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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Benthic Beasts: The Ecological Significance Of Lake Sturgeon And Blue Catfish In Eastern Appalachian Waterways, Stewart Thacker Apr 2023

Benthic Beasts: The Ecological Significance Of Lake Sturgeon And Blue Catfish In Eastern Appalachian Waterways, Stewart Thacker

Research Day

East Tennessee freshwater ecosystems comprise an abundance of an extremely diverse selection of species. This presentation examines Acipenser fulvescens and Ictalurus furcatus, two of the largest freshwater fish in the Appalachian area, which play significant ecological roles within the benthic dimension of our freshwater environments. Commonly known as “bottom-feeders,” Benthivorous species enjoy a broad range of food sources including other fish, detritus, crustaceans, and more. The extensive variety of food consumed by A. fulvescens and I. furcatus permits population control of other, denser, aquatic populations inhabiting other regions of the water column, as well as other organisms included …


A Global Comparison Of Marine Chlorophyll Variability Observed In Eulerian And Lagrangian Perspectives, Angela M. Kuhn, Matthew Mazloff, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Oliver Jahn, Sophie Clayton, Tatiana Rynearson, Andrew D. Barton Jan 2023

A Global Comparison Of Marine Chlorophyll Variability Observed In Eulerian And Lagrangian Perspectives, Angela M. Kuhn, Matthew Mazloff, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Oliver Jahn, Sophie Clayton, Tatiana Rynearson, Andrew D. Barton

OES Faculty Publications

The California Current System is a diatom‐dominated region characterized by seasonal coastal upwelling and additional elevated mesoscale activity. Cyclonic mesoscale eddies in the region trap productive coastal waters with their planktonic communities and transport them offshore with limited interaction with surrounding waters, effectively acting as natural mesocosms, where phytoplankton populations undergo ecological succession as eddies age. This study examines diatom community composition within two mesoscale cyclonic eddies that formed in the same region of the California Current System 2 months apart and in the California Current waters surrounding them. The diatom communities were analyzed in the context of shifting environmental …


Chytridiomycota In Tree Bark, Paige Strasko Dec 2020

Chytridiomycota In Tree Bark, Paige Strasko

Honors College

Chytridiomycota is a phylum of microscopic aquatic fungi that form motile spores that typically have a single posterior flagellum, thus they require water to disperse (James et al., 2000). Chytridiomycota, collectively called chytrids, have round shapes with structures called rhizoids that absorb nutrients and anchor them to their substrate (Mueller et al., 2004). Chytrids are typically found in aquatic environments and soils since zoospores require water to germinate (James et al., 2000), but they also have been found in a number of unexpected environments. Chytrids are difficult to find because they are microscopic and have time-sensitive life cycles (Mueller et …


On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson Mar 2020

On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson

Public Health Resources

The ongoing pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing significant damage to public health and economic livelihoods, and is putting significant strains on healthcare services globally. This unfolding emergency has prompted the preparation and dissemination of the article “Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus likely to be constrained by climate” by Araújo and Naimi (2020). The authors present the results of an ensemble forecast made from a suite of species distribution models (SDMs), where they attempt to predict the suitability of the climate for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 over the coming months. They argue that climate is …


Plasticity In The Human Gut Microbiome Defies Evolutionary Constraints, Andres Gomez, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Elizabeth K. Mallott, Klara J. Petrzelkova, Carolyn A. Jost Robinson, Carl J. Yeoman, Franck Carbonero, Barbora Pafco, Jessica M. Rothman, Alexander Ulanov, Klara Vickova, Katherine R. Amato, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Nathaniel J. Dominy, David Modry, Angelique Todd, Manolito Torralba, Karen E. Nelson, Michael B. Burns, Ran Blekhman, Melissa Remis, Rebecca M. Stumpf, Brenda A. Wilson, H. Rex Gaskins, Paul A. Garber, Bryan A. White, Steven R. Leigh Jul 2019

Plasticity In The Human Gut Microbiome Defies Evolutionary Constraints, Andres Gomez, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Elizabeth K. Mallott, Klara J. Petrzelkova, Carolyn A. Jost Robinson, Carl J. Yeoman, Franck Carbonero, Barbora Pafco, Jessica M. Rothman, Alexander Ulanov, Klara Vickova, Katherine R. Amato, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Nathaniel J. Dominy, David Modry, Angelique Todd, Manolito Torralba, Karen E. Nelson, Michael B. Burns, Ran Blekhman, Melissa Remis, Rebecca M. Stumpf, Brenda A. Wilson, H. Rex Gaskins, Paul A. Garber, Bryan A. White, Steven R. Leigh

Anthropology Faculty Research

The gut microbiome of primates, including humans, is reported to closely follow host evolutionary history, with gut microbiome composition being specific to the genetic background of its primate host. However, the comparative models used to date have mainly included a limited set of closely related primates. To further understand the forces that shape the primate gut microbiome, with reference to human populations, we expanded the comparative analysis of variation among gut microbiome compositions and their primate hosts, including 9 different primate species and 4 human groups characterized by a diverse set of subsistence patterns (n = 448 samples). The results …


No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König Nov 2018

No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

When infected, animals change their behaviors in several ways, including by decreasing their activity, their food and water intake, and their interest in social interactions. These behavioral alterations are collectively called sickness behaviors and, for several decades, the main hypotheses put forward to explain this phenomenon were that engaging in sickness behaviors facilitated the fever response and improved the likelihood of host survival. However, a new hypothesis was recently proposed suggesting that engaging in sickness behaviors may serve to protect kin. We tested this kin protection hypothesis by combining a field and a laboratory experiment in house mice. In both …


Life-Shortening Wolbachia Infection Reduces Population Growth Of Aedes Aegypti, Eunho Suh, David R. Mercer, Stephen L. Dobson Aug 2017

Life-Shortening Wolbachia Infection Reduces Population Growth Of Aedes Aegypti, Eunho Suh, David R. Mercer, Stephen L. Dobson

Entomology Faculty Publications

Wolbachia bacteria are being introduced into natural populations of vector mosquitoes, with the goal of reducing the transmission of human diseases such as Zika and dengue fever. The successful establishment of Wolbachia infection is largely dependent on the effects of Wolbachia infection to host fitness, but the effects of Wolbachia infection on the individual life-history traits of immature mosquitoes can vary. Here, the effects of life-shortening Wolbachia (wMelPop) on population growth of infected individuals were evaluated by measuring larval survival, developmental time and adult size of Aedes aegypti in intra- (infected or uninfected only) and inter-group (mixed with …


A Preliminary Study On The Role Of Enhancer Of Flavonoid Production (Efp) In Flavonoid Biosynthesis, Jia Guo May 2016

A Preliminary Study On The Role Of Enhancer Of Flavonoid Production (Efp) In Flavonoid Biosynthesis, Jia Guo

Honors Scholar Theses

Flavonoids are involved in a variety of biological roles ranging from pathogen protection, pigment intensity, antioxidant effects, and even prevention from cancer or cardiovascular diseases. Because of the diverse and beneficial functions that flavonoids have, the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway has been well studied. Recently, a gene called the Enhancer of Flavonoid Production (EFP) was discovered when mutations in this gene caused the Japanese morning glory flowers to exhibit a pale-colored phenotype. Although EFP is known to increase flavonoid production, the direct mechanism to how EFP enhances enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway has yet to be discovered. It …


Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe Dec 2015

Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe

School of Biological Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Inland waters cover about 2.5 percent of our planet and harbor huge numbers of known and unknown microorganisms including viruses. Viruses likely play dynamic, albeit largely undocumented roles in regulating microbial communities and in recycling nutrients in the ecosystem. Phycodnaviruses are a genetically diverse, yet morphologically similar, group of large dsDNA-containing viruses (160- to 560-kb) that inhabit aquatic environments. Members of the genus Chlorovirus are common in freshwater. They replicate in eukaryotic, single-celled, chlorella-like green algae that normally exist as endosymbionts of protists in nature. Very little is known about the natural history of the chloroviruses and how they achieve …


A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe Oct 2015

A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

The physical characteristics of bacteriophages establish them as viable candidates for downstream development of pathogen detection assays and biocontrol measures. To utilize phages for such purposes, a detailed knowledge of their host interaction mechanisms is a prerequisite. There is currently a wealth of knowledge available concerning Gram-negative phage-host interaction, but little by comparison for Gram-positive phages and Listeria phages in particular. In this research, the lytic spectrum of two recently isolated Listeria monocytogenes phages (vB_LmoS_188 and vB_LmoS_293) was determined, and the genomic basis for their observed serotype 4b/4e host-specificity was investigated using comparative genomics. The late tail genes of these …


Puffs And Tufts: A Comparison Of Trichodesmium Colony Formations And Nutrient Availability Across The North Atlantic Ocean Using Remote Sensing Methods, Marc Rosenfield May 2015

Puffs And Tufts: A Comparison Of Trichodesmium Colony Formations And Nutrient Availability Across The North Atlantic Ocean Using Remote Sensing Methods, Marc Rosenfield

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Trichodesmium, a genus of diazotrophic bacteria, has the capability and the population to produce a large percentage of the total oceanic N2-fixation. Though their population is known to be heavily dependent on two of the ocean’s largest limiting factors, phosphorus and iron concentrations, it is unknown what affect these factors have on the population. In this study two of the largest colony formations of Trichodesmium in the North Atlantic, tufts and puffs, are compared nutrient quality with respect to time and geographical location. Though very little nutrient in situ data was collected from the cruise, remote sensing data collected from …


Effects Of Human Recreational Activity On The Tameness Of Common Loons (Gavia Immer) In Northern Wisconsin, Seth Yund May 2015

Effects Of Human Recreational Activity On The Tameness Of Common Loons (Gavia Immer) In Northern Wisconsin, Seth Yund

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The Common Loon (Gavia immer) is an aquatic diving bird that lives in freshwater habitats in Canada and the northern U.S.. Human activity on a loon’s resident lake may affect its fitness and behavior, yet few studies identify or quantify these effects. We modified existing techniques that measure escape distances in other species to measure tameness as the distance at which individual loons dove in response to human approach by canoe. Tameness was similar between pair members, suggesting that common lake conditions or the behavior of a mate might influence the behavior. Sex, size within sex, and human activity did …


A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur Mar 2010

A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

We used four surveys to collect information about the birth, physical growth, and behavioral development of 12 African elephant calves born in captivity. The management of the birth process and neonatal care involved a variety of standard procedures. All of the calves were born at night, between 7PM and 7AM. The calves showed a systematic progression in behavioral and physical development, attaining developmental milestones at least a quickly as calves in situ. This study emphasized birth-related events, changes in the ways that calves used their trunks, first instances of behaviors, and interactions of the calves with other, usually adult, elephants. …


The Transition Zone: Impact Of Riverbanks On Emergent Dragonfly Nymphs. Implications For Riverbank Restoration And Management, Kirsten Hope Martin Jan 2010

The Transition Zone: Impact Of Riverbanks On Emergent Dragonfly Nymphs. Implications For Riverbank Restoration And Management, Kirsten Hope Martin

Antioch University Full-Text Dissertations & Theses

The use of riprap in the restoration and stabilization of riverine landscapes is an issue of concern for many ecologists. While current methods of bank stabilization, especially those involving the placement of rocks (riprap) along the waterline, are effective in controlling erosion their presence changes habitat components (slope, substrate composition, near-shore river velocity) at the river-land interface. The additional impacts of river current, water temperature, soil composition, slope, and water level fluctuation, may further imperil emerging nymphs. The purpose of this research is to document the effects of riprap, location (upriver or downriver of hydroelectric intake/outtake facilities), water level fluctuation, …


Calf Development: Most Births At Night, Robert H.I. Dale Jan 2008

Calf Development: Most Births At Night, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

For many years, field researchers studying both African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximas) elephants have indicated that they have observed relatively few births in situ, suggesting that most elephant dams give birth at night. For example, according to Cynthia Moss, "Possibly the majority of births occur at night and perhaps those that do take place in the daytime happen in secluded places" (1988, p. 151). Others, for example, Clive Spinage, have referred to "the old beliefs that the cows retreated to 'calving grounds' or that birth took place at night." (Spinage, 1994, p. 90). Although …


The Behaviour Of Swine, J. P. Signoret, B. A. Baldwin, D. Fraser, E. S. E. Hafez Jan 1975

The Behaviour Of Swine, J. P. Signoret, B. A. Baldwin, D. Fraser, E. S. E. Hafez

Mammalogy Collection

The pig was a forest-dwelling animal from the beginning of its history. In some parts of the world it has been domesticated for at least 7000 years. The European breeds of domestic swine were derived from the local wild pig, Sus scrofa. Herds ranged in pastures and forests and kept indoors only for fattening. The breeds in the Far East were derived from another wild pig, Sus vittatus, a smaller animal with shorter legs and a higher reproductive ability (Mohr 1960; Zeuner 1963). The two types interbred readily. The modem breeds of pig evolved from different crossings between the two …


A Study Of Naturally Occurring Algicides Produced By Freshwater Algae, Denny O. Harris, Harry D. Caldwell Dec 1974

A Study Of Naturally Occurring Algicides Produced By Freshwater Algae, Denny O. Harris, Harry D. Caldwell

KWRRI Research Reports

The mode of action of the algicide produced by Pandorina morum was examined by exposing Volvox globator and isolates spinach chloroplasts to a partially purified algicide preparation. Oxygen evolution of Volvox, whole chloroplasts and broken chloroplasts (minus the Calvin cycle),was reduced indicating that the algicide inhibits the light reactions of photosynthesis. Oxygen evolution studies of other Volvocaceae confirmed the observation that Pandorina morum is not significantly influenced by its own inhibitor. Molecular weight approximation by gel filtration established that the inhibitor has a low molecular weight (probably below 100 mw). Field studies indicate that this algicide has tremendous potential as …


A Study Of Water-Soluble Inhibitory Compounds (Algicides) Produced By Fresh-Water Algae, Denny O. Harris, Manhar C. Parekh Nov 1973

A Study Of Water-Soluble Inhibitory Compounds (Algicides) Produced By Fresh-Water Algae, Denny O. Harris, Manhar C. Parekh

KWRRI Research Reports

A complex system of growth inhibitors was observed in the green algae (Volvocaceae). Inhibitors were found in the culture filtrates of some genera which limit their own growth (autoinhibitors) while others in the family produce substances which check the growth of other genera (heteroinhibitors). These inhibitors were destroyed by autoclaving. It was decided that Pandorina morum, which produced the strongest inhibitor and Volvox tertius, the most sensitive to the inhibitor would make an excellent model system for a study of the chemical and physical properties of these naturally occurring algicides. The algicide could be removed from actively growing cultures about …