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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Photo-Identification Methods Reveal Seasonal And Long-Term Site-Fidelity Of Risso’S Dolphins (Grampus Griseus) In Shallow Waters (Cardigan Bay, Wales), Marijke N. De Boer, Josephine Clark, Mardik F. Leopold, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders Dec 2014

Photo-Identification Methods Reveal Seasonal And Long-Term Site-Fidelity Of Risso’S Dolphins (Grampus Griseus) In Shallow Waters (Cardigan Bay, Wales), Marijke N. De Boer, Josephine Clark, Mardik F. Leopold, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

A photo-identification study on Risso’s dolphins was carried out off Bardsey Island in Wales (July to September, 1997-2007). Their local abundance was estimated using two different analytical techniques: 1) mark-recapture of well-marked dolphins using a “closed-population” model; and 2) a census technique based on the total number of iden-tified individual dolphins sighted over the study period. The mark-recapture estimates of 121 (left sides; 64 - 178, 95% CI; CV 0.24) and 145 dolphins (right sides; 78 - 213, 95% CI; CV 0.24) closely matched the census technique estimates (population size of 90 - 151). It was found that the dolphins …


Volunteer Studies In Pain Research — Opportunities And Challenges To Replace Animal Experiments: The Report And Recommendations Of A Focus On Alternatives Workshop, C. K. Langley, Q. Aziz, C. Bountra, N. Gordon, P. Hawkins, A. Jones, G. Langley, T. Nurmikko, I. Tracey Nov 2014

Volunteer Studies In Pain Research — Opportunities And Challenges To Replace Animal Experiments: The Report And Recommendations Of A Focus On Alternatives Workshop, C. K. Langley, Q. Aziz, C. Bountra, N. Gordon, P. Hawkins, A. Jones, G. Langley, T. Nurmikko, I. Tracey

Gill Langley, PhD

Despite considerable research, effective and safe treatments for human pain disorders remain elusive. Understanding the biology of different human pain conditions and researching effective treatments continue to be dominated by animal models, some of which are of limited value. British and European legislation demands that non-animal approaches should be considered before embarking on research using experimental animals. Recent scientific and technical developments, particularly in human neuroimaging, offer the potential to replace some animal procedures in the study of human pain. A group of pain research experts from academia and industry met with the aim of exploring creatively the tools, strategies …


The Validity Of Animal Experiments In Medical Research, Gill Langley Nov 2014

The Validity Of Animal Experiments In Medical Research, Gill Langley

Gill Langley, PhD

Other animals, such as mice, rats, rabbits, dogs and monkeys, are widely used as surrogates for humans in fundamental medical research. This involves creating disorders in animals by chemical, surgical or genetic means, with the aim of mimicking selected aspects of human illnesses. It is a truism that any model or surrogate is not identical to the target being modelled. So, in medical research, experiments using animals or cell cultures or even healthy volunteers instead of patients (being the target population with the target illness) will inevitably have limitations, although these will be greater or lesser depending on the model.


Urban Wildlife Control: It Starts In Our Own Backyard, John Hadidian Aug 2014

Urban Wildlife Control: It Starts In Our Own Backyard, John Hadidian

John Hadidian, PhD

No abstract provided.


African Elephants Change Gaits When Walking Downhill, Robert H.I. Dale, Robert Warren, Brock Ward, Eric Noble Jun 2014

African Elephants Change Gaits When Walking Downhill, Robert H.I. Dale, Robert Warren, Brock Ward, Eric Noble

Robert H. I. Dale

Abstract from the International Elephant and Rhino Conservation and Research Symposium, Rotterdam, NL, October 10-14, 2011.


Calf Development: Most Births At Night, Robert H.I. Dale Jun 2014

Calf Development: Most Births At Night, Robert H.I. Dale

Robert H. I. Dale

For many years, field researchers studying both African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximas) elephants have indicated that they have observed relatively few births in situ, suggesting that most elephant dams give birth at night. For example, according to Cynthia Moss, "Possibly the majority of births occur at night and perhaps those that do take place in the daytime happen in secluded places" (1988, p. 151). Others, for example, Clive Spinage, have referred to "the old beliefs that the cows retreated to 'calving grounds' or that birth took place at night." (Spinage, 1994, p. 90). Although observers in several areas …


The Locomotor Kinematics Of Asian And African Elephants: Changes With Speed And Size, John R. Hutchinson, Delf Schwerda, Daniel J. Famini, Robert H.I. Dale, Martin S. Fischer, Rodger Kram Jun 2014

The Locomotor Kinematics Of Asian And African Elephants: Changes With Speed And Size, John R. Hutchinson, Delf Schwerda, Daniel J. Famini, Robert H.I. Dale, Martin S. Fischer, Rodger Kram

Robert H. I. Dale

For centuries, elephant locomotion has been a contentious and confusing challenge for locomotion scientists to understand, not only because of technical difficulties but also because elephant locomotion is in some ways atypical of more familiar quadrupedal gaits. We analyzed the locomotor kinematics of over 2400 strides from 14 African and 48 Asian elephant individuals (body mass 116-4632 kg) freely moving over ground at a 17-fold range of speeds, from slow walking at 0.40 m s-1 to the fastest reliably recorded speed for elephants, 6.8 m s-1. These data reveal that African and Asian elephants have some subtle differences in how …


A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur Jun 2014

A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur

Robert H. I. Dale

We used four surveys to collect information about the birth, physical growth, and behavioral development of 12 African elephant calves born in captivity. The management of the birth process and neonatal care involved a variety of standard procedures. All of the calves were born at night, between 7PM and 7AM. The calves showed a systematic progression in behavioral and physical development, attaining developmental milestones at least a quickly as calves in situ. This study emphasized birth-related events, changes in the ways that calves used their trunks, first instances of behaviors, and interactions of the calves with other, usually adult, elephants. …


Eavesdropping By Bats: The Influence Of Echolocation Call Design And Foraging Strategy, Jonathan Balcombe, M. Brock Fenton Jun 2014

Eavesdropping By Bats: The Influence Of Echolocation Call Design And Foraging Strategy, Jonathan Balcombe, M. Brock Fenton

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

We used playback presentations to free-flying bats of 3 species to assess the influence of echolocation call design and foraging strategy on the role of echolocation calls in communication. Near feeding sites over water, Myotis lucifugus and M. yumanensis responded positively only to echolocation calls of conspecifics. Near roosts, these bats did not respond before young of the year became volant, and after this responded to presentations of echolocation calls of similar and dissimilar design. At feeding sites Lasiurus borealis responded only to echolocation calls of conspecifics and particularly to "feeding buzzes". While Myotis, particularly subadults, appear to use the …


Vocal Recognition In Mexican Free-Tailed Bats: Do Pups Recognize Mothers?, Jonathan Balcombe, Gary F. Mccracken Jun 2014

Vocal Recognition In Mexican Free-Tailed Bats: Do Pups Recognize Mothers?, Jonathan Balcombe, Gary F. Mccracken

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

Mother Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, produce 'directive' calls while searching for pups inside cave maternity roosts. These calls consist of highly repetitive pulses of sound uttered in rapid sequence. Calls are sufficiently intense that they are perceptible above the substantial background noise within roosts at distances of at least 1m. Calls are stereotyped within individuals, and statistically discriminable between individuals. These characteristics are expected for vocalizations that function for mother-pup reunions, and are shared with directive calls described previously in other bats. Mother T. b. mexicana directive calls are statistically no less discriminable than are the isolation calls …


Vocal Recognition Of Pups By Mother Mexican Free-Tailed Bats, Tadarida Brasiliensis Mexicana, Jonathan P. Balcombe May 2014

Vocal Recognition Of Pups By Mother Mexican Free-Tailed Bats, Tadarida Brasiliensis Mexicana, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

The ability of Mexican free-tailed bat mothers and pups to recognize vocalizations of their presumptive kin (pup isolation calls and mother echolocation calls, respectively) was tested using playbacks of recorded calls. Captive individuals were presented with calls of two bats, one presumptive kin and the other a stranger, from opposite sides of a circular wire arena. Response was determined by amount of time spent on each side of the arena, time spent in contact with a cloth bat model in front of each speaker, and number of separate contacts with each model. For the latter two measures, mothers showed a …


T-61 Use In The Euthanasia Of Domestic Animals: A Survey, Andrew N. Rowan May 2014

T-61 Use In The Euthanasia Of Domestic Animals: A Survey, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

A variety of techniques have been proposed and employed for the killing of domestic animals but relatively few have survived as suitable agents for euthanasia-namely, the induction of painless, suffering-free death. Some agents, such as strychnine, curariform agents, or potassium salts cause suffering while others have other disadvantages. 'lbday, dogs and cats are commonly euthanatized with sodium pentobarbital or with T-61 which is a mixture of a central nervous system narcotic, a paralytic agent, and a local anesthetic. The use of T-61 was first reported in the United States in 1963 (Quin 1963). The substance gradually became more popular because …


Their Bugs Are Worse Than Their Bite: Emerging Infectious Disease And The Human-Animal Interface, Michael Greger May 2014

Their Bugs Are Worse Than Their Bite: Emerging Infectious Disease And The Human-Animal Interface, Michael Greger

Michael Greger, MD, FACLM

In the twenty-five years since that announcement, what we now know as AIDS has killed 20 million people (National AIDS Trust 2005). Where did the AIDS virus— and other emerging diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Ebola, mad cow— come from?


Trait Selection And Welfare Of Genetically Engineered Animals In Agriculture, Michael Greger May 2014

Trait Selection And Welfare Of Genetically Engineered Animals In Agriculture, Michael Greger

Michael Greger, MD, FACLM

The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the commercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in transgenic research, rather than on the health and welfare implications of the intended productivity enhancement. Unless breeding goals are redefined to reflect social concerns, the occurrence and magnitude of undesirable side effects may increase and consumer confidence in the nascent technology may be undermined.


The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson Apr 2014

The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anthropogenic forcing, such as ocean acidification caused by rising carbon dioxide emissions, and eutrophication due to increased nutrient loadings in run-off, are causing major changes to the biogeochemistry of the oceans. As a consequence, coastal phytoplankton are susceptible to altered biogeochemical environments. This study examined the effect of a lower pH and increased levels of nutrients on the common coastal harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Growth rates, maximal cell yields, neutral lipid accumulation and toxicity of cells grown under various pH and nutrients regimes were measured. H. akashiwo growth was near maximal when grown at lower pH levels. There was …


Territorial Aggression Increases Along An Urban Gradient In Resident But Not Migratory Song Sparrows, Darlene Turcotte Apr 2014

Territorial Aggression Increases Along An Urban Gradient In Resident But Not Migratory Song Sparrows, Darlene Turcotte

Honors College

During the breeding season, birds behave more aggressively toward rivals to maintain and defend territories. Resident birds are thought to be more aggressive than migratory birds because they need to maintain a territory year round. Furthermore, birds in urban environments can exhibit more aggressive behaviors than their rural counterparts because of the bolder behavioral characteristics required to colonize urban habitats. In this study, we investigated how migration strategy and landscape composition interact to affect territory defense in two subspecies of Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia). To evoke an aggressive response, we simulated invasions by broadcasting songs from within a …


Phages Of Non-Diary Lactococci: Isolation And Characterization Of Phi L47, A Phage Infecting The Grass Isolate Lactococcus Lactis Ssp Cremoris Dpc6860, Daniel Cavanagh, Caitríona M. Guinane, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, R. Paul Ross, Gerald F. Fitzgerald, Olivia Mcauliffe Jan 2014

Phages Of Non-Diary Lactococci: Isolation And Characterization Of Phi L47, A Phage Infecting The Grass Isolate Lactococcus Lactis Ssp Cremoris Dpc6860, Daniel Cavanagh, Caitríona M. Guinane, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, R. Paul Ross, Gerald F. Fitzgerald, Olivia Mcauliffe

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Lactococci isolated from non-dairy sources have been found to possess enhanced metabolic activity when compared to dairy strains. These capabilities may be harnessed through the use of these strains as starter or adjunct cultures to produce more diverse flavor profiles in cheese and other dairy products. To understand the interactions between these organisms and the phages that infect them, a number of phages were isolated against lactococcal strains of non-dairy origin. One such phage, ΦL47, was isolated from a sewage sample using the grass isolate L. lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860 as a host. Visualization of phage virions by transmission electron …


The Effects That Liquid And Solid Cattle Manure Have On The Water Quality Of Drainage Ditches In Putnam County, Ohio, Janelle Horstman Jan 2014

The Effects That Liquid And Solid Cattle Manure Have On The Water Quality Of Drainage Ditches In Putnam County, Ohio, Janelle Horstman

Honors Projects

Lake Erie has experienced harmful algal blooms with increased frequency since the mid-1990s due to excess nutrients from Rivers, such as the Maumee River, and largely agricultural watersheds. Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture contributes to eutrophication, algal blooms, and the degradation of water quality. This creates stress on aquatic fauna, reduced aesthetic quality, odor, and limits of the water for usage of drinking, recreation, and industry. This research paper asks what the contributions of having access to manure application records, soil records, and information about antibiotics have on what is known about manure management and antibiotic resistance, which has been …


Parent-Metabolite Pharmacokinetic Models For Tramadol – Tests Of Assumptions And Predictions, Sam Holford, Karel Allegaert, Brian J. Anderson, Butch Kukanich, Altamir B. Sousa, Amir Steinman, Bruno Pypendop, Reza Mehvar, Mario Giorgi, Nick Holford Jan 2014

Parent-Metabolite Pharmacokinetic Models For Tramadol – Tests Of Assumptions And Predictions, Sam Holford, Karel Allegaert, Brian J. Anderson, Butch Kukanich, Altamir B. Sousa, Amir Steinman, Bruno Pypendop, Reza Mehvar, Mario Giorgi, Nick Holford

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Allometric principles were used to discern cross-species differences in (±)-tramadol disposition and formation of its primary analgesic metabolite, (±)-O-desmethyl-tramadol (M1). Species differences in formation of M1 may help predict the analgesic effectiveness of tramadol. Tramadol was administered intravenously by a zero-order (constant infusion) process or rapid bolus dose and racemic concentrations of tramadol and M1 measured. Data were pooled to define differences between species (human, rat, cat, dog, goat, donkey and horse). A two-compartment linear disposition model with first-order elimination was used to describe tramadol and M1 disposition. Slow metabolizers were detected in 6% of the population and tramadol clearance …


Connecting Model Species To Nature: Predator-Induced Long-Term Sensitization In Aplysia Californica, Maria J. Mason, Amanda J. Watkins, Jordann Wakabayashi, Jennifer Buechler, Christine Pepino, Michelle Brown, William G. Wright Jan 2014

Connecting Model Species To Nature: Predator-Induced Long-Term Sensitization In Aplysia Californica, Maria J. Mason, Amanda J. Watkins, Jordann Wakabayashi, Jennifer Buechler, Christine Pepino, Michelle Brown, William G. Wright

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Previous research on sensitization in Aplysia was based entirely on unnatural noxious stimuli, usually electric shock, until our laboratory found that a natural noxious stimulus, a single sublethal lobster attack, causes short-term sensitization. We here extend that finding by demonstrating that multiple lobster attacks induce long-term sensitization (>= 24 h) as well as similar, although not identical, neuronal correlates as observed after electric shock. Together these findings establish long-and short-term sensitization caused by sublethal predator attack as a natural equivalent to sensitization caused by artificial stimuli.