustainable Tourism Plan For The Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Fisheries Western Australia

Fisheries management papers

The Abrolhos coral reefs are the southernmost living reefs in the Indian Ocean. They have a unique assemblage of tropical species of fish, reef corals and other invertebrates, which live in close association with temperate species, particularly of algae, and species endemic to Western Australia. The Abrolhos is the centre of the fishery for the commercially valuable western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus). Terrestrial flora and fauna of the Abrolhos are relict and provide important reference areas on ecological interactions. Virtually all the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago have sea bird nesting and breeding areas, and populations of some species of ...


Browsing Behaviour Of Awassi Ewes On Atriplex Nummularia, Raed Al-Tabini, A. Younger Jan 2001

Browsing Behaviour Of Awassi Ewes On Atriplex Nummularia, Raed Al-Tabini, A. Younger

Raed Al-Tabini

No abstract provided.


Phylogeographic Analysis Of The Threatened And Endangered Superconglutinate-Producing Mussels Of The Genus Lampsilis (Bivalvia: Unionidae), Kevin J. Roe, Charles Lydeard, Paul D. Hartfield Jan 2001

Phylogeographic Analysis Of The Threatened And Endangered Superconglutinate-Producing Mussels Of The Genus Lampsilis (Bivalvia: Unionidae), Kevin J. Roe, Charles Lydeard, Paul D. Hartfield

Kevin J. Roe

Several species of freshwater unionid mussels in the genus Lampsilis exhibit a remarkable reproductive strategy. Female mussels of these species enclose their larvae in a minnow-like lure, called a ‘superconglutinate’, to attract piscivorous fishes. When a fish attempts to ingest the superconglutinate the lure ruptures and the larvae are released to parasitize the fish. Of the four species of mussel which exhibit this strategy and are endemic to the Gulf Coast drainages of the southeastern United States, three are protected under the Endangered Species Act, and one is recognized as imperilled. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial 16S ...


Assessment Of Diet And Consumption Dynamics Of The Adult Piscivorous Fish Community In Spirit Lake, Iowa , Hongsheng Liao Jan 2001

Assessment Of Diet And Consumption Dynamics Of The Adult Piscivorous Fish Community In Spirit Lake, Iowa , Hongsheng Liao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

We explored differences among four well-known indices (%W, %O, %N, and %IRI), plus a modified %IRI (%MIRI), examined diet and consumption dynamics of black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), northern pike (Esox lucius ), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens ) in Spirit Lake, Iowa, in 1995--1997. %W and %MIRI emphasizes importance of large prey taxa, even when relatively rare in diets, whereas %O and %N emphasize small prey common in diets. %IRI yielded intermediate results. Using %IRI, we found that the most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, Decapoda, and Amphipoda. Largemouth ...