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2023

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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Determinants Of Immunization In Polio Super High-Risk Union Councils Of Pakistan, Ahmad Khan, Imtiaz Hussain, Dale A. Rhoda, Muhammad Umer, Uzair Ansari, Imran Ahmed, Caitlin Clary, Rana Muhammad Safdar, Sajid Bashir Soofi Dec 2023

Determinants Of Immunization In Polio Super High-Risk Union Councils Of Pakistan, Ahmad Khan, Imtiaz Hussain, Dale A. Rhoda, Muhammad Umer, Uzair Ansari, Imran Ahmed, Caitlin Clary, Rana Muhammad Safdar, Sajid Bashir Soofi

Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health

Background: The current polio epidemiology in Pakistan poses a unique challenge for global eradication as the country is affected by ongoing endemic poliovirus transmission. Across the country, 40 union councils (UCs) which serve as core reservoirs for poliovirus with continuous incidences of polio cases are categorized as super-high-risk union councils (SHRUCs).
Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 39 SHRUCs using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. 6,976 children aged 12-23 months were covered. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using STATA version 17.
Results: Based on both vaccination records and recall, 48.3% of children …


How Megadrought Causes Extensive Mortality In A Deep-Rooted Shrub Species Normally Resistant To Drought-Induced Dieback: The Role Of A Biotic Mortality Agent, Natalie M. Aguirre, Marissa E. Ochoa, Helen I. Holmlund, Gabriella N. Palmeri, Emily R. Lancaster, Gina S. Gilderman, Shaquetta R. Taylor, Kaitlyn E. Sauer, Adriana J. Borges, Avery N.D. Lamb, Sarah B. Jacques, Frank W. Ewers, Stephen D. Davis Nov 2023

How Megadrought Causes Extensive Mortality In A Deep-Rooted Shrub Species Normally Resistant To Drought-Induced Dieback: The Role Of A Biotic Mortality Agent, Natalie M. Aguirre, Marissa E. Ochoa, Helen I. Holmlund, Gabriella N. Palmeri, Emily R. Lancaster, Gina S. Gilderman, Shaquetta R. Taylor, Kaitlyn E. Sauer, Adriana J. Borges, Avery N.D. Lamb, Sarah B. Jacques, Frank W. Ewers, Stephen D. Davis

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Southern California experienced unprecedented megadrought between 2012 and 2018. During this time, Malosma laurina, a chaparral species normally resilient to single-year intense drought, developed extensive mortality exceeding 60% throughout low-elevation coastal populations of the Santa Monica Mountains. We assessed the physiological mechanisms by which the advent of megadrought predisposed M. laurina to extensive shoot dieback and whole-plant death. We found that hydraulic conductance of stem xylem (Ks, native) was reduced seven to 11-fold in dieback adult and resprout branches, respectively. Staining of stem xylem vessels revealed that dieback plants experienced 68% solid-blockage, explaining the reduction in water transport. Following Koch's …


Bilateral Interstitial Keratitis Following Covid-19: A Case Report, Nathalie D. Daher, Zeba A. Syed Oct 2023

Bilateral Interstitial Keratitis Following Covid-19: A Case Report, Nathalie D. Daher, Zeba A. Syed

Wills Eye Hospital Papers

BACKGROUND: Although the primary target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the respiratory tract, the expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in other tissues facilitates viral entry in others parts of the body, including ocular structures. Ocular manifestations may occur before, during, or after systemic infection.

CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 60-year-old male who presented with bilateral interstitial keratitis after the onset of COVID-19, with ocular symptoms starting within 7 days after systemic symptoms. Laboratory investigation did not identify any alternative etiology for his disease, although the possibility of Epstein-Barr virus or herpes simpex …


Molecular Characterization Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Causing Disease Among Children In Nigeria During The Introduction Of Pcv10 (Gsk), Stephanie W. Lo, Paulina A. Hawkins, Binta Jibir, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Mahmoud Gambo, Rasaq Olaosebikan, Grace Olanipekun, Huda Munir, Nicholas Kocmich, Amy Rezac-Elgohary, Safiya Gambo, Danstan Bagenda, Paul Fey, Robert F. Breiman, Lesley Mcgee, Stephen D. Bentley, Stephen K. Obaro, Community Acquired Pneumonia And Invasive Bacterial Disease Capibd Consortium Sep 2023

Molecular Characterization Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Causing Disease Among Children In Nigeria During The Introduction Of Pcv10 (Gsk), Stephanie W. Lo, Paulina A. Hawkins, Binta Jibir, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Mahmoud Gambo, Rasaq Olaosebikan, Grace Olanipekun, Huda Munir, Nicholas Kocmich, Amy Rezac-Elgohary, Safiya Gambo, Danstan Bagenda, Paul Fey, Robert F. Breiman, Lesley Mcgee, Stephen D. Bentley, Stephen K. Obaro, Community Acquired Pneumonia And Invasive Bacterial Disease Capibd Consortium

Student Papers, Posters & Projects

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading vaccine-preventable cause of childhood invasive disease. Nigeria has the second highest pneumococcal disease burden globally, with an estimated ~49 000 child deaths caused by pneumococcal infections each year. Ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (GSK; PCV10) was introduced in December 2014 in a phased approach. However, few studies have characterized the disease-causing pneumococci from Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence of serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility and genomic lineages using whole genome sequencing and identified lineages that could potentially escape PCV10 (GSK). We also investigated the potential differences in pneumococcal lineage features between children with and without sickle …


Isolated Cerebral Mucormycosis And Aspergillosis Coinfection In An Immunocompromised Adult, George Sun, Allison Weiss, Joy Zhao, Mitchell Silver, Michael Demaio, Sara Dehbashi Aug 2023

Isolated Cerebral Mucormycosis And Aspergillosis Coinfection In An Immunocompromised Adult, George Sun, Allison Weiss, Joy Zhao, Mitchell Silver, Michael Demaio, Sara Dehbashi

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Opportunistic fungal infections are a major cause of mortality in immunosuppressed patients, with mucormycosis and aspergillosis as two of the most commonly identified fungal organisms. Coinfection with mucormycosis and aspergillosis is rare, but cases have been reported in literature, most commonly presenting as disseminated invasive fungal infection with cerebrorhino-orbital involvement in an immunocompromised patient. Infections are most commonly caused by direct implantation of spores with localised angioinvasion. Haematogenous spread is rare, with most cases secondary to haematological malignancies or intravenous drug use. Coinfection with mucormycosis and aspergillosis portends a poor prognosis, with a high mortality rate. Thus, prompt recognition and …


Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman Aug 2023

Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), a type of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), poses a risk for pulmonary infections and disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Conventional treatment consists of a 12-month regimen of the first-line antibiotics rifampicin and azithromycin. However, the treatment duration and low antibiotic tolerability present challenges in the treatment of M. avium infection. Furthermore, the emergence of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium strains prompts a need for novel treatments against M. avium infection. This study aims to test the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial peptide, cyclic [R4W4], alongside the first-line antibiotics azithromycin and rifampicin in reducing M. avium survival. Colony-forming unit (CFU) …


Profiling And Verifying The Substrates Of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rsp5 In Yeast Cells, Shuai Fang, Geng Chen, Yiyang Wang, Rakhee Ganti, Tatiana A Chernova, Li Zhou, Savannah E Jacobs, Duc Duong, Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Yury O Chernoff, Ming Li, Natalia Shcherbik, Bo Zhao, Jun Yin Aug 2023

Profiling And Verifying The Substrates Of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rsp5 In Yeast Cells, Shuai Fang, Geng Chen, Yiyang Wang, Rakhee Ganti, Tatiana A Chernova, Li Zhou, Savannah E Jacobs, Duc Duong, Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Yury O Chernoff, Ming Li, Natalia Shcherbik, Bo Zhao, Jun Yin

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Yeast is an essential model organism for studying protein ubiquitination pathways; however, identifying the direct substrates of E3 in the cell presents a challenge. Here, we present a protocol for using the orthogonal ubiquitin transfer (OUT) cascade to profile the substrate specificity of yeast E3 Rsp5. We describe steps for OUT profiling, proteomics analysis, in vitro and in cell ubiquitination, and stability assay. The protocol can be adapted for identifying and verifying the ubiquitination targets of other E3s in yeast. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Wang et al.


Impacts Of A Duf2207 Family Protein On Streptococcus Mutans Stress Tolerance Responses And Biofilm Formation, Xiaochang Huang, Camile G. Laird, Paul P. Riley, Zezhang Tom Wen Aug 2023

Impacts Of A Duf2207 Family Protein On Streptococcus Mutans Stress Tolerance Responses And Biofilm Formation, Xiaochang Huang, Camile G. Laird, Paul P. Riley, Zezhang Tom Wen

School of Dentistry Faculty Publications

Locus SMU.243 in Streptococcus mutans was annotated as a member of the DUF2207 family proteins highly conserved in all bacteria but with unknown function. To investigate its role in S. mutans physiology, a SMU.243-deficient mutant was constructed using allelic exchange mutagenesis, and the impacts of SMU.243 deletion on bacterial growth, stress tolerance response, and biofilm formation were analyzed. Compared to the wild-type UA159, S. mutans lacking SMU.243 displayed a reduced growth rate and a reduced overnight culture density (p < 0.01) when grown at low pH and in the presence of methyl viologen. Relative to the parent strain, the deficient mutant also had a reduced survival rate following incubation in a buffer of pH 2.8 (p < 0.01) and in a buffer containing hydrogen peroxide at 58 mM after 60 min (p < 0.001) and had a reduced capacity in biofilm formation especially in the presence of sucrose (p < 0.01). To study any ensuing functional/phenotypical links between SMU.243 and uppP, which is located immediately downstream of SMU.243 and encodes an undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase involved in recycling of carrier lipid undecaprenyl phosphate, a uppP deficient mutant was generated using allelic exchange mutagenesis. Unlike the SMU.243 mutant, deletion of uppP affected cell envelope biogenesis and caused major increases in susceptibility to bacitracin. In addition, two variant morphological mutants, one forming rough colonies and the other forming mucoid, smooth colonies, also emerged following the deletion of uppP. The results suggest that the SMU.243-encoded protein of the DUF2207 family in S. mutans plays an important role in stress tolerance response and biofilm formation, but unlike the downstream uppP, does not seem to be involved in cell envelope biogenesis, although the exact roles in S. mutans’ physiology awaits further investigation.


Outpatient Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing And Treatment Patterns In The United States: A Real-World Database Study, Rebecca Lillis, Louis Kuritzky, Zune Huynh, Rodney Arcenas, Avneet Hansra, Roma Shah, Baiyu Yang, Stephanie N. Taylor Jul 2023

Outpatient Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing And Treatment Patterns In The United States: A Real-World Database Study, Rebecca Lillis, Louis Kuritzky, Zune Huynh, Rodney Arcenas, Avneet Hansra, Roma Shah, Baiyu Yang, Stephanie N. Taylor

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States. Because symptoms of these infections often overlap with other urogenital infections, misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment can occur unless appropriate STI diagnostic testing is performed in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to describe STI diagnostic testing and antimicrobial treatment patterns and trends among adolescent and adult men and women with lower genitourinary tract symptoms (LGUTS). Methods: We analyzed insurance claims data from the IBM® MarketScan® Research Databases. Patients included were between 14 and 64 years old with …


Time Is Ticking For Cervical Cancer, Vijay Kumar, Caitlin Bauer, John H. Stewart Jun 2023

Time Is Ticking For Cervical Cancer, Vijay Kumar, Caitlin Bauer, John H. Stewart

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Cervical cancer (CC) is a major health problem among reproductive-age females and comprises a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor associated with CC incidence. However, lifestyle is also a critical factor in CC pathogenesis. Despite HPV vaccination introduction, the incidence of CC is increasing worldwide. Therefore, it becomes critical to understand the CC tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) to develop immune cell-based vaccination and immunotherapeutic approaches. The current article discusses the immune environment in the normal cervix of adult females and its role in HPV infection. The subsequent sections discuss the alteration of different …


Equine Polyclonal Antibodies Prevent Acute Chikungunya Virus Infection In Mice, Douglas Barker, Xiaobing Han, Eryu Wang, Ashley Dagley, Deborah M. Anderson, Aruni Jha, Scott C. Weaver, Justin Julander, Cory Nykiforuk, Shantha Kodihalli Jun 2023

Equine Polyclonal Antibodies Prevent Acute Chikungunya Virus Infection In Mice, Douglas Barker, Xiaobing Han, Eryu Wang, Ashley Dagley, Deborah M. Anderson, Aruni Jha, Scott C. Weaver, Justin Julander, Cory Nykiforuk, Shantha Kodihalli

Office of Research Faculty and Staff Publications

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted pathogen that causes chikungunya disease (CHIK); the disease is characterized by fever, muscle ache, rash, and arthralgia. This arthralgia can be debilitating and long-lasting, seriously impacting quality of life for years. Currently, there is no specific therapy available for CHIKV infection. We have developed a despeciated equine polyclonal antibody (CHIKV-EIG) treatment against CHIKV and evaluated its protective efficacy in mouse models of CHIKV infection. In immunocompromised (IFNAR−/−) mice infected with CHIKV, daily treatment for five consecutive days with CHIKV-EIG administered at 100 mg/kg starting on the day of infection prevented mortality, reduced …


Cyclic Peptides With Antifungal Properties Derived From Bacteria, Fungi, Plants, And Synthetic Sources, Naiera M. Helmy, Keykavous Parang Jun 2023

Cyclic Peptides With Antifungal Properties Derived From Bacteria, Fungi, Plants, And Synthetic Sources, Naiera M. Helmy, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Fungal infections remain a significant concern for human health. The emergence of microbial resistance, the improper use of antimicrobial drugs, and the need for fewer toxic antifungal treatments in immunocompromised patients have sparked substantial interest in antifungal research. Cyclic peptides, classified as antifungal peptides, have been in development as potential antifungal agents since 1948. In recent years, there has been growing attention from the scientific community to explore cyclic peptides as a promising strategy for combating antifungal infections caused by pathogenic fungi. The identification of antifungal cyclic peptides from various sources has been possible due to the widespread interest in …


Mirnas Signature As Potential Biomarkers For Cervical Precancerous Lesions In Human Papillomavirus Positive Women, Martha I. González-Ramírez, Yurley T. Cardona, María C. Agudelo, Carolina López, Juan J. Florez-Acosta, Samuel Agudelo-Gamboa, Jone Garai, Li Li, Carlos A. Orozco-Castaño, Jovanny Zabaleta, Gloria I. Sánchez Jun 2023

Mirnas Signature As Potential Biomarkers For Cervical Precancerous Lesions In Human Papillomavirus Positive Women, Martha I. González-Ramírez, Yurley T. Cardona, María C. Agudelo, Carolina López, Juan J. Florez-Acosta, Samuel Agudelo-Gamboa, Jone Garai, Li Li, Carlos A. Orozco-Castaño, Jovanny Zabaleta, Gloria I. Sánchez

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Biomarkers to identify women at risk of cervical cancer among those with high-risk HPV infection (hrHPV+) are needed. Deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to hrHPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis. We aimed at identifying miRNAs with the capacity to distinguish high (CIN2+) and low (≤ CIN1) grade cervical lesions. We sequenced miRNA libraries from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissues from women with CIN2+ (n = 10) and age-matched women with ≤ CIN1 (n = 10), randomly and retrospectively selected from a trial that followed women for 24 months after a hrHPV+ test at the screening visit. Five miRNAs differentially expressed were validated by …


Species Delineation And Comparative Genomics Within The Campylobacter Ureolyticus Complex, Joel J Maki, Mondraya Howard, Sara Connelly, Matthew Pettengill, Dwight J Hardy, Andrew Cameron May 2023

Species Delineation And Comparative Genomics Within The Campylobacter Ureolyticus Complex, Joel J Maki, Mondraya Howard, Sara Connelly, Matthew Pettengill, Dwight J Hardy, Andrew Cameron

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Campylobacter ureolyticus is an emerging pathogen increasingly appreciated as a common cause of gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections in humans. Outside the setting of gastroenteritis, little work has been done to describe the genomic content and relatedness of the species, especially regarding clinical isolates. We reviewed the epidemiology of clinical C. ureolyticus cultured by our institution over the past 10 years. Fifty-one unique C. ureolyticus isolates were identified between January 2010 and August 2022, mostly originating from abscesses and blood cultures. To clarify the taxonomic relationships between isolates and to attribute specific genes with different clinical manifestations, we sequenced 19 available …


Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield May 2023

Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield

Honors Scholar Theses

Antibiotic treatment failure is a public health crisis, with a 2019 report stating that roughly 35,000 deaths occur in the United States yearly due to bacterial infections that are unresponsive to antibiotics (1). One complication in the treatment of bacterial infection is antibiotic persistence which further compromises our battle to effectively treat infection. Bacterial persisters can exist in clonal bacterial cultures and can tolerate antibiotic treatment by undergoing reversible phenotypic changes. They can survive drug concentrations that their genetically identical kin cannot. Some persisters remain in a slow growing state and are difficult to target with current antibiotics. A specific …


Echinomycin As A Promising Therapeutic Agent Against Kshv-Related Malignancies, Jungang Chen, Zhen Lin, Jiao Song, Karlie Plaisance-Bonstaff, Jennifer James, Shengyu Mu, Steven R. Post, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin May 2023

Echinomycin As A Promising Therapeutic Agent Against Kshv-Related Malignancies, Jungang Chen, Zhen Lin, Jiao Song, Karlie Plaisance-Bonstaff, Jennifer James, Shengyu Mu, Steven R. Post, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several human cancers, including Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which preferentially arise in immunocompromised patients while lack of effective therapeutic options. Oncoproteins Myc and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) have been found closely related to KSHV infection, replication and oncogenesis. However, the strategies of dual targeting these two oncoproteins have never been developed and tested for treatments of KSHV-related malignancies. In the current study, we report that treatment of echinomycin dramatically regresses cell growth both in vitro-cultured KSHV + tumor cells and in vivo KS or PEL xenograft mice models, …


A Dna-Peptide Crosslink (Dpc) Increases Mutagenicity In Sos-Induced Escherichia Coli, Alessandra Bassani May 2023

A Dna-Peptide Crosslink (Dpc) Increases Mutagenicity In Sos-Induced Escherichia Coli, Alessandra Bassani

Honors Scholar Theses

Bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, have an inducible system in response to DNA damage termed the SOS response. This system is activated when the replicative DNA polymerase (Pol) III encounters a lesion, uncouples from DNA helicase, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) accumulates at the replication fork. In this study, we investigated DNA-peptide crosslink (DpC), a common lesion that results from cross-linking of proteins or peptides, UV irradiation, and alkylating agents. To increase survival following formation of a lesion, the SOS response can utilize homologous recombination, translesion synthesis (TLS), or excision repair. With TLS, the levels of DNA Pol II, IV, …


Independent Effects Of Hiv And Antiretroviral Therapy On The Oral Microbiome Identified By Multivariate Analyses, Clifford J. Beall, Elizabeth A. Lilly, Carolina Granada, Kelly Treas, Kenneth R. Dubois, Shahr B. Hashmi, Jose A. Vazquez, Michael E. Hagensee, Ann L. Griffen, Eugene J. Leys, Paul L. Fidel Apr 2023

Independent Effects Of Hiv And Antiretroviral Therapy On The Oral Microbiome Identified By Multivariate Analyses, Clifford J. Beall, Elizabeth A. Lilly, Carolina Granada, Kelly Treas, Kenneth R. Dubois, Shahr B. Hashmi, Jose A. Vazquez, Michael E. Hagensee, Ann L. Griffen, Eugene J. Leys, Paul L. Fidel

School of Dentistry Faculty Publications

The oral microbiome is an important predictor of health and disease. We recently reported significant yet modest effects of HIV under highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the oral microbiome (bacterial and fungal) in a large cohort of HIV-positive (HIV+) and matched HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals. As it was unclear whether ART added to or masked further effects of HIV on the oral microbiome, the present study aimed to analyze the effects of HIV and ART independently, which also included HIV- subjects on preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) therapy. Cross-sectional analyses of the effect of HIV devoid of ART (HIV+ ART- versus matched …


Benthic Beasts: The Ecological Significance Of Lake Sturgeon And Blue Catfish In Eastern Appalachian Waterways, Stewart Thacker Apr 2023

Benthic Beasts: The Ecological Significance Of Lake Sturgeon And Blue Catfish In Eastern Appalachian Waterways, Stewart Thacker

Research Day

East Tennessee freshwater ecosystems comprise an abundance of an extremely diverse selection of species. This presentation examines Acipenser fulvescens and Ictalurus furcatus, two of the largest freshwater fish in the Appalachian area, which play significant ecological roles within the benthic dimension of our freshwater environments. Commonly known as “bottom-feeders,” Benthivorous species enjoy a broad range of food sources including other fish, detritus, crustaceans, and more. The extensive variety of food consumed by A. fulvescens and I. furcatus permits population control of other, denser, aquatic populations inhabiting other regions of the water column, as well as other organisms included …


Facile Green Synthesis Of Cinnamomum Tamala Extract Capped Silver Nanoparticles And Its Biological Applications, Sajina Narath, S. Sharath Shankar, Saranya Kothaplamoottil Sivan, Bini George, T. Dennis Thomas, Sankarannair Sabarinath, Sajithkumar K. Jayaprakash, Stanisław Wacławek, Vinod V.T. Padil Apr 2023

Facile Green Synthesis Of Cinnamomum Tamala Extract Capped Silver Nanoparticles And Its Biological Applications, Sajina Narath, S. Sharath Shankar, Saranya Kothaplamoottil Sivan, Bini George, T. Dennis Thomas, Sankarannair Sabarinath, Sajithkumar K. Jayaprakash, Stanisław Wacławek, Vinod V.T. Padil

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

The plant mediated biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles is of magnificent concern due to its eco-benign and single pot nature. Here, Cinnamomum tamala (C. tamala) aqueous leaf extract was utilised for the silver nanoparticles’ (Ag NPs) synthesis. The phytoconstituents in the leaf extract were analysed by standard methods. These metabolites, especially carbohydrate polymers reduce Ag ions to Ag NPs accompanied by a reddish-brown coloration of the reaction mixture. The visual observation of intense brown colour is the first indication of the formation of Ag NPs. Various spectro-analytical techniques further characterise the Ag NPs. The green synthesised spherical Ag NPs were crystalline …


Moerv14 Mediates The Intracellular Transport Of Cell Membrane Receptors To Govern The Appressorial Formation And Pathogenicity Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Bin Qian, Xiaotong Su, Ziyuan Ye, Xinyu Liu, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang Apr 2023

Moerv14 Mediates The Intracellular Transport Of Cell Membrane Receptors To Govern The Appressorial Formation And Pathogenicity Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Bin Qian, Xiaotong Su, Ziyuan Ye, Xinyu Liu, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blasts posing serious threats to food security worldwide. During infection, M. oryzae utilizes several transmembrane receptor proteins that sense cell surface cues to induce highly specialized infectious structures called appressoria. However, little is known about the mechanisms of intracellular receptor tracking and their function. Here, we described that disrupting the coat protein complex II (COPII) cargo protein MoErv14 severely affects appressorium formation and pathogenicity as the ΔMoerv14 mutant is defective not only in cAMP production but also in the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MoPmk1. Studies also showed that either externally supplementing cAMP or …


Prevalence Of Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies In Liberty University Student Population, Emily Bonus Apr 2023

Prevalence Of Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies In Liberty University Student Population, Emily Bonus

Senior Honors Theses

In 2020, the virus SARS-CoV-2 gained attention as it spread around the world. Its antibodies are poorly understood, and little research focuses on those with few COVID-19 complications yet large numbers of close contacts: university students. This longitudinal study recorded SARS-CoV-2 antibody presence in 107 undergraduate Liberty University students twice during early 2021. After extensive data cleaning and the application of various statistical tests and ANOVAs, the data seems to show that in the case of COVID-19 infections, SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies are immediately produced, and then IgG antibodies follow later. However, the COVID-19 vaccine causes the production of both IgM …


Decoupling Body Shape And Mass Distribution In Birds And Their Dinosaurian Ancestors, Sophie Macaulay, Tatjana Hoehfurtner, Samuel R.R. Cross, Ryan D. Marek, John R. Hutchinson, Emma R. Schachner, Alice E. Maher, Karl T. Bates Mar 2023

Decoupling Body Shape And Mass Distribution In Birds And Their Dinosaurian Ancestors, Sophie Macaulay, Tatjana Hoehfurtner, Samuel R.R. Cross, Ryan D. Marek, John R. Hutchinson, Emma R. Schachner, Alice E. Maher, Karl T. Bates

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

It is accepted that non-avian theropod dinosaurs, with their long muscular tails and small forelimbs, had a centre-of-mass close to the hip, while extant birds, with their reduced tails and enlarged wings have their mass centred more cranially. Transition between these states is considered crucial to two key innovations in the avian locomotor system: crouched bipedalism and powered flight. Here we use image-based models to challenge this dichotomy. Rather than a phylogenetic distinction between ‘dinosaurian’ and ‘avian’ conditions, we find terrestrial versus volant taxa occupy distinct regions of centre-of-mass morphospace consistent with the disparate demands of terrestrial bipedalism and flight. …


Topical Anesthetic Gel Interferes With Antibacterial Efficacy Of Povidone-Iodine Both In Vitro And In Vivo, Cecilly Kelleher Bs, Jacob Im Md, Linda Kang Bs, Aleksey Mishulin Md, Sukhvinder Singh Phd, Ashok Kumar Phd Mar 2023

Topical Anesthetic Gel Interferes With Antibacterial Efficacy Of Povidone-Iodine Both In Vitro And In Vivo, Cecilly Kelleher Bs, Jacob Im Md, Linda Kang Bs, Aleksey Mishulin Md, Sukhvinder Singh Phd, Ashok Kumar Phd

Medical Student Research Symposium

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of viscous lidocaine gel on the antimicrobial efficacy of povidone-iodine (PI) and their order of application in both in vitro and in vivo models.

Methods: In vitro antibacterial effects were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with disc diffusion methods for application of lidocaine alone, PI alone, PI before lidocaine, and lidocaine before PI. Zones of inhibition were measured after incubation at 37°C overnight. Mouse eyes were colonized with S. aureus for in vivo study to which PI and/or lidocaine were applied in various combinations. Eyes were then rinsed with saline, and …


Longitudinal Ultrasound Imaging And Network Modeling In Rats Reveal Sex-Dependent Suppression Of Liver Regeneration After Resection In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Benjamin K. Barnhart, Toshiki Kan, Ankita Srivastava, Corinne E. Wessner, John Waters, Manju Ambelil, John R. Eisenbrey, Jan B. Hoek, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli Mar 2023

Longitudinal Ultrasound Imaging And Network Modeling In Rats Reveal Sex-Dependent Suppression Of Liver Regeneration After Resection In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Benjamin K. Barnhart, Toshiki Kan, Ankita Srivastava, Corinne E. Wessner, John Waters, Manju Ambelil, John R. Eisenbrey, Jan B. Hoek, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Liver resection is an important surgical technique in the treatment of cancers and transplantation. We used ultrasound imaging to study the dynamics of liver regeneration following two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx) in male and female rats fed via Lieber-deCarli liquid diet protocol of ethanol or isocaloric control or chow for 5–7 weeks. Ethanol-fed male rats did not recover liver volume to the pre-surgery levels over the course of 2 weeks after surgery. By contrast, ethanol-fed female rats as well as controls of both sexes showed normal volume recovery. Contrary to expectations, transient increases in both portal and hepatic artery blood flow …


Dpc29 Promotes Post-Initiation Mitochondrial Translation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kyle A. Hubble, Michael F. Henry Feb 2023

Dpc29 Promotes Post-Initiation Mitochondrial Translation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kyle A. Hubble, Michael F. Henry

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Mitochondrial ribosomes synthesize essential components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in a tightly regulated process. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mitochondrial mRNAs require specific translational activators, which orchestrate protein synthesis by recognition of their target gene's 5'-untranslated region (UTR). Most of these yeast genes lack orthologues in mammals, and only one such gene-specific translational activator has been proposed in humans-TACO1. The mechanism by which TACO1 acts is unclear because mammalian mitochondrial mRNAs do not have significant 5'-UTRs, and therefore must promote translation by alternative mechanisms. In this study, we examined the role of the TACO1 orthologue in yeast. We …


Endogenous Mirna-Based Innate-Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2 Invasion Of The Brain, Walter J. Lukiw, Aileen I. Pogue Feb 2023

Endogenous Mirna-Based Innate-Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2 Invasion Of The Brain, Walter J. Lukiw, Aileen I. Pogue

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, possesses an unusually large positive-sense, single-stranded viral RNA (ssvRNA) genome of about ~29,903 nucleotides (nt). In many respects, this ssvRNA resembles a very large, polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA) possessing a 5′-methyl cap (m7GpppN), a 3′- and 5′-untranslated region (3′-UTR, 5′-UTR), and a poly-adenylated (poly-A+) tail. As such, the SARS-CoV-2 ssvRNA is susceptible to targeting by small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) and/or microRNA (miRNA), as well as neutralization and/or inhibition of its infectivity via the human body’s natural complement of about ~2650 miRNA species. Depending on host cell and tissue …


Implementation Of Mrsa Nasal Swabs As An Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention To Decrease Anti-Mrsa Therapy In Covid-19 Infection, Alaina Dekerlegand, Emily Johnston, Britney Mellor, Melanie Rae Schrack, Catherine O’Neal Jan 2023

Implementation Of Mrsa Nasal Swabs As An Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention To Decrease Anti-Mrsa Therapy In Covid-19 Infection, Alaina Dekerlegand, Emily Johnston, Britney Mellor, Melanie Rae Schrack, Catherine O’Neal

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

In the early stages of treating patients with SARS-CoV-2, limited information was available to guide antimicrobial stewardship interventions. The COVID-19 Task Force and Antimicrobial Stewardship Committee, at a 988-bed academic medical center, implemented the use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing to assist with the de-escalation of anti-MRSA therapy in patients with suspected superimposed bacterial pneumonia in COVID-19. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the impact of MRSA nasal swab PCR testing on the rate of anti-MRSA therapy between 13 April 2020 and 26 July 2020. A total of 122 patients were included …


Population Genomics Of Australian Indigenous Mesorhizobium Reveals Diverse Nonsymbiotic Genospecies Capable Of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbioses Following Horizontal Gene Transfer, Elena Colombi, Yvette Hill, Rose Lines, John T. Sullivan, Maclean G. Kohlmeier, Claus T. Christophersen, Clive W. Ronson, Jason J. Terpolilli, Joshua P. Ramsay Jan 2023

Population Genomics Of Australian Indigenous Mesorhizobium Reveals Diverse Nonsymbiotic Genospecies Capable Of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbioses Following Horizontal Gene Transfer, Elena Colombi, Yvette Hill, Rose Lines, John T. Sullivan, Maclean G. Kohlmeier, Claus T. Christophersen, Clive W. Ronson, Jason J. Terpolilli, Joshua P. Ramsay

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Mesorhizobia are soil bacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with various legumes. Novel symbiotic mesorhizobia frequently evolve following horizontal transfer of symbiosis-gene-carrying integrative and conjugative elements (ICESyms) to indigenous mesorhizobia in soils. Evolved symbionts exhibit a wide range in symbiotic effectiveness, with some fixing nitrogen poorly or not at all. Little is known about the genetic diversity and symbiotic potential of indigenous soil mesorhizobia prior to ICESym acquisition. Here we sequenced genomes of 144 Mesorhizobium spp. strains cultured directly from cultivated and uncultivated Australian soils. Of these, 126 lacked symbiosis genes. The only isolated symbiotic strains were either exotic strains used …


Examining The Effect Of Varying Dilutions Of Octopamine On The Gut Microbiome Of Lab-Raised And Wild Acheta Domesticus By Brandon Nelson University Of Puget Sound Biology, Brandon Nelson Jan 2023

Examining The Effect Of Varying Dilutions Of Octopamine On The Gut Microbiome Of Lab-Raised And Wild Acheta Domesticus By Brandon Nelson University Of Puget Sound Biology, Brandon Nelson

Summer Research

For my research I am comparing the gut microbiome of lab raised A. Domesticus that are given various levels of Octopamine, a stress hormone, and comparing that to the gut microbiome of wild cricket types. Crickets are a widely used organism across the world for various experiments as both subject and feed. Knowing how the gut microbiome of these crickets is affected by various levels of stress will allow us to better take care of these crickets. This could also help us determine if there are any diseases that lab raised crickets may be susceptible to. A large part of …