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Animal Sciences

1996

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Articles 1 - 30 of 54

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Diversity Of Arkansas Water Resources Research, Kenneth F. Steele Oct 1996

Diversity Of Arkansas Water Resources Research, Kenneth F. Steele

Technical Reports

In order to understand, protect, and manage our water resources effectively knowledge is required from many diverse areas of science, engineering, economics, and sociology. These proceedings of the conference on the Diversity of Arkansas Water Resources Research reflect this need and demonstrate how researchers in the state are responding to water issues and problems in Arkansas. The papers in these proceedings are representative of the research in Arkansas, but are only a sample of the work being conducted by universities and government agencies in Arkansas. We are grateful that Arkansas has the expertise available to provide the information necessary to ...


Rare And Endangered Plants At Gateway National Recreation Area: A Case For Protection Of Urban Natural Areas, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., Richard Stalter, Michael D. Byer Jul 1996

Rare And Endangered Plants At Gateway National Recreation Area: A Case For Protection Of Urban Natural Areas, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., Richard Stalter, Michael D. Byer

Faculty Works: CERCOM

The diversity of native plant species in urban environments is usually overlooked when biodiversity levels are considered. Inventories of native plants reveal many to be rare species surviving the harsh conditions encountered in urban ecosystems. Knowledge of their existence and an inventory of their distribution will assist in maintaining these populations. Protection strategies for rare plant species are outlined for urban National Parks.


How The Regulated Community Views Regulation To Protect Living Resources: The Endangered Species Act, Biological Diversity, And Ecosystem Management, Steven P. Quarles Jun 1996

How The Regulated Community Views Regulation To Protect Living Resources: The Endangered Species Act, Biological Diversity, And Ecosystem Management, Steven P. Quarles

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

21 pages.

Contains footnotes.


The Endangered Species: The Urban Water Utility Perspective, Chips Barry Jun 1996

The Endangered Species: The Urban Water Utility Perspective, Chips Barry

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

24 pages.


Reform Of The Endangered Species Act: Overview Of Administrative Reforms [Congressional Hearing Material Submitted By Bruce E. Babbitt, Secretary, Department Of Interior], Dinah Bear Jun 1996

Reform Of The Endangered Species Act: Overview Of Administrative Reforms [Congressional Hearing Material Submitted By Bruce E. Babbitt, Secretary, Department Of Interior], Dinah Bear

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

31 pages.


A Tribal Perspective On Esa Reform, Ted Strong Jun 1996

A Tribal Perspective On Esa Reform, Ted Strong

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

4 pages.


Habitat Based, Multi-Species Hcps: Lessons From The Northwest, James A. Kraft Jun 1996

Habitat Based, Multi-Species Hcps: Lessons From The Northwest, James A. Kraft

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

9 pages.


Upper Colorado River Fish: A Recovery Program That Is Working – Myth Or Reality?, James S. Lochhead Jun 1996

Upper Colorado River Fish: A Recovery Program That Is Working – Myth Or Reality?, James S. Lochhead

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

24 pages (includes 1 map).

Contains 2 pages of references.


The Enigma Of The Blind Salamander And Groundwater Pumping: Lessons From The Edwards Aquifer, Texas, Charles R. Shockey Jun 1996

The Enigma Of The Blind Salamander And Groundwater Pumping: Lessons From The Edwards Aquifer, Texas, Charles R. Shockey

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

39 pages (includes illustrations and maps).

Contains footnotes.


The Endangered Species Act—Economic Impacts: The Perception And The Numbers, Jon A. Souder Jun 1996

The Endangered Species Act—Economic Impacts: The Perception And The Numbers, Jon A. Souder

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

13 pages (includes illustrations).

Contains 2 pages of references.


A Comparison: Lessons From The Columbia Basin And The Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Efforts, Mary Christina Wood Jun 1996

A Comparison: Lessons From The Columbia Basin And The Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Efforts, Mary Christina Wood

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

47 pages.

Contains 5 pages of references.


Columbia River Salmon: Are Any Of The Esa Tools Adequate For The Job?, John M. Volkman Jun 1996

Columbia River Salmon: Are Any Of The Esa Tools Adequate For The Job?, John M. Volkman

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

32 pages.

Contains footnotes.


The Endangered Species Act: Tramping On Tribal Rights?, Robert S. Pelcyger Jun 1996

The Endangered Species Act: Tramping On Tribal Rights?, Robert S. Pelcyger

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

32 pages.

Contains footnotes.


The Esa, Water Rights, And Regulatory Takings, Barton H. Thompson, Jr. Jun 1996

The Esa, Water Rights, And Regulatory Takings, Barton H. Thompson, Jr.

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

28 pages.

Contains 2 pages of references.


Water Rights, Contract Rights, And The Endangered Species Act, Brian E. Gray Jun 1996

Water Rights, Contract Rights, And The Endangered Species Act, Brian E. Gray

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

12 pages.

Contains references.


An Overview Of The Endangered Species Act, Michael J. Brennan Jun 1996

An Overview Of The Endangered Species Act, Michael J. Brennan

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

25 pages.


Landscape Scale Habitat Conservation Plans: The California Experience, Lindell L. Marsh Jun 1996

Landscape Scale Habitat Conservation Plans: The California Experience, Lindell L. Marsh

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

24 pages.

Contains 3 pages of references.


Agenda: Biodiversity Protection: Implementation And Reform Of The Endangered Species Act, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center Jun 1996

Agenda: Biodiversity Protection: Implementation And Reform Of The Endangered Species Act, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center

Biodiversity Protection: Implementation and Reform of the Endangered Species Act (Summer Conference, June 9-12)

Conference organizers and/or faculty included University of Colorado School of Law professors Betsy Rieke, David H. Getches, Michael A. Gheleta and Charles F. Wilkinson.

All across the country--in Congress, in state legislatures and in urban and rural communities--people are discussing why we should or should not protect biodiversity and how best to do so. Since the Endangered Species Act is up for reauthorization, a variety of reform proposals are being debated. Speakers--including natural resource scholars, experts from the private and nonprofit sectors, and government officials--will examine the rationale for biodiversity protection, the legal framework of the Endangered Species Act ...


The Influence Of Forest Fragmentation And Landscape Pattern On American Martens And Their Prey, Christina D. Hargis May 1996

The Influence Of Forest Fragmentation And Landscape Pattern On American Martens And Their Prey, Christina D. Hargis

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Habitat fragmentation occurs when large tracts of an orginal habitat are replaced by smaller patches of two or more habitat types, largely through human activities. I studied the behavior of six measures of landscape pattern that seemed appropriate for quantifying fragmentation, and used these measures to investigate the effects of forest fragmentation on American martens (Martes americana) and their prey. The measures I selected were edge density, contagion, mean nearest neighbor distance between patches, mean proximity index, perimeter-area fractal dimension, and mass fractal dimension. To test the behavior of these measures with a variety of landscape patterns, I used a ...


Habitat Selection And Movement Of A Stream-Resident Salmonid In A Regulated River And Tests Of Four Bioenergetic Optimization Models, Mark D. Bowen May 1996

Habitat Selection And Movement Of A Stream-Resident Salmonid In A Regulated River And Tests Of Four Bioenergetic Optimization Models, Mark D. Bowen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A bioenergetics model was constructed for stream-resident drift-feeding salmonids. Model predictions of surplus power (energy available per unit time for lll growth and reproduction) were not statistically distinguishable from observations of surplus power in three laboratory studies. Of 40 experimental trials in these three studies, the model correctly predicted surplus power in 39 cases (p < 0.05).

I collected observations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) focal velocity and physical habitat availability in the Green River of northeastern Utah, USA (1988-1990). In the winter of 1988, Flaming Gorge Dam generated hydropower and delivered an lJDStable discharge regime with a higher mean discharge to ...


Second Growth Forest As Potential Marten Habitat In Western Newfoundland: An Examination Of Forest Habitat Structure And Microtine Abundance, Brian R. Sturtevant May 1996

Second Growth Forest As Potential Marten Habitat In Western Newfoundland: An Examination Of Forest Habitat Structure And Microtine Abundance, Brian R. Sturtevant

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The American marten (Martes americana) is associated with large tracts of relatively undisturbed, mature coniferous forests. I examined coarse woody debris (CWO) structure and small mammal abundance with respect to forest age and stem structure within second-growth forests, in comparison with old-growth stands in western Newfoundland. Results suggest that a critical change in marten habitat quality may occur at stand senescence, due to decreased tree competition, more complex subcanopy structure, and increased meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) abundance.

Analysis of stem structure within a chronosequence of 19 second-growth stands indicated high intertree competition, with dense canopy closure and active self-thinning, until ...


Mule Deer Highway Mortality In Northeastern Utah: An Analysis Of Population-Level Impacts And A New Mitigative System, Mark E. Lehnert May 1996

Mule Deer Highway Mortality In Northeastern Utah: An Analysis Of Population-Level Impacts And A New Mitigative System, Mark E. Lehnert

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rerouting highways to accommodate construction of the Jordanelle Reservoir in northeastern Utah caused a dramatic increase in vehicle collisions with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). I evaluated the effectiveness of a new system of highway crosswalk structures installed to reduce deer losses and preserve seasonal migrations. In addition, I constructed computer simulation models to investigate how highway mortality has impacted the Jordanelle deer population.

The crosswalk system restricted deer crossings to specific, well-marked areas along highways where motorists could anticipate them. Subsequent to installation, mortality declined 42.3% and 36.8% along a four-lane and two-lane highway, respectively. I was unable ...


A Survey Of Employees Of The United States Department Of Agriculture's Animal Damage Control Program, Susan A. Schroeder May 1996

A Survey Of Employees Of The United States Department Of Agriculture's Animal Damage Control Program, Susan A. Schroeder

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the attitudes of employees of the United States Department of Agriculture's Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program. This research examined ADC employees' attitudes about wildlife, the ADC program and ADC employment, wildlife damage management methods, euthanasia and the killing process, and the role of various public and private groups on ADC policy. This study also applied the theory of organizational capture to the ADC program to test its utility in explaining the attitudes and behaviors of employees. Results were based on a survey of ADC employees conducted in January 1995.

Survey responses were analyzed to explore associations ...


Livestock As Seed Disseminators For Reseeding Degraded Rangelands: The Role Of Dung In Gap Formation And Plant Establishment, Brian S. Auman May 1996

Livestock As Seed Disseminators For Reseeding Degraded Rangelands: The Role Of Dung In Gap Formation And Plant Establishment, Brian S. Auman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Livestock (cattle and sheep) were examined as seed disseminators for reseeding degraded Intermountain rangelands. "Hycrest" crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult. X A. cristatum (L.) Gaert.] seed was fed to yearling Holstein steers and Suffolk ewes. Dw1g was collected from each animal type and deposited on plots of high and low densities of an annual [cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)] and perennial [squirreltail (Sitanion hystrix Nutt.)] grass species. The experiment evaluated the ability of the dung to suppress the resident vegetation, and the recruitment and establishment of Hycrest seedlings emerging from the dung.

Sheep dung had little suppressive effect ...


Evaluation Of The Delta Waterfowl Foundation's Adopt-A-Pothole Project, Daniel S. Vice May 1996

Evaluation Of The Delta Waterfowl Foundation's Adopt-A-Pothole Project, Daniel S. Vice

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The establishment of dense nesting cover (DNC) for breeding waterfowl is a common management practice on large blocks of former agricultural land. The Delta Waterfowl Foundation's Adopt-A-Pothole (AAP) program establishes DNC adjacent to small wetland complexes to increase waterfowl use and productivity. I evaluated waterfowl use and nesting success on AAP lease sites in southwestern Manitoba in 993- 94 and compared the relative amount and success of overwater and upland nesting by mallards using these sites.

Diving duck breeding pair densities were higher on treatment sites in both 1993 and 1994 (P= 0.02 and 0.02, respectively). Dabbling ...


Recruitment Of Blue Crab, Callinectes Sapidus, Postlarvae To The Back-Barrier Lagoons Of Virginia's Eastern Shore, Robert D. Brumbaugh Apr 1996

Recruitment Of Blue Crab, Callinectes Sapidus, Postlarvae To The Back-Barrier Lagoons Of Virginia's Eastern Shore, Robert D. Brumbaugh

OES Theses and Dissertations

Most research on the early life history of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, has been conducted in large partially stratified estuaries such as the Chesapeake Bay. In contrast, little is known about the recruitment dynamics or habitat requirements of blue crab postlarvae (megalopae) in shallow well-mixed lagoonal systems that make up a considerable part of the species' range. In Virginia's coastal lagoons, planktonic blue crab megalopae are most abundant at night on flooding tides, and are not abundant during the daytime or on ebbing tides. This appears to enhance retention within the lagoons, despite the short residence time of ...


Factors That Influence Prices Producers Receive For Hogs: Statistical Analysis Of Killsheet And Survey Data, John D. Lawrence Mar 1996

Factors That Influence Prices Producers Receive For Hogs: Statistical Analysis Of Killsheet And Survey Data, John D. Lawrence

Economic Staff Paper Series

The Iowa Pork Producers Association surveyed its members in late summer of 1995. Nearly 1,000 usable surveys were returned from the more than 8,000 that were mailed out. In additionto completingand returningthe four-page survey, over 300 producers sent in killsheets from loads ofhogs they had sold. Combining the load-specific qualitycharacteristics from the killsheets with informationabout the operation from the surveymay provide greater insightinto key marketing questions such as


2,3, 7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin, Steven P. Bradbury Jan 1996

2,3, 7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin, Steven P. Bradbury

Steven P. Bradbury

Since 1985, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has classified 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a probable human carcinogen; subsequently, sources of TCDD in the environment have been regulated on the basis of animal cancer rates extrapolated to doses associated with human exposures. Two major activities have prompted the decision to reassess this approach for evaluating TCDD toxicity and its associated risks. First, an epidemiological study of cancer mortality in U.S. chemical workers by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health provided evidence of TCDD-mediated human carcinogenicity (Fingerhut et al. 1991 ). Second, at a 1990 Banbury ...


Public Health Hazards Associated With The Consumption Of Molluscan Shellfish In The State Of Rhode Island, Jeffrey F. Nussbaum Jan 1996

Public Health Hazards Associated With The Consumption Of Molluscan Shellfish In The State Of Rhode Island, Jeffrey F. Nussbaum

Theses and Major Papers

The principal objective of this thesis was to descriptively and empirically assess shellfish consumption hazards in the state of Rhode Island and to evaluate the use of a shellfish hazard warning label to modify unsafe consumptive behaviors. To accomplish this task, three research problems were examined using a survey instrument. The survey instrument was a questionnaire which included both closed and open-ended questions. The survey questions were designed to identify four primary research variables; shellfish consumptive behaviors, consumer knowledge of shellfish hazards and related government advisories, perceptions of risk regarding personal shellfish consumption, and response to warning label information. The ...


Trends In Abundance Of The Gulf Of Maine Population Of Harbor Porpoise, Paula Ann Olson Jan 1996

Trends In Abundance Of The Gulf Of Maine Population Of Harbor Porpoise, Paula Ann Olson

Theses and Major Papers

Hundreds of harbor porpoise die each year as bycatch in the Gulf of Maine's sink gillnet fishery. In recent years, concern has arisen whether the Gulf of Maine population of harbor porpoise can sustain this level of bycatch. It is believed that the population may have declined, or is declining as a result of the incidental moralities. This paper reviews what is known about Gulf of Maine harbor porpoise demographics and how that information is incorporated into the management of the porpoise/fishery interaction. Included in this paper is a new study on the trend of relative abundance of ...