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Animal Sciences

1999

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Articles 1 - 30 of 34

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Winter Grazing Management, Stephen K. Barnhart, James R. Russell, Douglas L. Karlen, Michael J. Tidman Nov 1999

Winter Grazing Management, Stephen K. Barnhart, James R. Russell, Douglas L. Karlen, Michael J. Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

Why winter grazing? Beef cow herd and sheep flock records show that winter feeding costs are livestock producers' single largest production expense. Managing through winter weather while keeping feeding costs low is an essential part of maintaining a profitable operation. Iowa's climate generally allows forage growth only during a 7-to-8 month period. Extending the grazing of this forage--even an extra 3 or 4 weeks in late autumn and winter--is an economical way to maintain or increase livestock profitability. Some producers extend the grazing season by using stockpiled forage, whereas others use crop residue, and many combine the use of ...


Light Backscatter Of Milk Products For Transition Sensing Using Optical Fibers, Frederick A. Payne, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Sue E. Nokes, Klat C. Kang Nov 1999

Light Backscatter Of Milk Products For Transition Sensing Using Optical Fibers, Frederick A. Payne, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Sue E. Nokes, Klat C. Kang

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Transition sensors are needed, particularly in the dairy industry, for detecting transitions in pipe flow systems from product-to-water or product-to-product (such as from chocolate to vanilla ice cream mix). Transition information is used to automatically sequence valves to minimize product waste. Optical fibers were used to measure light backscatter between 400 and 950 nm as a function of milk concentration in water and milkfat concentration in milk. The normalized response (100% for product and 0% for water) as a function of product concentration in water was approximately logarithmic for skim milk between 400 and 900 nm and approximately linear for ...


Ecological Functions Of Constructed Oyster Reefs Along An Environmental Gradient In Chesapeake Bay: Final Report, Fx O'Beirn, Mark Luckenbach, Roger L. Mann, J Harding, J Nestlerode Sep 1999

Ecological Functions Of Constructed Oyster Reefs Along An Environmental Gradient In Chesapeake Bay: Final Report, Fx O'Beirn, Mark Luckenbach, Roger L. Mann, J Harding, J Nestlerode

Reports

Oyster reef habitat restoration within the Chesapeake Bay has as its objectives not only the enhancement of the commercially important oyster stocks, but also the restoration of associated assemblages of organisms and, most importantly, the restoration of ecological functions associated with natural reef communities. Despite our efforts to date, many uncertainties still exist with respect to achieving these restoration goals. These include long-term information on the temporal sequence of community development on new reef substrate, evaluating oyster recruitment patterns (a) across restored reef systems and (b) in relation to resident brood stocks.

In this study we sought to characterize the ...


The Translocation Of Barramundi. A Discussion Paper., Makaira Pty Ltd Jul 1999

The Translocation Of Barramundi. A Discussion Paper., Makaira Pty Ltd

Fisheries management papers

There is recognisable economic benefit to the translocation of barramundi, but there is also a need to ensure the translocation will not adversely impact upon the genetic diversity, introduce disease or impact on the natural environment and biodiversity. This discussion paper has been prepared to provide information to assist in the assessment of the possible impact of translocation of barramundi into and within Western Australia, for the purposed of recreational stock enhancement, aquaculture development and domestic stocking. In contemplating the translocation any aquatic species, signigicant economic and social benefits must be balanced with biological and environmental risks; that is, the ...


The Crest, Summer 1999, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jul 1999

The Crest, Summer 1999, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Table of Contents:

  • New Research Aquarium System
  • Finfish Aquaculture at VIMS
  • Virginia Creates State Research Reserve System
  • Pollution-Laden Sediments In Constant Flux
  • Survey of Mid-Atlantic Sea Scallop Closed Areas
  • Pfiesteria Update
  • New Computer Program Helps Planners Balance Growth, Protection
  • Virginia Sea Grant to Administer Commercial Fishery Resource Program
  • VIMS Stranded Sea Turtle Project Underway Coastal Sediments Offer Clues to Climate Change, Pollution
  • Seemingly Barren Habitat Proves Vital for Economically Important Virginia Fish (juvenile flounder)


Scale-Dependent Habitat Use In Three Species Of Prairie Wetland Birds, David E. Naugle, Kenneth E. Higgins, Sarah M. Nusser, W. Carter Johnson Jun 1999

Scale-Dependent Habitat Use In Three Species Of Prairie Wetland Birds, David E. Naugle, Kenneth E. Higgins, Sarah M. Nusser, W. Carter Johnson

Statistics Publications

We evaluated the influence of scale on habitat use for three wetland-obligate bird species with divergent life history characteristics and possible scale-dependent criteria for nesting and foraging in South Dakota, USA. A stratified, two-stage cluster sample was used to randomly select survey wetlands within strata defined by region, wetland density, and wetland surface area. We used 18-m (0.1 ha) fixed radius circular-plots to survey birds in 412 semipermanent wetlands during the summers of 1995 and 1996. Variation in habitat use by pied-billed grebes (Podilymbus podiceps) and yellow-headed blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), two sedentary species that rarely exploit resources outside the ...


The South Coast Estuarine Fishery. A Discussion Paper., Rod Pearn, Tony Cappelluti May 1999

The South Coast Estuarine Fishery. A Discussion Paper., Rod Pearn, Tony Cappelluti

Fisheries management papers

This discussion paper proposes a way for the South Coast Estuarine Fishery to address issues relating to the long-term sustainable management and sharing of the fish resource.


Proposals For Community Discussion. A Quality Future For Recreational Fishing In The Gascoyne. A Five-Year Management Strategy For Recreational Fishing., Gascoyne Recreational Fishing Working Group May 1999

Proposals For Community Discussion. A Quality Future For Recreational Fishing In The Gascoyne. A Five-Year Management Strategy For Recreational Fishing., Gascoyne Recreational Fishing Working Group

Fisheries management papers

Gascoyne has seen a series of rapid developments in recreational fisheries management, starting with the introduction of state-wide bag limits in 1991; followed by area specific controls at Ningaloo in 1992; landing limits in Exmouth Gulf in 1993; strict controls on the take of pink snapper in Shark Bay’s inner gulfs in 1997; new bag limits for Shark Bay in 1998; and the introduction of a management system for the charter and aquatic tour industry in 1999. The management proposals presented for community discussion in this paper are aimed at maintaining or improving the quality and diversity of the ...


A Social Analysis Of Grazing Management On National Forest Lands: A Case Study In Catron County, New Mexico, Alexis S. Watts May 1999

A Social Analysis Of Grazing Management On National Forest Lands: A Case Study In Catron County, New Mexico, Alexis S. Watts

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The rural west in this country faces increased national pressure concerning the iii management of natural resources on public lands. Issues regarding natural resource management are becoming more important as they continue to affect rural communities and capture the attention of a variety of interest groups. Natural resource managers are increasingly required to consider social dimensions of resource use and management. Lack of consideration in these areas can lead to dissatisfied, and even hostile, local residents and interest groups. Often land managers face criticism from many groups at once as a result of management decisions.

This study analyzed a particular ...


An Evaluation Of An Avian Diversity Model, Tansy Lynn Wagner May 1999

An Evaluation Of An Avian Diversity Model, Tansy Lynn Wagner

Honors College

Diversity exists at all temporal and spatial scales but has been studied largely at the community level because of the limited availability of regional or nation-wide data. In the U.S. both the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) provide large-scale observations of avian populations over periods of decades and offer a potential source of information. A large-scale model of avian diversity based on the BBS has been developed by O'Connor et. al.(1996). The BBC serves as a source for independently obtained species richness estimates used to evaluate the ability of the model to ...


Intermediate Rings Between A Local Domain And Its Completion, William Heinzer, Christel Rotthaus, Sylvia Wiegand Apr 1999

Intermediate Rings Between A Local Domain And Its Completion, William Heinzer, Christel Rotthaus, Sylvia Wiegand

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

We consider the structure of certain intermediate domains between a local Noetherian domain Rand an ideal-adic completion R* of R that arise as the intersection of R* with a field containing R. In the case where the intersection domain A can be expressed as a directed union of localized polynomial extension rings of R, the computation of A is easier. We examine conditions for this to happen. We also present examples to motivate and illustrate the concepts considered.


Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 1998 A Summary Of The Annual Monitoring Program, Lisa M. Ragone Calvo, Eugene M. Burreson Mar 1999

Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 1998 A Summary Of The Annual Monitoring Program, Lisa M. Ragone Calvo, Eugene M. Burreson

Reports

No abstract provided.


A Review Of The Anticoagulant Pesticide Pindone, Laurie E. Twigg, Tim J. Lowe, Gary R. Martin, Garry S. Gray Jan 1999

A Review Of The Anticoagulant Pesticide Pindone, Laurie E. Twigg, Tim J. Lowe, Gary R. Martin, Garry S. Gray

Books & book chapters

A review of the use of pindone for rabbit control in Western Australia is timely due to increased public concern over the use of this toxin, and because non-target deaths of some native Australian animals have been known to occur following its use. Pindone is one of the first generation indandione anticoagulant rodenticides which were developed in the late 1940' s. The toxicity of anticoagulants arises from their inhibition of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in the blood. Thus therapeutic administration of vitamin K provides a reliable antidote against anticoagulant poisoning. Pindone is slow acting and works best with repeated small ...


Steady-State And Time-Resolved Spectroscopy Of F420 Extracted From Methanogen Cells, K. D. Ashby, George A. Kraus, J. W. Petrich, T. A. Casey, M. A. Rasmussen, Susan L. Carpenter Jan 1999

Steady-State And Time-Resolved Spectroscopy Of F420 Extracted From Methanogen Cells, K. D. Ashby, George A. Kraus, J. W. Petrich, T. A. Casey, M. A. Rasmussen, Susan L. Carpenter

Swine Research Report, 1998

The methanogen electron carrier F420 was extracted from a methanogen cell culture, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, and separated from other cell components by a single anion exchange chromatographic process. The extent of separation was determined spectroscopically. The fluorescence lifetime of F420 at pH 7.5 is ~4.2 nanoseconds.


The Relative Importance Of Patch Area And Perimeter–Area Ratio To Grassland Breeding Birds, Christopher J. Helzer, Dennis E. Jelinski Jan 1999

The Relative Importance Of Patch Area And Perimeter–Area Ratio To Grassland Breeding Birds, Christopher J. Helzer, Dennis E. Jelinski

Papers in Natural Resources

Habitat fragmentation has been implicated as a major cause of population decline in grassland birds. We tested the hypothesis that a combination of area and shape determines the use of grassland patches by breeding birds. We compared both species richness and individual species presence in 45 wet meadow grasslands in the floodplain of the central Platte River, Nebraska. Bird data were collected through the use of belt transects and supplemented by walking and listening outside transects. Our data supported our primary hypothesis that perimeter–area ratio, which reflects both the area and shape of a patch, is the strongest predictor ...


The Use Of Anuran Larvae To Determine Chronic And Acute Toxicological Effects From Exposure To Atrazine And Metolachlor , Linda Suzanne Gucciardo Jan 1999

The Use Of Anuran Larvae To Determine Chronic And Acute Toxicological Effects From Exposure To Atrazine And Metolachlor , Linda Suzanne Gucciardo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated the effects of chronic exposure of amphibian tadpoles and acute exposure of embryos to the agricultural chemical atrazine;Tadpoles were chronically exposed from the first feeding stage through metamorphosis to three levels of atrazine. Concentrations of 30, 300 and 600 mug/L reflect exposures likely to occur in streams, wetlands and temporary waters near croplands. Cricket frogs (Acris crepitans), wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and northern leopard frogs (R. pipiens ) were evaluated on rate of growth, days to metamorphosis, metamorphic success, and juvenile weight and length. A repeated measures ANOVA evaluated the rate of growth (increase in SVL ...


Breeding Birds Of A Large-Scale Tallgrass Prairie Restoration In Iowa: Monitoring Abundance And Frequency Of Occurrence, Liessa Hyde Thomas Jan 1999

Breeding Birds Of A Large-Scale Tallgrass Prairie Restoration In Iowa: Monitoring Abundance And Frequency Of Occurrence, Liessa Hyde Thomas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Little is known about avian response to habitat restoration, particularly for tallgrass prairies. Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, established in 1990, is one of the largest tallgrass prairie restorations of its kind, with land acquisition approved at 3504 ha. Point count surveys were conducted at Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge from mid May through mid July, 1994-1998. Randomly selected points from four vegetation classes: cropland, herbaceous, riparian, and woodland, were surveyed over the five year study period. A total of 91 summer resident bird species were detected, including 8 grassland-specific species and 2 species from the Iowa threatened species list ...


A Decision Support System For Planning And Management Of Sustainable Livestock Production In The Midwest, Irene Mary Crawford Jan 1999

A Decision Support System For Planning And Management Of Sustainable Livestock Production In The Midwest, Irene Mary Crawford

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Managing livestock operations in an environmentally sound way presents a major challenge to the livestock production industry. Excessive amounts of manure can cause major environmental problems if not properly managed. The contamination of surface and subsurface water supplies due to non-point source pollution from livestock production has increased public concern in regards to large livestock operations. Another source of pollution from livestock facilities is atmospheric pollution in the form of odor. Odorous gaseous, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and other gaseous from livestock operations are a health hazard and nuisance to neighboring populations. Analysis of the environmental impacts of ...


Numerical Optimization Of Recursive Systems Of Equations With An Application To Optimal Swine Genetic Selection , Richard Edmund Hawkins Jan 1999

Numerical Optimization Of Recursive Systems Of Equations With An Application To Optimal Swine Genetic Selection , Richard Edmund Hawkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A new dynamic programming method is developed for numerical optimization of recursive systems of equations, in which continuous choice variables determine the allowed choices in subsequent stages of the problem. The method works by dynamically creating bubbles, or subspaces, of the total search space, allowing the indexing of states visited for later use, and taking advantage of the fact that states adjacent to a visited state are likely to be visited. The method thereby allows search of spaces far larger than would traditionally be permitted by memory limitations. The search allows an infinite planning horizon, and tests at each stage ...


Infectious Necrotizing Enteritis And Mortality Caused By Vibrio Carachariae In Summer Flounder Paralichthys Dentatus During Intensive Culture, Bruno Soffientino, Todd Gwaltney, David R. Nelson, Jennifer L. Specker, Michael Mauel, Marta Gomez-Chiarri Jan 1999

Infectious Necrotizing Enteritis And Mortality Caused By Vibrio Carachariae In Summer Flounder Paralichthys Dentatus During Intensive Culture, Bruno Soffientino, Todd Gwaltney, David R. Nelson, Jennifer L. Specker, Michael Mauel, Marta Gomez-Chiarri

Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Sciences Faculty Publications

An epizootic causing mortality among cultured summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus occurred in summer of 1998 at a land-based facility on Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. The disease, flounder infectious necrotizing enteritis (FINE), was characterized by reddening around the anal area, distended abdomens filled with opaque serosanguineous fluid, enteritis and necrosis of the posterior intestine. In extreme cases of the disease, the posterior intestine was detached from the anus and was observed coming out the vent. The intestine of individuals that recovered from the dsease ended in a blind-sac; the abdomens of these fish were distended, due to food and water ...


Effects Of Predation On Two Species Of Stream-Dwelling Crayfish (Orconectes Marchandi And Cambarus Hubbsi) In Pool And Riffle Microhabitats, Heidi Dukat, Daniel D. Magoulick Jan 1999

Effects Of Predation On Two Species Of Stream-Dwelling Crayfish (Orconectes Marchandi And Cambarus Hubbsi) In Pool And Riffle Microhabitats, Heidi Dukat, Daniel D. Magoulick

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Community structure may be governed by many abiotic and biotic factors. Of the biotic factors, predation is often considered to be critical in structuring freshwater stream communities. In the Warm Fork of the Spring River, the crayfish Cambarus hubbsi is found mainly in riffles, whereas the crayfish Orconectes marchandi is found in high numbers in pools. We hypothesized that predation, mainly by fish, is a factor causing this segregation. Higher predation rates for C. hubbsi than 0. marchandi in the pools and higher predation rates for 0. marchandi than C. hubbsi in the riffles were expected. A transplant tethering experiment ...


A Comparison Of Size Selectivity And Relative Efficiency Of Sea Scallop Trawls And Dredges, David B. Rudders Jan 1999

A Comparison Of Size Selectivity And Relative Efficiency Of Sea Scallop Trawls And Dredges, David B. Rudders

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Development Of An Empirical Model Of Human Sweating And A Semi-Empirical Model Of Human Thermoregulation , Jennifer Jane Walker Jan 1999

Development Of An Empirical Model Of Human Sweating And A Semi-Empirical Model Of Human Thermoregulation , Jennifer Jane Walker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The physiology of the human thermoregulatory response to changes in environment and work load has been studied from the perspective of both the physiologist and the engineer. Both fields have brought certain skills and tools to the effort. An effort to bring together the understanding gained from these two perspectives has been lacking. In this work a model for the sweat response and a model for the thermoregulatory response to changes in room temperature were developed. These models were developed using the modeling tools of engineering and the knowledge contained in past experimental data;An empirical model of the sweat ...


Social And Economic Data For Regional And Natural Resource Management In Western Australia's South West Catchment : Results Of The 2006 Landholder Survey, Department Of Agriculture And Food, Western Australia, South West Catchments Council (W.A.), Michael Hanslip, Australia. Bureau Of Rural Sciences. Jan 1999

Social And Economic Data For Regional And Natural Resource Management In Western Australia's South West Catchment : Results Of The 2006 Landholder Survey, Department Of Agriculture And Food, Western Australia, South West Catchments Council (W.A.), Michael Hanslip, Australia. Bureau Of Rural Sciences.

All other publications

This report presents a summary of the key findings from a mailed survey to 2,000 landholders in the South West Region of Western Australia in 2006. The survey gathered information on the key social and economic factors affecting landholder decision-making about the adoption of practices expected to improve the management of natural resources in the region. The response rate for the survey was 69.4%.

The South West Catchment Council, Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food and the Bureau of Rural Sciences were key project partners. Funding was from a mix of national, state and regional programmes, including ...


Diet Composition And Feeding Habits Of Large Striped Bass, Morone Saxatilis, In Chesapeake Bay, John F. Walter Jan 1999

Diet Composition And Feeding Habits Of Large Striped Bass, Morone Saxatilis, In Chesapeake Bay, John F. Walter

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Indo-Pacific Population Structure Of The Black Marlin, Makaira Indica, Inferred From Molecular Markers, Brett Falterman Jan 1999

Indo-Pacific Population Structure Of The Black Marlin, Makaira Indica, Inferred From Molecular Markers, Brett Falterman

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Food Habits And Diet Overlap Of Age-1 And Older Walleye And White Bass In Lake Poinsett, South Dakota, Andrew B. Starostka Jan 1999

Food Habits And Diet Overlap Of Age-1 And Older Walleye And White Bass In Lake Poinsett, South Dakota, Andrew B. Starostka

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

White bass Marone chysops and walleye Stizostedion vitreum coexist in several of the large glacial lakes in eastern South Dakota. I collected age-1 and older white bass and walleye in Lake Poinsett, South Dakota during May, July and September, 1998 to determine food habits and diet overlap using percent by weight to describe diets and Schoener's index (Cxy) to determine diet overlap. Macroinvertebrates were common prey items for white bass in all length groups during all sample dates. The primary macroinvertebrates consumed by white bass were corixids, amphipods and dipterans. Fish, as a group, were second in diet importance ...


Under-Ice Diel Vertical Migrations Of Oncorhynchus Nerka And Their Zooplankton Prey, G. B. Steinhart, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1999

Under-Ice Diel Vertical Migrations Of Oncorhynchus Nerka And Their Zooplankton Prey, G. B. Steinhart, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

We used stationary hydroacoustics and measures of environmental conditions (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, light levels, and zooplankton) to determine what factors, foraging or predation risk, influenced diel vertical migrations of Oncorhynchus nerka during winter in three high-mountain lakes. The Sawtooth Valley lakes are deep, oligotrophic, glacial lakes located in central Idaho, U.S.A., and historically contained populations of anadromous O. nerka. In general, low light intensities limited foraging opportunities of O. nerka under ice, especially at night. In Stanley Lake, O. nerka underwent diel vertical migrations to exploit available light to feed. Oncorhynchus nerka occupied shallow water at night ...


Ontogenetic Habitat Shifts Of Juvenile Bear Lake Sculpin, J. Ruzycki, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1999

Ontogenetic Habitat Shifts Of Juvenile Bear Lake Sculpin, J. Ruzycki, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Bear lake sculpin Cottus extensus exhibit ontogenetic habitat shifts during their initial year of life. Distribution and habitat switching was measured with bimonthly bottom-trawl surveys repeated throughout the summer. Patterns of daily growth increments on otoliths were used to measure the history of habitat residence, individual size at the time of the habitat switch, and habitat-specific growth rates. Laboratory experiments and known-age fish confirmed daily increment formation of otoliths. After dispersing during an initial pelagic larval stage, postlarval juveniles settled in both the warm, food-rich littoral zone and the cold, unproductive profundal zone. During summer, initial profundal-zone inhabitants underwent a ...


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 1998, John A. Lucy, C.M. Bain, M. D. Arendt Jan 1999

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 1998, John A. Lucy, C.M. Bain, M. D. Arendt

Reports

The Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP), a cooperative project of the Virginia Marine Resources Commission and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), set records for fish tagged and fish recaptured during 1998, its fourth year of operation.