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Candida albicans

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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Telomeric And Sub-Telomeric Structure And Implications In Fungal Opportunistic Pathogens, Raffaella Diotti, Michelle Esposito, Chang Hui Shen Jun 2021

Telomeric And Sub-Telomeric Structure And Implications In Fungal Opportunistic Pathogens, Raffaella Diotti, Michelle Esposito, Chang Hui Shen

Publications and Research

Telomeres are long non-coding regions found at the ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes. Although they have traditionally been associated with the protection of linear DNA ends to avoid gene losses during each round of DNA replication, recent studies have demonstrated that the role of these sequences and their adjacent regions go beyond just protecting chromosomal ends. Regions nearby to telomeric sequences have now been identified as having increased variability in the form of duplications and rearrangements that result in new functional abilities and biodiversity. Furthermore, unique fungal telomeric and chromatin structures have now extended clinical capabilities and understanding of pathogenicity …


The Effects Of Farnesol, A Quorum Sensing Molecule From Candida Albicans, On Alcaligenes Faecalis, Savannah Hutson May 2020

The Effects Of Farnesol, A Quorum Sensing Molecule From Candida Albicans, On Alcaligenes Faecalis, Savannah Hutson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Quorum sensing molecules have become a recent focus of study to learn if and how they can be used, both on their own and in conjecture with current antimicrobial methods, as a means of bacterial control. One such quorum sensing molecule is the sesquiterpene alcohol, Farnesol, which is synthesized and released by the fungus, Candida albicans. In most in-vivo cases, our laboratory has shown that Alcaligenes faecalis overtakes C. albicans, preventing its growth. However, as a way to counteract this inhibitory effect, Farnesol may be one way that Candida has found to fight back. In this study, we …


Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling Apr 2020

Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Betaine lipids are a class of membrane lipids with betaine head groups. Three betaine lipids are known - diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (DGTS), diacylglycerylhydroxymethylalanine (DGTA), and diacylglycerylcarboxymethylcholine (DGCC). Betaine lipids are most common in algae, although DGTS, the most common betaine lipid, is also found in many bacteria and fungi. Organisms which produce betaine lipids (especially DGTS) often don’t produce phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and DGTS structure resembles PtdCho structure without any phosphorous, leading to the hypothesis that betaine lipids may substitute for phospholipids in some organisms. This has been confirmed by discoveries that some organisms are capable of switching their membrane composition from PtdCho …


Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke Aug 2016

Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular camouflage is used by a diverse set of pathogens to disguise their identity and avoid recognition by protective host receptors. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a good example, as it masks the inflammatory component β-glucan in its cell wall to evade detection by the immune receptor Dectin-1. Interestingly, it has been seen that β-glucan becomes unmasked during infection in vivo, though the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Exposure levels of this epitope may be important, as Dectin-1 mediates protection from some strains of C. albicans and alterations in the organization and composition of the Candida cell wall …


Identification Of Transcription Factors Gzf3, Rfx1, Orf19.3928 As Being Implicated In Candida-Bacterial Interactions., Joni Watson May 2015

Identification Of Transcription Factors Gzf3, Rfx1, Orf19.3928 As Being Implicated In Candida-Bacterial Interactions., Joni Watson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that is present in the normal flora in a majority of individuals. One key factor in C. albicans virulence is the ability to change its morphology from yeast to an elongated or hyphal form. The regulation of this morphogenesis relies in part upon quorum sensing (QS) molecules. C. albicans often exists as part of a mixed culture alongside other microbes and is influenced by their presence as well as the presence of QS molecules that they produce. In this study, a library of diploid homozygous transcriptional regulator knockout (TRKO) mutants were screened to identify …


Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen Dec 2013

Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Our research group is working toward the development of novel antifungal peptides based on a natural model of peptide histatin-5. Histatin-5 is found in human saliva and known to protect our body against oral infections by Candida species. Candidiasis, or an infection caused by Candida species, is considered one of the most medically important fungal infections worldwide. Blood stream infections caused by Candida species are the fourth leading cause of hospital-acquired fungal infections that is associated with high mortality rates and high costs of treatment. This study investigated the modes of action of histatin-5 with the use of one 16-mer …


Signal Transduction And Transcriptional Regulation Pathways Essential For Azole Resistance In Candida Albicans, Erin M. Vasicek Dec 2013

Signal Transduction And Transcriptional Regulation Pathways Essential For Azole Resistance In Candida Albicans, Erin M. Vasicek

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Candida albicans is the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, found as a commensal organism in the mucosa, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts of humans. This pathogenic fungus causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including the mucosal infection oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) which frequently effects patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The azole antifungals (such as fluconazole) are the most widely used and important ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) for the treatment of Candida infections, including OPC. However, the azoles are fungistatic against C. albicans and therefore have limited efficacy against this organism, especially for immunocompromised patients. In C. albicans, the transcription factor Upc2 …


The First Total Synthesis Of (±)-4-Methoxydecanoic Acid: A Novel Antifungal Fatty Acid, Nestor Carballeira, Carlos Miranda, Keykavous Parang Jan 2009

The First Total Synthesis Of (±)-4-Methoxydecanoic Acid: A Novel Antifungal Fatty Acid, Nestor Carballeira, Carlos Miranda, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The hitherto unknown (±)-4-methoxydecanoic acid was synthesized in six steps and in 25% overall yield starting from commercially available 4-penten-1-ol. The title compound demonstrated 17-fold higher antifungal activity (MIC = 1.5 mM) against Candida albicans ATCC 60193 and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 when compared to unsubstituted n-decanoic acid. Our results demonstrate that mid-chain methoxylation appears to be a viable strategy for increasing the fungitoxicity of fatty acids.


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa-Candida Albicans Interactions: Localization And Fungal Toxicity Of A Phenazine Derivative, Jane Gibson, Arpanah Sood, Deborah A. Hogan Nov 2008

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa-Candida Albicans Interactions: Localization And Fungal Toxicity Of A Phenazine Derivative, Jane Gibson, Arpanah Sood, Deborah A. Hogan

Dartmouth Scholarship

Phenazines are redox-active small molecules that play significant roles in the interactions between pseudomonads and diverse eukaryotes, including fungi. When Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were cocultured on solid medium, a red pigmentation developed that was dependent on P. aeruginosa phenazine biosynthetic genes. Through a genetic screen in combination with biochemical experiments, it was found that a P. aeruginosa-produced precursor to pyocyanin, proposed to be 5-methyl-phenazinium-1-carboxylate (5MPCA), was necessary for the formation of the red pigmentation. The 5MPCA-derived pigment was found to accumulate exclusively within fungal cells, where it retained the ability to be reversibly oxidized and reduced, and its …