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Theses/Dissertations

2022

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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Effects Of Red Light Intensity On Cultivation & Oxygen Production In Arthrospira Plantensis, Abigail Roberts Dec 2022

Effects Of Red Light Intensity On Cultivation & Oxygen Production In Arthrospira Plantensis, Abigail Roberts

Honors Theses

Maintaining life sustaining resources during long-term space travel has encouraged scientists to turn their attention to the potential benefits of a cyanobacteria named Arthrospira platensis, commonly known as Spirulina algae. This experiment measures the oxygen production and cell population growth of two structurally different Spirulina cultures under two different levels of red light intensities, 8 µmol/m 2Js (high); 3 µmol/m2/s (low). The cell population, oxygen produced, and oxygen produced per cell measurements were observed and recorded at three 24 hour intervals. It was found there was not a significant difference between high and low light intensities when considering the cell …


Effects Of Red Light Intensity On Cultivation And Oxygen Production In Arthrospira Platensis, Abigail Roberts Dec 2022

Effects Of Red Light Intensity On Cultivation And Oxygen Production In Arthrospira Platensis, Abigail Roberts

Honors Theses

Maintaining life sustaining resources during long-term space travel has encouraged scientists to turn their attention to the potential benefits of a cyanobacteria named Arthrospira platensis, commonly known as Spirulina algae. This experiment measures the oxygen production and cell population growth of two structurally different Spirulina cultures under two different levels of red light intensities, 8 µmol/m2/s (high); 3 µmol/m2/s (low). The cell population, oxygen produced, and oxygen produced per cell measurements were observed and recorded at three 24 hour intervals. It was found there was not a significant difference between high and low light intensities when considering the cell concentration …


The Effects Of Light Intensity And Cell Structure On The Cultivation Of Arthrospira Platensis, Taylor Barnhart Dec 2022

The Effects Of Light Intensity And Cell Structure On The Cultivation Of Arthrospira Platensis, Taylor Barnhart

Honors Theses

As scientists explore further into space, more cost-effective resources are needed for long-term space travel. An interesting solution is Arthrospira platensis, a filamentous cyanobacteria high in proteins and nutrients, and known for its helical structure. In unfavorable conditions, coiled spirulina cells become straight. Spirulina converts carbon dioxide gas into pure oxygen and the different cell structures stimulate different responses in oxygen production and cultivation. In these experiments, 2.3 L containers of pure coiled spirulina and mixed (coiled and straight) spirulina were placed into 3 incubators with different light intensities: 51µmol/m2/s, 25µmol/m2/s, 12µmol/m2/s. Each experiment length was 72 hours and the …


Exploring The Effects Of Fatty Acids (Pufas) On The Antimicrobial Resistance In Vibrio Cholerae, Naina Patel Dec 2022

Exploring The Effects Of Fatty Acids (Pufas) On The Antimicrobial Resistance In Vibrio Cholerae, Naina Patel

Honors Theses

As antibiotic resistance becomes a major challenge for public health professionals, our research objectives aimed to investigate the potential for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to create membrane vulnerability in the gram-negative pathogen Vibrio cholerae to help improve the efficacy of several antibiotics. V. cholerae, normally residing in aquatic environments, is capable of altering its phospholipid composition through the uptake and assimilation of exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to measure PUFA-mediated changes in the membrane permeability and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae. The three physiologically relevant PUFAs used were linoleic acid [18:2], arachidonic acid [20:4], and …


Dpc29 Promotes Mitochondrial Translation Post-Initation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kyle Andrew Hubble Dec 2022

Dpc29 Promotes Mitochondrial Translation Post-Initation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kyle Andrew Hubble

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Although the cytosolic and bacterial translation systems are well studied, much less is known about translation in mitochondria. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mitochondrial gene expression is predominately regulated by translational activators. These regulators are thought to promote translation by binding the elongated 5’-UTRs on their target mRNAs. Since mammalian mitochondrial mRNAs generally lack 5’-UTRs, they must regulate translation by other mechanisms. As expected, most yeast translational activators lack orthologues in mammals. Recently, a mitochondrial gene-specific translational activator, TACO1, was reported in mice and humans. To better define its role in mitochondrial translation I examined the yeast TACO1 orthologue, DPC29. …


Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina Oct 2022

Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina

Masters Theses

Human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, and head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have been hematophagous ectoparasites of humans for thousands of years. Despite being ecotypes, only body lice are known to transmit bacterial diseases to humans, and it appears that lower humoral and cellular immune responses allow body lice to possess a higher vector competence. We previously observed that the transcription level of the defensin 1 gene was up-regulated only in head lice following oral challenge of Bartonella quintana, a causative agent of trench fever, and also that body lice excreted more viable B. quintana in their …


A Paraventricular Thalamo-Accumbal Circuit Necessary For Behavioral Inhibition Is Dysfunctional During Opioid Use And Dependence, Kelsey M. Vollmer Sep 2022

A Paraventricular Thalamo-Accumbal Circuit Necessary For Behavioral Inhibition Is Dysfunctional During Opioid Use And Dependence, Kelsey M. Vollmer

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Suppression of dangerous or inappropriate reward-motivated behaviors is critical for survival, whereas therapeutic or recreational opioid use can unleash detrimental behaviors and opioid use disorder (OUD). Nevertheless, the neuronal systems that suppress maladaptive motivated behaviors remain unclear, and whether opioids disengage those systems is unknown. Here, we investigate the posterior paraventricular thalamus (pPVT) as a behavioral mediator due to its strong connectivity with brain structures important for reward processing, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We and others have found pPVT-NAc neuronal activity is inhibited during reward seeking, but activated when such behaviors would be inappropriate, such as during stress …


Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac Jul 2022

Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) to the adaptive immune system is crucial for mounting sterilizing immune responses. This central role has made antigen presentation a target for antagonism by many pathogens. Notably, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) decrease MHC II expression in several immune cells. The mechanisms responsible for this suppression are unknown but involves either redirecting MHC II molecules away from the cell surface or inhibiting MHC II expression. To understand how pathogens manipulate intracellular MHC II trafficking, we first investigated the role of the Golgi trafficking regulator, ERC1, in …


Tracking The Source Of Helicobacter Pylori In Watersheds Of San Juan, Puerto Rico, Mary Elizabeth Sailors Jul 2022

Tracking The Source Of Helicobacter Pylori In Watersheds Of San Juan, Puerto Rico, Mary Elizabeth Sailors

Biology Theses

Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacterium that infects more than half of the world’s population. The large number of H. pylori infections in Puerto Rico could be related to the waterborne transmission of the pathogen. While the San Juan Bay Estuary (SJBE) system is home to over three million people, water quality studies in this area of Puerto Rico are lacking. The goal of this study is to determine seasonal and yearly (2020-2021) shifts and relationships between the presence of H. pylori and host-specific (human and dog) Bacteroides in streams that flow through the northern coastal zone of Puerto Rico …


Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer May 2022

Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Drug resistant microbes are a considerable challenge for modern medicine to overcome. The research described in this dissertation involved development of lipid flippase inhibitors and investigating their potential as antimicrobial agents against various drug resistant microbes. The microbes primarily investigated were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) & Cryptococcus neoformans. Chapter 1 reviews the historical perspective and summarizes the current state of the field of research. In Chapter 2, the design space of an antimicrobial peptide known as humimycin was explored and the effects of modifications on its structure were observed against MRSA. Several key observations resulted. Most notably, the …


How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan May 2022

How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan

Master's Projects and Capstones

Mosquitos, the most lethal species throughout human history, are the most prevalent source of vector-borne diseases and therefore a major global health burden. Mosquito-borne disease incidence is expected to shift with environmental change. These changes can be predicted using species distribution models. With the wide variety of methods used for models, consensus for improving accuracy and comparability is needed. A comparative analysis of three recent modeling approaches revealed that integrating modeling techniques compensates for trade-offs associated with a singular approach. An area that represents a critical gap in our ability to predict mosquito behavior in response to changing climate factors, …


Quantifying The Degree Of Programmed Cell Death In The Central Nervous System Among Different Genotypes Of The Drosophila Melanogaster, Radha Awasthi May 2022

Quantifying The Degree Of Programmed Cell Death In The Central Nervous System Among Different Genotypes Of The Drosophila Melanogaster, Radha Awasthi

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff May 2022

Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff

Honors Theses

Bacteriophages are a possible solution to antibiotic resistance, which is predicted to be detrimental world-wide by the year 2050. Personal field research was also conducted for a project studying the characteristics of two bacteriophages on a single bacterial host.


Investigation On Bacterial Signaling Through Generation Of A Ppgpp Biosensor, Andrew Robinson May 2022

Investigation On Bacterial Signaling Through Generation Of A Ppgpp Biosensor, Andrew Robinson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is a bacterial signaling molecule involved in activating the stringent response, a cellular reaction to environmental stress that downregulates cell division and metabolism processes to conserve nutrients. The stringent response is implicated in some instances of antibiotic persistence, so broadening the current understanding of ppGpp signaling is useful. This thesis seeks to generate a ppGpp biosensor that will bind ppGpp and emit fluorescent light in its presence, which will allow for improved research into the pathways and functions of the signaling molecule. To generate a novel ppGpp biosensor, I converted a biosensor previously used to detect cyclic …


Cyclic-Di-Gmp-Binding Proteins Regulate Acinetobacter Baumannii Motility, Gabriel Smith May 2022

Cyclic-Di-Gmp-Binding Proteins Regulate Acinetobacter Baumannii Motility, Gabriel Smith

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Acinetobacter baumannii is a prevalent nosocomial pathogen where, like many other infectious bacteria, A. baumannii is increasingly considered a multi-drug resistant pathogen. This research study was designed to find a way to affect the persistence of A. baumannii such that it can be applied to a hospital setting to prevent further nosocomial infections. One regulatory mechanism potentially used by A. baumannii to persist on hospital surfaces is through the use of the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP). This nucleotide signal is regulated in response to environmental conditions, and then activates c-di-GMP-binding proteins that induce phenotypic changes. One c-di-GMP-regulated phenotype is …


Cannabinoids And Retinal Fibrotic Disorders., Lucy June Sloan May 2022

Cannabinoids And Retinal Fibrotic Disorders., Lucy June Sloan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Retinal fibrosis is detrimental to vision. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells contribute to several retinal fibrotic diseases. Upon exposure to TGF-β, a key fibrotic cytokine, RPE cells trans-differentiate to myofibroblasts marked by the integration of α-SMA fibers into F-actin stress fibers, which confer strong contractility. Myofibroblasts produce and contract the collagen-rich fibrotic scar and disrupt retinal architecture. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects of the putative endocannabinoid compound N-oleoyl dopamine (OLDA) on TGF-β2 induced porcine RPE cell contraction and α-SMA expression. Using an in vitro collagen matrix contraction assay, we found that OLDA inhibited TGF-β2 induced contraction …


Diversity Of Bacteriophage In Burkholderia Species, Abigail Price Apr 2022

Diversity Of Bacteriophage In Burkholderia Species, Abigail Price

Honors Projects

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria and offer the potential of a therapeutic alternative to chronic infections that do not respond to antibiotic-based therapies. B. vietnamiensis is one of a number of Burkholderia species involved with chronic drug resistant infections in the lungs of individuals with compromised respiratory systems, as found in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, most especially, are of particular significance in patients with cystic fibrosis. The diversity of the Burkholderia species is explored by using online databases and looking at bacteriophage or phage-encoding viruses found in B. vietnamiensis. The open reading frames …


Implementing Educational Initiatives To Decrease Contamination And Costs In The Blood Culture Specimen Collection Process, Hannah M. Mcguire Jan 2022

Implementing Educational Initiatives To Decrease Contamination And Costs In The Blood Culture Specimen Collection Process, Hannah M. Mcguire

Master's Theses and Capstones

Background: The diagnosis of sepsis in a patient presenting with symptoms includes the collection of blood cultures which identifies the presence of specific infectious agents. The culture result will identify the organism as well as report sensitivity to various antimicrobial agents to allow the healthcare provider to determine the specific set of treatments, specifically antibiotics, that will be included in the medication regimen in combating the infection. When blood specimens become contaminated in the collection process, it hinders the success of rapidly treating these patients as repeat cultures will likely need to be completed for accurate treatment. This becomes a …


Increasing Staff Compliance With Routine Hcv Screening And Improving Linkage To Care Among Patients Testing Hepatitis C Positive In The Emergency Department, Carson G. Swartz Jan 2022

Increasing Staff Compliance With Routine Hcv Screening And Improving Linkage To Care Among Patients Testing Hepatitis C Positive In The Emergency Department, Carson G. Swartz

DNP Projects

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen that can cause severe liver disease, cancer, and death and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Several academic medical centers including University of Kentucky Healthcare have implemented routine HCV screening for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) and have discovered a large viral burden amongst patients who are often symptomatic.

Purpose: The purpose of this doctoral project is to increase staff compliance, confidence, and education regarding the HCV screening process in an urban, Level I emergency department, as well as to evaluate whether an …


Effectiveness Of Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid In Acute Peritonitis Treatment: A Murine Surgical Study, Benjamin Michael Pomeroy Jan 2022

Effectiveness Of Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid In Acute Peritonitis Treatment: A Murine Surgical Study, Benjamin Michael Pomeroy

MSU Graduate Theses

Peritonitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the mesothelial cells that line the peritoneal cavity and is commonly induced by bowel perforations. This medical emergency is treated through antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention followed by tissue irrigation (lavage). Acute treatments aim to remove the bacterial burden, however recurring peritoneal infections occur at high rates and contribute to patient morbidity. These recurring infections are likely due to the inability of lavage solutions to remove the entire massive intra-abdominal bacterial load due to intestinal perforation. Numerous antiseptic solutions and antibiotic additives have been evaluated in their ability to improve source control by abdominal …


The Influence Of Hydrogen Peroxide On The Enrichment Of Fe(Iii) Reducing Bacteria From Acid Mine Drainage, Susami Seth Jan 2022

The Influence Of Hydrogen Peroxide On The Enrichment Of Fe(Iii) Reducing Bacteria From Acid Mine Drainage, Susami Seth

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

It is hypothesized that the ocean of Europa, a Jupiter moon, hosts bacteria on its oceanic floor. Understanding how Fe(III) reducing bacteria (FeRB) from AMD utilize organic materials within its surrounding environment outlines how FeRB could thrive and tolerate extreme conditions. FeRB are known to tolerate metals and highly reactive oxidants species (ROS), but in this experiment, H2O2 was the experimental factor to further test FeRB tolerance. H2O2 is a common ROS and is damaging to living material such as proteins, DNA, and RNA. A range of H2O2 concentrations were fed …


An Antimicrobial Polydopamine Surface Coating To Reduce Biofouling On Telemetry Tags Used In Marine Conservation Practices, Ariana Smies Jan 2022

An Antimicrobial Polydopamine Surface Coating To Reduce Biofouling On Telemetry Tags Used In Marine Conservation Practices, Ariana Smies

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Satellite telemetry tags are used to track the migration patterns of large cetaceans. These tags penetrate the dermis and remain embedded in the underlying blubber tissue. As the dermis of cetaceans is host to a diverse microbiome, and it is impossible to clean the skin before implanting the devices, the potential for infection is increased when the tags penetrate through the skin. H2O2 is a potential antimicrobial agent that, in addition to showing broad-spectrum efficacy against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, can promote wound healing outcomes by promoting proliferative factors and peptides that protect against oxidative stress. However, …


Examining The Pulmonary Response To Repeated Vishniacozyma Victoriae Exposure And Its Association With Allergic Airway Disease, Rachael Erin Rush Jan 2022

Examining The Pulmonary Response To Repeated Vishniacozyma Victoriae Exposure And Its Association With Allergic Airway Disease, Rachael Erin Rush

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Allergic airway diseases such as asthma continue to increase in incidence in industrialized nations like the United States. These diseases are complex inflammatory processes involving numerous cells and mediators and are strongly influenced by fungal exposures. Recent developments in fungal detection methods have highlighted the contribution of Basidiomycota yeast species in indoor environments such as Vishniacozyma (syn. Cryptococcus) victoriae. However, despite the high levels of this yeast detected in indoor environments, very little is known about it or its role in respiratory morbidity. V. victoriae is phylogenetically similar to pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans but lacks a capsule and is …