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Animal Sciences

1991

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Articles 1 - 30 of 32

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Hepatic Microsomal N-Hydroxylation Of Aniline And 4-Chloroaniline By Rainbow Trout (Onchorhyncus Mykiss), Steven P. Bradbury, J. M. Dady, A. D. Hoffman, M. M. Voit, D. L. Olson Dec 1991

Hepatic Microsomal N-Hydroxylation Of Aniline And 4-Chloroaniline By Rainbow Trout (Onchorhyncus Mykiss), Steven P. Bradbury, J. M. Dady, A. D. Hoffman, M. M. Voit, D. L. Olson

Steven P. Bradbury

N-Hydroxylation of aniline and 4-chloroaniline was quantified in rainbow trout microsomal preparations using h.p.l.c.-liquid scintillation methods. Radioactive phenylhydroxylamine and 4-chlorophenylhydroxylamine metabolites were identified by co-elution with non-labelled standards. The method provided resolution of metabolite standards, and quantification of both N-hydroxylated metabolites was achieved without derivatization. The maximum velocities at 25 degrees C were 33.8 +/- 1.40 and 22.0 +/- 0.98 pmol/min per mg for aniline and 4-chloroaniline N-hydroxylation, respectively. The Km values were 1.0 +/- 0.11 and 0.8 +/- 0.11 mM for aniline and 4-chloroaniline N-hydroxylation, respectively. These activities were not ...


Biodepuration Of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons From A Bivalve Mollusk, Mercenaria Mercenaria L, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., Raul R. Cardenas Aug 1991

Biodepuration Of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons From A Bivalve Mollusk, Mercenaria Mercenaria L, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., Raul R. Cardenas

Faculty Works: CERCOM

Mercenaria mercenaria, exposed in vitro for 48 h to nine parent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in waste crankcase oil (WCCO) and analysed by multiparametric analysis over a 45- day depuration period in an activated carbon filtration aquaria system, did not depurate PAHs, but rather maintained them at detectable levels. Uptake of PAHs was shown to be directly related to clam weight. A cluster analysis of empirical results reaffirmed a biostabilization in PAH groupings in clam tissue over a 45-day depuration period and exhibited no evidence of a decreasing trend in total PAHs when subjected to ANOVA. Due to the ...


Selecting And Developing Reliable Bore Sites In The Eastern Wheatbelt, Richard George Jun 1991

Selecting And Developing Reliable Bore Sites In The Eastern Wheatbelt, Richard George

Bulletins 4000 -

In the Western Australian wheatbelt, groundwater supplies contribute about 40 per cent of the on-farm livestock requirements and occasionally domestic water supply systems. The first part of this Bulletin comments on sites suitable for both high yielding bores and also those which yield water suitable for livestock. The second part outlines techniques for constructing and developing a bore. Throughout this Bulletin livestock quality water, for adult sheep, is defined as groundwater of less than 12,000 mg/L (or 850 grains per gallon) which has not been subject to localized pollution. For other livestock, the maximum salinities range from 2 ...


Scanning Tunneling Microscopy And Atomic Force Microscopy In The Characterization Of Activated Graphite Electrodes, Michael S. Freund, Anna Brajter-Toth, Therese M. Cotton, Eric R. Henderson May 1991

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy And Atomic Force Microscopy In The Characterization Of Activated Graphite Electrodes, Michael S. Freund, Anna Brajter-Toth, Therese M. Cotton, Eric R. Henderson

Zoology and Genetics Publications

Sir: To date there have been many methods described to activate carbon electrodes, including electrochemical treatment (1-1 7), laser irradiation (18-21), radio-frequency (RF) plasma (22), and heat treatment (23-26). These methods were developed empirically, and only now is an understanding of parameters controlling surface activity beginning to emerge (20,27). Electrochemical treatment and laser irradiation are particularly attractive treatments because they are relatively inexpensive, are quick, and can be performed without removing the electrode from solution. Activation, common to these procedures, may be attributable to an increase in the exposed edge plane density, which has been associated with faster kinetics ...


Appendix To The Final Report Of The Rfac. Statistical Summary Of Public Responses To Key Issues., Recreational Fishing Advisory Committee Western Australia. May 1991

Appendix To The Final Report Of The Rfac. Statistical Summary Of Public Responses To Key Issues., Recreational Fishing Advisory Committee Western Australia.

Fisheries management papers

This paper has been published as a separate appendix to the final report of the Recreational Fishing Advisory Committee, and should be read in conjunction with it, and the Committee's discussion paper ("Final report of the Recreational Fishing Advisory Committee - Fisheries Management Paper No. 41 1991). The key issues that were identified in the discussion paper came up under the following headings: 5.1 Environment 5.2 Resource Sharing 5.3 Access for Fishing 5.4 Research 5.5 Management rules 5.6 Enforcement 5.7 Charter fishing 5.8 Funding and licensing 5.9 Community consultation 5.10 ...


Is Rainbow Trout Condition Influenced By Invertebrate-Drift Density?, Randall B. Filbert May 1991

Is Rainbow Trout Condition Influenced By Invertebrate-Drift Density?, Randall B. Filbert

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Users of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology CTFIM) commonly assume that there is a positive linear relationship between available habitat (WUA) and stream fish biomass. However, several studies have shown a lack cf correlation between WUA and biomass. Such poor relationships may occur if other factors limit fish abundance. Food availability is a potentially important factor limiting abundance of stream fishes and can affect blomass by influencing fish condition (individual weight). I collected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to different levels of invertebrate-drift density to determine if condition was greater where food was more abundant. I also examined whether size-selective ...


Oyster Spatfall In Virginia Waters: 1990 Annual Summary, Bruce J. Barber Feb 1991

Oyster Spatfall In Virginia Waters: 1990 Annual Summary, Bruce J. Barber

Reports

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) conducts surveys ofoyster spatfall (or "setting") in Virginia waters throughout the summer reproductive period. This survey provides an estimate of the potential of a particular area for receiving a "strike" or set of oysters on the bottom and helps define the timing of setting events. Information obtained from this effort is valuable to the Virginia Marine Resources Commission (VMRC) for its shell repletion program, and to private oyster growers, both of which are interested in maximizing the timing of shell planting. In addition, by maintaining a long-term data base, trends in spatfall throughout ...


Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 1990 A Summary Of The Annual Monitoring Program, Eugene M. Burreson Feb 1991

Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 1990 A Summary Of The Annual Monitoring Program, Eugene M. Burreson

Reports

No abstract provided.


Metallothionein And Bioaccumulation Of Cadmium In Juvenile Bluegills Exposed To Aqueous And Sediment-Associated Cadmium , William Gregory Cope Jan 1991

Metallothionein And Bioaccumulation Of Cadmium In Juvenile Bluegills Exposed To Aqueous And Sediment-Associated Cadmium , William Gregory Cope

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

I evaluated metallothionein (MT), free (unbound) hepatic cadmium and whole body cadmium as indicators of cadmium exposure in juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus in laboratory tests. Two types of cadmium exposure were tested; aqueous and sediment-associated. In the aqueous tests, fish were exposed to cadmium (0.0 to 32.3 [mu]g/L) in an intermittent-flow diluter. The experimental design for the aqueous exposure was completely randomized and included two replicates in each of eight treatments (seven cadmium exposures and one water control). In the sediment-associated cadmium test, fish were exposed to resuspended river sediment containing 1.3 to 21.4 ...


Mariculture Management For Pohnpei State, Federated States Of Micronesia, Kevin Brooks Foster Jan 1991

Mariculture Management For Pohnpei State, Federated States Of Micronesia, Kevin Brooks Foster

Theses and Major Papers

The Marine Resources Division of Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia is currently engaged in development activities that include the establishment of family scale mariculture projects for community members of remote villages and outer islands. The goal of this undertaking is to supplement subsistence and income generation ventures for community members through the wise use and exploitation of the marine environment. These aims may be jeopardized unless a management plan is devised that reflects the customary marine resource practices as embraced by islanders from each community. The intent of this thesis projects is to devise a mariculture management model that ...


Factors Influencing The Role Of Women In Indonesian Fisheries Development, Melissa A. Upton Jan 1991

Factors Influencing The Role Of Women In Indonesian Fisheries Development, Melissa A. Upton

Theses and Major Papers

Gender consideration is an essential component of fishery development activities. The purpose of this thesis is to help guide planners and decision-makers who are concerned with understanding the role of women in fisheries development in general as well as in the Republic of Indonesia. Thus, it is partially based upon field research conducted in Indonesia among fishing communities which are representative of different types of fisheries. Justification for research concerning the role of women in the fisheries sector and the reasons why women should be included in development policy and planning are presented in Chapter I. The general research setting ...


The Gulf Of California As A Large Marine Ecosystem, Patricia A. Morrissey Jan 1991

The Gulf Of California As A Large Marine Ecosystem, Patricia A. Morrissey

Theses and Major Papers

Large marine regions characterized by unique bathymetry, hydrography and productivity, within which marine populations have adapted reproductive, growth, and feeding strategies constitute large marine ecosystems (LME) (Sherman and Alexander, 1986). The Gulf of California a semi-enclosed sea off the western coast of Mexico qualifies as a LME as it presents physical and biological characteristics not found in the adjoining Pacific. This area sustains the largest commercial fishery in the country which is the sardine fishery. the sardine population resident in the Gulf of California has coupled its reproductive and migration strategies to the environment of this region. Fluctuations of the ...


Prospects For Fisheries Development In West Africa, Steven K. Ireland Jan 1991

Prospects For Fisheries Development In West Africa, Steven K. Ireland

Theses and Major Papers

The production of food is a primary concern for the countries of Africa. Marine fisheries can contribute toward alleviating undernutrition and provide employment opportunities in developing countries. In West Africa there are substantial marine fisheries resources but there is a need for development and improved management of these resources. Fisheries development efforts have thus far achieved limited success in the region. However, there is considerable potential for increasing the contribution of fisheries to economic development if the problems of fisheries development can be overcome.


Possibilities For A Common Fisheries Development And Management Policy For The Organization Of Eastern Caribbean States (O.E.C.S.), Daven C. Joseph Jan 1991

Possibilities For A Common Fisheries Development And Management Policy For The Organization Of Eastern Caribbean States (O.E.C.S.), Daven C. Joseph

Theses and Major Papers

The fisheries resources within the EEZs of countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States is not being exploited at their maximum sustainable yield. Fisheries development has however been hampered by a history of these states, little or no sectoral development planning. If member states are to realize any increased socio-economic growth in the fisheries sector, it is imperative that a common fisheries management and development strategy be implemented by these states, in an effort to rationalize the use of scarce financial and technical resources. Such a strategy would involve the pursuance of common goals and objectives and the provision ...


Striped Bass Management In Rhode Island, Thomas N. Fetherston Ii Jan 1991

Striped Bass Management In Rhode Island, Thomas N. Fetherston Ii

Theses and Major Papers

The management of highly migratory marine species is a difficult and complex task. No creature better represents the myriad problems faced by those attempting interstate fisheries management than the striped bass of the Atlantic coast. Their high stock levels in the late 1960s attracted unprecedented attention from commercial and sport fishermen alike. The dramatic crash of these stocks in the late 1970s, subsequent attempts at coastwide management, eventual Federal intervention and finally the rebound of the Atlantic striped bass population is an interesting case study. This paper will focus on what transpired in the State of Rhode Island during this ...


Malaysia And The Law Of The Sea, Mohd Fadzil Shuhaimi Jan 1991

Malaysia And The Law Of The Sea, Mohd Fadzil Shuhaimi

Theses and Major Papers

The new legal regime of the oceans has brought many changes in the Malacca Strait. The most recent one in the enactment of the Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone Act 1984 as corollary to its proclamation on the Exclusive Economic Zone in 1980. A year later, the Fisheries Act 1985 was enacted by Malaysia as a result of increasing needs to address new issues in fisheries protection and management in the Malaysian fisheries waters. The conclusion of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, among other things, has improvised the concept of transit passage in the straits ...


The Effect Of Nitrogen On Pastures And Subsequent Sheep Production., L. Cransberg Jan 1991

The Effect Of Nitrogen On Pastures And Subsequent Sheep Production., L. Cransberg

Experimental Summaries - Plant Research

Trial 89MT1

Location: Mt Barker Research Station

To measure the effect of autumn/winter application on:

1. Pasture growth rates and composition

2. Sheep production using pregnant/lacting ewes.

Trial 89KA6

Management systems for sheep.

Location: Kojonup

To measure the effects of set stocking and strip (rotation) grazing on:

1. Pasture production, composition and quality.

2. Sheep production (liveweight, condition score, wool growth rate, fibre diameter strength and vegetable matter contamination).


The Economic Impact Of Recreational Fishing In Western Australia., R. K. Linchner Jan 1991

The Economic Impact Of Recreational Fishing In Western Australia., R. K. Linchner

Fisheries management papers

The Minister for Fisheries commissioned Economic Research Associates to carry out a study of the economic impact of recreational fishing in Western Australia. Two surveys were conducted to determine how much recreational fishers spend during the year on goods and services in order to go fishing. One involved telephone interviews of 401 recreational fishers, who were selected from a stratified random sample of households in five major regions of the state. The other survey employed a self enumeration questionnaire sent to randomly selected licensed recreational fishers, as well as being made available on non-random self-selection basis through fishing clubs and ...


Species Richness And Nest Productivity Of Marsh Birds On Restored Prairie Potholes In Northern Iowa , Lisa Marie Hemesath Jan 1991

Species Richness And Nest Productivity Of Marsh Birds On Restored Prairie Potholes In Northern Iowa , Lisa Marie Hemesath

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Since the mid 1800s the number of wetlands in Iowa has decreased by 95% (Bishop 1981). Wetland drainage and the conversion of native grasslands into croplands have been primary causes of this loss. Because of this habitat loss, several wetland species have been extirpated from the state, and others have small populations (Weller 1979, Dinsmore 1981). The 1985 Farm Bill and the North American Waterfowl Management Plan provided the stimulus for wetland restoration on many of these drained basins. My objectives were to 1) determine if certain wetland characteristics affected bird colonization on restored wetlands and 2) assess the habitat ...


Influence Of Root System Morphology And Site Characteristics On Development Of Transplanted Northern Red Oak (Quercus Rubra L.) Seedlings , Janette R. Thompson Jan 1991

Influence Of Root System Morphology And Site Characteristics On Development Of Transplanted Northern Red Oak (Quercus Rubra L.) Seedlings , Janette R. Thompson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of one-year-old red oak seedlings with graded root systems on different sites, to determine if initial root system morphology would influence seedling survival and growth, and to determine whether differences in root system quality would be important over time regardless of outplanting site characteristics. Nursery-run bare-root northern red oak seedlings from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources State Forest Nursery in Ames were graded according to numbers of large first-order lateral roots and outplanted in spring, 1987, on nine plots distributed among three sites in central Iowa;Annual counts of ...


Food And Feeding Of Northern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus Thynnus) And Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albarcares): A Comparative Study Of The Food And Feeding Habits Of The Northern Bluefin Tuna Off The Coast Of Virginia, Charles Gilbert Barr Jan 1991

Food And Feeding Of Northern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus Thynnus) And Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albarcares): A Comparative Study Of The Food And Feeding Habits Of The Northern Bluefin Tuna Off The Coast Of Virginia, Charles Gilbert Barr

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Survey Of The Damage Caused To Trees By Goats, Steve Gherardi, Dick Mills, Tim Johnson Jan 1991

Survey Of The Damage Caused To Trees By Goats, Steve Gherardi, Dick Mills, Tim Johnson

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

The damage that goats can cause to trees is one of the major problems associated with their farming in the agricultural areas of Australia. It is also considered one of the main hindrances to the development of the goat industry. The Department of Agriculture s Goat Industry Development Unit surveyed mohair and cashmere producers to determine the prevalence of tree damage and its extent and severity; why producers believed goats damaged trees; and how producers minimised or prevented this damage.


Trees And Livestock : A Productive Co-Existence, Richard Moore Jan 1991

Trees And Livestock : A Productive Co-Existence, Richard Moore

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Trees, as part of farming can help to combat land degradation problems and produce a good economic return from timber at the same time. For example, there is now clear evidence that planting trees can help combat salinity by lowering water-table levels. Trees can also substantially improve overall farm productivity by providing shelter for pastures and livestock. The challenge is to find practical and economical methods of integrating trees and farming. A combination of widely-spaced trees and livestock is one promising method. This article describes the benefits of this type of agroforestry to farmers, suitable locations and how to practice ...


Estimation Of Variance Components And Response To Selection For Milk Composition In Holsteins, Including Lactose And Somatic Cell Score , Robert Donald Welper Jan 1991

Estimation Of Variance Components And Response To Selection For Milk Composition In Holsteins, Including Lactose And Somatic Cell Score , Robert Donald Welper

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

First lactation milk, fat, protein, and lactose yields and percentage yields were analyzed using a multiple-trait sire model including herd-year-season, sire group, and age of cow as fixed effects. Variance components were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood with an expectation-maximization algorithm, and included sire relationships. Somatic cell score (SCS) was fit both as a fixed effect in the model and as an additional dependent variable in two analyses. The results were almost identical for both analyses. Lactose percentage means ranged from 4.84 to 4.97% across three dairy breeds. Data used to estimate variance components were first lactation Holstein ...


Behavior And Ecology Of Post-Fledging American Kestrels , Daniel E. Varland Jan 1991

Behavior And Ecology Of Post-Fledging American Kestrels , Daniel E. Varland

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

I studied the behavior, habitat and perch use, causes of mortality, and time to dispersal of post-fledging American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) during spring and summer 1988-1990 in central Iowa. To monitor kestrel activity, I attached radio-transmitters to 64 birds in 50 nests. All young in the study fledged from nest boxes, most of which (N = 47) were attached to the backs of highway signs along the Interstate-35 (I-35) right-of-way;During the first week after fledging, kestrels spent <1% of their time foraging or flying; the remainder was spent in inactive behavior. Kestrels fledging from nests along the interstate were observed at this time primarily in cropland and along the interstate right-of-way, where they frequently perched on the ground;All but 1 of the 16 kestrels found dead died during the first week after fledging, before flying skills had developed. Mammalian predation accounted for six deaths and was the main cause of mortality. Only 2 of 61 radio-marked kestrels that fledged from nest boxes along the interstate died because of a collision with a vehicle;As kestrels grew older, perch resting decreased whereas perch hunting increased. Post-fledging kestrels fed almost exclusively on invertebrates, and mean hunting success did not exceed 55%;In 1988-1989, I observed social hunting among siblings, families, and also among unrelated kestrels. Social hunting occurred during both perch hunting and ground hunting. Social foraging in these kestrels was imitative rather than cooperative;In 1990 I observed experimentally adjusted broods of two and five post-fledging American Kestrels to test two hypotheses: (1) imitative social foraging increases foraging efficiency, and (2) individuals in large broods will disperse sooner than individuals in small broods. No differences in foraging efficiency or in dispersal time were detected, but sample sizes were small because of high mortality or signal failure among radio-marked birds;Kestrels fledging from nest boxes along the interstate hunted extensively along secondary roads. Mean time until the initiation of dispersal of kestrels along the interstate was 22.7 d after fledging. Band recoveries provided little evidence of natal philopatry.


A Comparison Of The Bird And Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Communities Between Restored And 'Natural' Iowa Prairie Wetlands , Philip J. Delphey Jan 1991

A Comparison Of The Bird And Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Communities Between Restored And 'Natural' Iowa Prairie Wetlands , Philip J. Delphey

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The glaciated prairie region of north-central and northwestern Iowa once contained a 3-million-ha prairie-marsh complex, but since settlement, 95% of the area's wetlands has been lost (Bishop 1981). Wetland loss has also been great elsewhere in the Prairie Pothole Region, contributing to regional declines of breeding populations of ducks (Batt et al. 1989) and other water bird species (U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. 1987). To recover some of this lost habitat, federal and state agencies, and private organizations have been restoring large numbers of drained basins since the middle 1980's, mostly on private agricultural land (e.g., Madsen ...


The Role Of Climate And Mowing On Dickcissel (Spiza Americana) Movements, Distribution And Abundance, Lawrence D. Igl Jan 1991

The Role Of Climate And Mowing On Dickcissel (Spiza Americana) Movements, Distribution And Abundance, Lawrence D. Igl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Dickcissel (Spiza americana) is well known for its erratic, annual shifts in distribution and abundance and irruptive behavior on the breeding grounds. Annual fluctuations in the species' breeding range have been purported to be related to fluctuations in precipitation and its influence on annual vegetation growth (e.g., Roth 1979). A recent hypothesis suggests that mowing of hay fields in the center of the species' range also may contribute to opportunistic, drought-related movements to extralimital portions of the species' range (Mulvihi111989). Mowing seems to loosen or disrupt the between-year site faithfulness that characterizes relatively stable habitats. Low reproductive success ...


Comparative Ecology, Morphology, And Population Genetics Of Black Triggerfish, Melichthys Niger, Kathryn D. Kavanagh Jan 1991

Comparative Ecology, Morphology, And Population Genetics Of Black Triggerfish, Melichthys Niger, Kathryn D. Kavanagh

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


A Comparison Of Meristics And Morphometrics Between Two Strains Of Pond Cultured Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis), Steven Gornak Jan 1991

A Comparison Of Meristics And Morphometrics Between Two Strains Of Pond Cultured Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis), Steven Gornak

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Procedure For Creating Digital Baylor Coverages In Arc/Info, Gary F. Anderson, J. Berchman Smithson, Anna K. Kenne Jan 1991

Procedure For Creating Digital Baylor Coverages In Arc/Info, Gary F. Anderson, J. Berchman Smithson, Anna K. Kenne

Reports

Baylor Grounds were defined by a survey of the natural oyster beds in Virginia conducted by Lt. J.B. Baylor, USN, and completed in 1894. The original purpose of the survey was to set aside naturally productive oyster beds for protection from private leasing, which was a controversial concept at the time. Hence the commonly used term 'Baylor Grounds' is synonymous with Virginia's public oystering grounds in the present day. Other surveys, conducted later, have added to the original Baylor acreage, resulting in an estimated 243, 000 acres of public oyster grounds in Virginia. For further information on the ...