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2018

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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams Dec 2018

Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2016 to 2019

Background: Chest physical examination techniques are taught in academia, but their usefulness in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients in the clinical setting is controversial. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of physical examination techniques and their reliability in diagnosing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and suggest a modified teaching approach to be used in academia. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Database search of PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms “prediction of pneumonia in adults” and “prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates.” Filters were implemented to include articles that only dealt with human subjects and were full text. Articles …


A Two Compartment Pharmacokinetic Model Describes The Intra‐Articular Delivery And Retention Of Rhprg4 Following Acl Transection In The Yucatan Mini Pig, Mark Hurtig, Iman Zaghoul, Heather Sheardown, Tannin A. Schmidt, Lina Liu, Ling Zhang, Khaled A. Elsaid, Gregory D. Jay Nov 2018

A Two Compartment Pharmacokinetic Model Describes The Intra‐Articular Delivery And Retention Of Rhprg4 Following Acl Transection In The Yucatan Mini Pig, Mark Hurtig, Iman Zaghoul, Heather Sheardown, Tannin A. Schmidt, Lina Liu, Ling Zhang, Khaled A. Elsaid, Gregory D. Jay

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Treatment of the injured joint with rhPRG4 is based on recent observations that inflammation diminishes expression of native PRG4. Re‐establishing lubrication between pressurized and sliding cartilage surfaces during locomotion promotes the nascent expression of PRG4 and thus intra‐articular (IA) treatment strategies should be supported by pharmacokinetic evidence establishing the residence time of rhPRG4. A total of 21 Yucatan minipigs weighing ∼55 Kg each received 4 mg of 131I‐rhPRG4 delivered by IA injection 5 days following surgical ACL transection. Animals were sequentially euthanized following IA rhPRG4 at 10 mins (time zero), 24, 72 hrs, 6, 13 and 20 days later. The …


No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König Nov 2018

No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

When infected, animals change their behaviors in several ways, including by decreasing their activity, their food and water intake, and their interest in social interactions. These behavioral alterations are collectively called sickness behaviors and, for several decades, the main hypotheses put forward to explain this phenomenon were that engaging in sickness behaviors facilitated the fever response and improved the likelihood of host survival. However, a new hypothesis was recently proposed suggesting that engaging in sickness behaviors may serve to protect kin. We tested this kin protection hypothesis by combining a field and a laboratory experiment in house mice. In both …


Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar Nov 2018

Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to compare the enzymatic kinetics and distribution of cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) among different rat brain subcellular fractions.

Rat brains were used to prepare total membrane, crude mitochondrial, purified mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions, in addition to total homogenate. Michaelis–Menten kinetics of the brain CYP2D activity was estimated based on the conversion of dextromethorphan (DXM) to dextrorphan using UPLC-MS/MS. Protein levels of CYP2D and subcellular markers were determined by Western blot.

Microsomal CYP2D exhibited high affinity and low capacity, compared with the mitochondrial CYP2D that had a much lower (∼50-fold) affinity but a higher (∼six-fold) …


Repeat Elements Organise 3d Genome Structure And Mediate Transcription In The Filamentous Fungus Epichloë Festucae, David J. Winter, Austen R. D. Ganley, Carolyn A. Young, Ivan Liachko, Christopher L. Schardl, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Daniel Berry, Arvina Ram, Barry Scott, Murray P. Cox Oct 2018

Repeat Elements Organise 3d Genome Structure And Mediate Transcription In The Filamentous Fungus Epichloë Festucae, David J. Winter, Austen R. D. Ganley, Carolyn A. Young, Ivan Liachko, Christopher L. Schardl, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Daniel Berry, Arvina Ram, Barry Scott, Murray P. Cox

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Structural features of genomes, including the three-dimensional arrangement of DNA in the nucleus, are increasingly seen as key contributors to the regulation of gene expression. However, studies on how genome structure and nuclear organisation influence transcription have so far been limited to a handful of model species. This narrow focus limits our ability to draw general conclusions about the ways in which three-dimensional structures are encoded, and to integrate information from three-dimensional data to address a broader gamut of biological questions. Here, we generate a complete and gapless genome sequence for the filamentous fungus, Epichloë festucae. We use Hi-C …


Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund Oct 2018

Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

LSAMP Poster Presentations

Antibiotics can leave the host gut microbiome susceptible to Clostridioides [Clostridium] difficile colonization and lethal toxin production. For instance, clindamycin-induced susceptibility to C. difficile infection (CDI) results in rapid fatality in hamster models, yet vancomycin has been shown to offer increased survival in hamsters challenged with C. difficile. We aim to develop an antibiotic treatment that will facilitate CDI susceptibility without prompt fatality in hamster models. An antibiotic regimen starting with a continuous vancomycin treatment along with a single clindamycin dosage is thought to reduce the major disruption in the indigenous gut microbiome and prevent clindamycin-induced death. …


Nocardia Brasiliensis Infection After Hurricane Irma: Two Case Reports, Sarah Al-Obaydi Md, James Demaio, Nemer Dabage Md Oct 2018

Nocardia Brasiliensis Infection After Hurricane Irma: Two Case Reports, Sarah Al-Obaydi Md, James Demaio, Nemer Dabage Md

Infectious Disease

Background: Although an increase in skin and soft tissue infections has been well documented after natural disasters, cases of Nocardia brasiliensis infection have not been included in prior reports. We present two cases of N. brasiliensis lymphadenitis that occurred in Manatee County, Florida after Hurricane Irma.

Methods: Case 1-A 75 year old immune competent male may have injured his arm while retrieving a golf ball approximately four weeks after Hurricane Irma. Ten days later he presented to the hospital with an abscess on his left forearm and a lymphadenitis extending nearly to the axilla. Despite treatment with vancomycin, the lymph …


Adapting Cell-Free Protein Synthesis As A Platform Technology For Education, Grace W. Chu, Max Z. Levine, Nicole E. Gregorio, Javin P. Oza Oct 2018

Adapting Cell-Free Protein Synthesis As A Platform Technology For Education, Grace W. Chu, Max Z. Levine, Nicole E. Gregorio, Javin P. Oza

STAR Program Research Presentations

Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as an enabling biotechnology for research and biomanufacturing as it allows for the production of protein without the need for a living cell. Applications of CFPS include the construction of libraries for functional genomics and structural biology, the production of personalized medicine, and the expression of virus-like particles. The absence of a cell wall provides an open platform for direct manipulation of the reaction conditions and biological machinery. This project focuses on adapting the CFPS biotechnology to the classroom, making a hands-on bioengineering approach to learning protein synthesis accessible to students grades K-16 through …


Iac Gene Expression In The Indole-3-Acetic Acid-Degrading Soil Bacterium Enterobacter Soli Lf7, Isaac V. Greenhut, Beryl L. Slezak, Johan H. J. Leveau Oct 2018

Iac Gene Expression In The Indole-3-Acetic Acid-Degrading Soil Bacterium Enterobacter Soli Lf7, Isaac V. Greenhut, Beryl L. Slezak, Johan H. J. Leveau

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

We show for soil bacterium Enterobacter soli LF7 that the possession of an indole-3-acetic acid catabolic (iac) gene cluster is causatively linked to the ability to utilize the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as a carbon and energy source. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling by mRNA sequencing revealed that these iac genes, chromosomally arranged as iacHABICDEFG and coding for the transformation of IAA to catechol, were the most highly induced (>29-fold) among the relatively few (iac cluster were genes for a major facilitator superfamily protein (mfs) and enzymes of the β-ketoadipate pathway (pcaIJD-catBCA), which channels …


Implementing Strategies To Reduce Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections On An Inpatient Pediatric Unit, Sherryann St. Pierre, Nicole Manchester, Jessica Howe, Melanie Lord, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks, Barbara Bush Children's Hospital Oct 2018

Implementing Strategies To Reduce Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections On An Inpatient Pediatric Unit, Sherryann St. Pierre, Nicole Manchester, Jessica Howe, Melanie Lord, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks, Barbara Bush Children's Hospital

Operational Transformation

STRATEGIES TO REDUCE CENTRAL LINE ASSOCIATED BLOODSTREAM INFECTIONS

Every central line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) leads to poor outcomes, increased mortality and increased healthcare costs. A pediatric care team in an academic tertiary medical center set a goal to reduce the number of these infections on their unit.

The team’s research showed that daily bathing greatly decreases CLABSI. Their baseline metrics demonstrated an unacceptable level of those with central lines being bathed. A root cause analysis revealed that patient and family refusal was the leading cause for those who did not bathe.

A performance improvement plan was initiated that consisted …


Capsid Structure Of Dsrna Fungal Viruses, Daniel Luque, Carlos P. Mata, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, José R. Castón Sep 2018

Capsid Structure Of Dsrna Fungal Viruses, Daniel Luque, Carlos P. Mata, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, José R. Castón

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Most fungal, double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses lack an extracellular life cycle stage and are transmitted by cytoplasmic interchange. dsRNA mycovirus capsids are based on a 120-subunit T = 1 capsid, with a dimer as the asymmetric unit. These capsids, which remain structurally undisturbed throughout the viral cycle, nevertheless, are dynamic particles involved in the organization of the viral genome and the viral polymerase necessary for RNA synthesis. The atomic structure of the T = 1 capsids of four mycoviruses was resolved: the L-A virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScV-L-A), Penicillium chrysogenum virus (PcV), Penicillium stoloniferum virus F (PsV-F), and Rosellinia necatrix …


Future Warming And Acidification Result In Multiple Ecological Impacts To A Temperate Coralline Alga, Megan J. Huggett, Kathryn Mcmahon, Rachele Bernasconi Aug 2018

Future Warming And Acidification Result In Multiple Ecological Impacts To A Temperate Coralline Alga, Megan J. Huggett, Kathryn Mcmahon, Rachele Bernasconi

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Coralline algae are a crucial component of reef systems, stabilising reef substrate, providing habitat and contributing to accretion. Coralline algae and their surface microbial biofilms are also important as settlement cues for marine invertebrates, yet few studies address the impact of future environmental conditions on interactions between coralline algae, reef microbes and settlement by larvae of marine invertebrates. We exposed the temperate coralline algal species Amphiroa gracilis to warming and/or acidification scenarios for 21 days. Algae became bleached but photosystem II function was not measurably impacted. Settlement by larvae of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma was reduced and the structure …


Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus NPro Suppresses Type I Interferon Pathway Signaling In Bovine Cells And Augments Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif Jul 2018

Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus NPro Suppresses Type I Interferon Pathway Signaling In Bovine Cells And Augments Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif

School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infections contribute to the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which is a multi-factorial disorder involving co-infections of viruses and bacteria including mycoplasma. BRDC causes great economic losses to the United States feedlot industry. BVDV infection induces immunosuppression in infected animals. BVDV Npro binds and degrades the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) and effectively blocks type I interferon (type I IFN) expression in host cells. BRSV nonstructural proteins, NS1 and NS2, block activation of IRF-3. In calves, concurrent infection with BVDV and BRSV resulted in more severe clinical signs …


Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo Jun 2018

Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Virus particles protect genomes from hostile environments within and outside the host, eventually delivering these genomes to target tissues to initiate infection. Complex processes requiring significant energy and time are necessary to assemble these virus particles, but only a small portion of released virus will successfully infect new target cells (Fig 1A). While the science of virology has developed based on the isolation and purification of viral particles, it is becoming increasingly clear that direct cell-to-cell transmission of viruses and/or viral components is also highly relevant [1,2].

Direct cell-to-cell spread of infections has several advantages. The first is efficiency: genomic …


Snf1 Cooperates With The Cwi Mapk Pathway To Mediate The Degradation Of Med13 Following Oxidative Stress, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, Kai Li Ong, Ravina Shah, Alexandra K. Strich, Julianne H Grose, Katrina F Cooper Jun 2018

Snf1 Cooperates With The Cwi Mapk Pathway To Mediate The Degradation Of Med13 Following Oxidative Stress, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, Kai Li Ong, Ravina Shah, Alexandra K. Strich, Julianne H Grose, Katrina F Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Eukaryotic cells, when faced with unfavorable environmental conditions, mount either pro-survival or pro-death programs. The conserved cyclin C-Cdk8 kinase plays a key role in this decision. Both are members of the Cdk8 kinase module that, along with Med12 and Med13, associate with the core Mediator complex of RNA polymerase II. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, oxidative stress triggers Med13 destruction, which releases cyclin C into the cytoplasm to promote mitochondrial fission and programmed cell death. The SCFGrr1 ubiquitin ligase mediates Med13 degradation dependent on the cell wall integrity pathway, MAPK Slt2. Here we show that the AMP kinase Snf1 activates a second …


Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson Jun 2018

Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The SpoVG protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds to specific sites of DNA and RNA. The bacterium regulates transcription of spoVG during the natural tick-mammal infectious cycle and in response to some changes in culture conditions. Bacterial levels of spoVG mRNA and SpoVG protein did not necessarily correlate, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms also control protein levels. Consistent with this, SpoVG binds to its own mRNA, adjacent to the ribosome-binding site. SpoVG also binds to two DNA sites in the glpFKD operon and to two RNA sites in glpFKD mRNA; that operon encodes genes necessary for glycerol catabolism …


What We Do Not Know About Fungal Cell Adhesion Molecules, Peter N. Lipke May 2018

What We Do Not Know About Fungal Cell Adhesion Molecules, Peter N. Lipke

Publications and Research

There has been extensive research on structure and function of fungal cell adhesion molecules, but the most of the work has been about adhesins in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These yeasts are members of a single ascomycete order, and adhesion molecules from the six other fungal phyla are only sparsely described in the literature. In these other phyla, most of the research is at the cellular level, rather than at the molecular level, so there has been little characterization of the adhesion molecules themselves. A catalog of known adhesins shows some common features: high Ser/Thr content, tandem repeats, N- …


Deletion Of Endo-Β-1,4-Xylanase Vmxyl1 Impacts The Virulence Of Valsa Mali In Apple Tree, Chunlei Yu, Ting Li, Xiangpeng Shi, Muhammad Saleem, Baohua Li, Wenxing Liang, Caixia Wang May 2018

Deletion Of Endo-Β-1,4-Xylanase Vmxyl1 Impacts The Virulence Of Valsa Mali In Apple Tree, Chunlei Yu, Ting Li, Xiangpeng Shi, Muhammad Saleem, Baohua Li, Wenxing Liang, Caixia Wang

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Valsa mali, a parasitic fungus, is a destructive pathogen of apple tree that causes heavy economic losses in China. The pathogen secretes various cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs) that degrade plant cell-wall components, and thus facilitate its entry into host cells. Therefore, functional analysis of the genes encoding CWDEs is necessary to understand virulence of V. mali toward apple tree. Here, we identified and cloned an endo-β-1,4-xylanase gene, VmXyl1 in V. mali. The full-length cDNA of VmXyl1 is 1626 bp containing 5′- and 3′-non-coding regions, as well an open reading frame of 1320 bp that encodes a protein with …


Ictv Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hypoviridae, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, Kook-Hyung Kim, Michael Pearson, Shin-Yi L. Marzano, Hajime Yaegashi, Jiatao Xie, Lihua Guo, Hideki Kondo, Igor Koloniuk, Bradley I. Hillman, Ictv Report Consortium May 2018

Ictv Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hypoviridae, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, Kook-Hyung Kim, Michael Pearson, Shin-Yi L. Marzano, Hajime Yaegashi, Jiatao Xie, Lihua Guo, Hideki Kondo, Igor Koloniuk, Bradley I. Hillman, Ictv Report Consortium

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

The Hypoviridae, comprising one genus, Hypovirus, is a family of capsidless viruses with positive-sense, ssRNA genomes of 9.1–12.7 kb that possess either a single large ORF or two ORFs. The ORFs appear to be translated from genomic RNA by non-canonical mechanisms, i.e. internal ribosome entry site-mediated and stop/restart translation. Hypoviruses have been detected in ascomycetous or basidiomycetous filamentous fungi, and are considered to be replicated in host Golgi-derived, lipid vesicles that contain their dsRNA as a replicative form. Some hypoviruses induce hypovirulence to host fungi, while others do not. This is a summary of the current ICTV report …


A Time Course Study Of Rotavirus-Infected Intestinal Cells Treated With Stilbenoids And The Regulation Of Apoptosis, Rebecca D. Parr, Caleb M. Witcher, Rebekah Napier-Jameson, Hannah L. Wilson, Stormey Wisdom, Macie N. Mattila, Essence B. Strange, Josephine Taylor, Beatrice Clack, Fabricio Medina-Bolivar, Judith M. Ball May 2018

A Time Course Study Of Rotavirus-Infected Intestinal Cells Treated With Stilbenoids And The Regulation Of Apoptosis, Rebecca D. Parr, Caleb M. Witcher, Rebekah Napier-Jameson, Hannah L. Wilson, Stormey Wisdom, Macie N. Mattila, Essence B. Strange, Josephine Taylor, Beatrice Clack, Fabricio Medina-Bolivar, Judith M. Ball

Faculty Publications

This is a time course study of virus –host interactions that are modified with the addition of two small natural products. They appear to effect virus replication and the host response to the infection.


Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen May 2018

Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen

Senior Honors Theses

In 1928, the profound effects of penicillin were discovered and antibiotic treatments became extremely popular. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, like tetracyclines, have been since branded as cure-all prescriptions and used profusely in the Western World and abroad. Due to ignorance of specific biochemical mechanisms and the misuse of antibiotics these drugs inadvertently allowed the rise in prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains of certain bacteria as the century progressed. Now, the specific genetic causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are being understood, but the fight against antimicrobial resistance is far from over. In the United States, thousands of fatalities are caused annually by …


Ketogenic Diet Enhances Neurovascular Function With Altered Gut Microbiome In Young Healthy Mice, David Ma, Amy C. Wang, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J. Green, Jared D. Hoffman, George Chlipala, M. Paul Murphy, Brent S. Sokola, Björn Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin Apr 2018

Ketogenic Diet Enhances Neurovascular Function With Altered Gut Microbiome In Young Healthy Mice, David Ma, Amy C. Wang, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J. Green, Jared D. Hoffman, George Chlipala, M. Paul Murphy, Brent S. Sokola, Björn Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Neurovascular integrity, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, plays a major role in determining cognitive capability. Recent studies suggest that neurovascular integrity could be regulated by the gut microbiome. The purpose of the study was to identify if ketogenic diet (KD) intervention would alter gut microbiome and enhance neurovascular functions, and thus reduce risk for neurodegeneration in young healthy mice (12–14 weeks old). Here we show that with 16 weeks of KD, mice had significant increases in CBF and P-glycoprotein transports on BBB to facilitate clearance of amyloid-beta, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These neurovascular …


Regional Trends In Early-Monsoon Rainfall Over Vietnam And Ccsm4 Attribution, Rong Li, S.-Y. Simon Wang, Robert R. Gillies, Brendan Buckley, Jin-Ho Yoon, Changrae Cho Apr 2018

Regional Trends In Early-Monsoon Rainfall Over Vietnam And Ccsm4 Attribution, Rong Li, S.-Y. Simon Wang, Robert R. Gillies, Brendan Buckley, Jin-Ho Yoon, Changrae Cho

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

The analysis of precipitation trends for Vietnam revealed that early-monsoon precipitation has increased over the past three decades but to varying degrees over the northern, central and southern portions of the country. Upon investigation, it was found that the change in early-monsoon precipitation is associated with changes in the low-level cyclonic airflow over the South China Sea and Indochina that is embedded in the large-scale atmospheric circulation associated with a “La Niña-like” anomalous sea surface temperature pattern with warming in the western Pacific and Indian Oceans and cooling in the eastern Pacific. The Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) …


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N mutant displayed …


Transmembrane Domains Of Highly Pathogenic Viral Fusion Proteins Exhibit Trimeric Association In Vitro, Stacy R. Webb, Stacy E. Smith, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch Apr 2018

Transmembrane Domains Of Highly Pathogenic Viral Fusion Proteins Exhibit Trimeric Association In Vitro, Stacy R. Webb, Stacy E. Smith, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Enveloped viruses require viral fusion proteins to promote fusion of the viral envelope with a target cell membrane. To drive fusion, these proteins undergo large conformational changes that must occur at the right place and at the right time. Understanding the elements which control the stability of the prefusion state and the initiation of conformational changes is key to understanding the function of these important proteins. The construction of mutations in the fusion protein transmembrane domains (TMDs) or the replacement of these domains with lipid anchors has implicated the TMD in the fusion process. However, the structural and molecular details …


In Vivo Structures Of The Helicobacter Pylori Cag Type Iv Secretion System, Yi-Wei Chang, Carrie L. Shaffer, Lee A. Rettberg, Debnath Ghosal, Grant J. Jensen Apr 2018

In Vivo Structures Of The Helicobacter Pylori Cag Type Iv Secretion System, Yi-Wei Chang, Carrie L. Shaffer, Lee A. Rettberg, Debnath Ghosal, Grant J. Jensen

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is a versatile nanomachine that translocates diverse effector molecules between microbes and into eukaryotic cells. Here, using electron cryotomography, we reveal the molecular architecture of the Helicobacter pylori cag T4SS. Although most components are unique to H. pylori, the cag T4SS exhibits remarkable architectural similarity to other T4SSs. Our images revealed that, when H. pylori encounters host cells, the bacterium elaborates membranous tubes perforated by lateral ports. Sub-tomogram averaging of the cag T4SS machinery revealed periplasmic densities associated with the outer membrane, a central stalk, and peripheral wing-like densities. Additionally, we resolved pilus-like …


Evaluation Of Vaccine Derived Poliovirus Type 2 Outbreak Response Options: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Karachi, Pakistan, Ali Faisal Saleem Dr, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Ondrej Mach, Asia Khan, Farheen Quadri, William C. Weldon, M. Steven Oberste, Syed S. Zaidi, Muhammad M. Alam, Anita K. M. Zaidi Mar 2018

Evaluation Of Vaccine Derived Poliovirus Type 2 Outbreak Response Options: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Karachi, Pakistan, Ali Faisal Saleem Dr, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Ondrej Mach, Asia Khan, Farheen Quadri, William C. Weldon, M. Steven Oberste, Syed S. Zaidi, Muhammad M. Alam, Anita K. M. Zaidi

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Outbreaks of circulating vaccine derived polioviruses type 2 (cVDPV2) remain a risk to poliovirus eradication in an era without live poliovirus vaccine containing type 2 in routine immunization. We evaluated existing outbreak response strategies recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for control of cVDPV2 outbreaks.
Methods: Seronegative children for poliovirus type 2 (PV2) at 22 weeks of life were assigned to one of four study groups and received respectively (1) one dose of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV); (2) monovalent OPV 2 (mOPV2); (3) tOPV together with a dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); or (4) mOPV2 with …


Bibliometric Analysis Of Scholarly Publications On The Zika Virus, 1952-2016, Frances A. Delwiche Mar 2018

Bibliometric Analysis Of Scholarly Publications On The Zika Virus, 1952-2016, Frances A. Delwiche

University Libraries Faculty and Staff Publications

The 2015-2016 epidemic in the Americas caused by the Zika Virus (ZIKV) triggered a dramatic increase in the number of scholarly publications on this topic. In an effort to understand and characterize this body of literature, a bibliometric study was conducted on all articles found in PubMed that were published on the Zika virus between 1952 and 2016. Study parameters included publication date, source journal, subject and category of source journal, and country of first author. The data was frequency-ranked, enabling identification of the most highly productive journal titles, subject areas, and countries. The study concluded with a comparison between …


Genetic And Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Symbiotic Specificity In Legume-Rhizobium Interactions, Qi Wang, Jinge Liu, Hongyan Zhu Mar 2018

Genetic And Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Symbiotic Specificity In Legume-Rhizobium Interactions, Qi Wang, Jinge Liu, Hongyan Zhu

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Legumes are able to form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia. The result of this symbiosis is to form nodules on the plant root, within which the bacteria can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia that can be used by the plant. Establishment of a successful symbiosis requires the two symbiotic partners to be compatible with each other throughout the process of symbiotic development. However, incompatibility frequently occurs, such that a bacterial strain is unable to nodulate a particular host plant or forms nodules that are incapable of fixing nitrogen. Genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate symbiotic specificity …


Recombinant Promoter (Muascsv8cp) Driven Totiviral Killer Protein 4 (Kp4) Imparts Resistance Against Fungal Pathogens In Transgenic Tobacco, Debasish Deb, Ankita Shrestha, Indu B. Maiti, Nrisingha Dey Mar 2018

Recombinant Promoter (Muascsv8cp) Driven Totiviral Killer Protein 4 (Kp4) Imparts Resistance Against Fungal Pathogens In Transgenic Tobacco, Debasish Deb, Ankita Shrestha, Indu B. Maiti, Nrisingha Dey

Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center Faculty Publications

Development of disease-resistant plant varieties achieved by engineering anti-microbial transgenes under the control of strong promoters can suffice the inhibition of pathogen growth and simultaneously ensure enhanced crop production. For evaluating the prospect of such strong promoters, we comprehensively characterized the full-length transcript promoter of Cassava Vein Mosaic Virus (CsVMV; -565 to +166) and identified CsVMV8 (-215 to +166) as the highest expressing fragment in both transient and transgenic assays. Further, we designed a new chimeric promoter ‘MUASCsV8CP’ through inter-molecular hybridization among the upstream activation sequence (UAS) of Mirabilis Mosaic Virus (MMV; -297 to -38) and CsVMV8, as the core …