Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Organisms Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 5 of 5

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Investigation Of Van Gogh-Like 2 Mrna Regulation And Localisation In Response To Nociception In The Brain Of Adult Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio), Siobhan C. Reilly, Anja Kipar, David J. Hughes, John P. Quinn, Andrew R. Cossins, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

Investigation Of Van Gogh-Like 2 Mrna Regulation And Localisation In Response To Nociception In The Brain Of Adult Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio), Siobhan C. Reilly, Anja Kipar, David J. Hughes, John P. Quinn, Andrew R. Cossins, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The Van Gogh-like 2 (vangl2) gene is typically associated with planar cell polarity pathways, which is essential for correct orientation of epithelial cells during development. The encoded protein of this gene is a transmembrane protein and is highly conserved through evolution. Van Gogh-like 2 was selected for further study on the basis of consistent regulation after a nociceptive stimulus in adult common carp and rainbow trout in a microarray study. An in situ hybridisation was conducted in the brain of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio), 1.5 and 3 h after a nociceptive stimulus comprising of an acetic acid injection to …


Characterisation Of Chemosensory Trigeminal Receptors In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss: Responses To Chemical Irritants And Carbon Dioxide, Jessica J. Mettam, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon Jul 2015

Characterisation Of Chemosensory Trigeminal Receptors In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss: Responses To Chemical Irritants And Carbon Dioxide, Jessica J. Mettam, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Trigeminally innervated, mechanically sensitive chemoreceptors (M) were previously identified in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but it is not known whether these receptors are responsive only to noxious, chemical irritants or have a general chemosensory function. This study aimed to characterise the stimulus–response properties of these receptors in comparison with polymodal nociceptors (P). Both P and M gave similar response profiles to acetic acid concentrations. The electrophysiological properties were similar between the two different afferent types. To determine whether the receptors have a nociceptive function, a range of chemical stimulants was applied to these receptors, including non-noxious stimuli such as ammonium …


The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon Jul 2015

The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Recent research has shown the possibility of pain perception in fish; therefore, the use of analgesia or “painkillers” should be considered for invasive procedures. However, there is relatively little information on the effectiveness of analgesic drugs nor on the appropriate dose for fish. This study assessed the efficacy of three types of drug: an opioid, buprenorphine, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), carprofen and a local anaesthetic, lidocaine. Each drug was tested at three doses on rainbow trout that were noxiously stimulated and the most effective dose was also given to fish experiencing no pain to investigate side-effects. Ventilation rate and …


Defining And Assessing Animal Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Robert W. Elwood, Shelley A. Adamo, Matthew C. Leach Jun 2015

Defining And Assessing Animal Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Robert W. Elwood, Shelley A. Adamo, Matthew C. Leach

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The detection and assessment of pain in animals is crucial to improving their welfare in a variety of contexts in which humans are ethically or legally bound to do so. Thus clear standards to judge whether pain is likely to occur in any animal species is vital to inform whether to alleviate pain or to drive the refinement of procedures to reduce invasiveness, thereby minimizing pain. We define two key concepts that can be used to evaluate the potential for pain in both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa. First, responses to noxious, potentially painful events should affect neurobiology, physiology and behaviour …


Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan Mar 2015

Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

While most people recognize that biomedical scientists are searching for knowledge that will improve the health of humans and animals, the image of someone deliberately causing harm to an animal in order to produce data that may lead to some future benefit has always prompted an uncomfortable reaction outside the laboratory. However, proponents of animal research have usually justified the practice by reference to greater benefits (new knowledge and medical treatments) over lesser costs (in animal suffering and death). Given that one of the costs of animal research is the suffering experienced by the animals, the goal of eliminating distress …