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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Snf1 Dependent Destruction Of Med13 Is Required For Programmed Cell Death Following Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, R. Shah, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper Dec 2017

Snf1 Dependent Destruction Of Med13 Is Required For Programmed Cell Death Following Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, R. Shah, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

All eukaryotic cells, when faced with unfavorable environmental conditions, have to decide whether to mount a survival or cell death response. The conserved cyclin C and its kinase partner Cdk8 play a key role in this decision. Both are members of the Cdk8 kinase module that, along with Med12 and Med13, associate with the core mediator complex of RNA polymerase II. In S. cerevisiae, oxidative stress triggers Med13 destruction1, which thereafter releases cyclin Ci nto the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic cyclin C associates with mitochondria where it induces hyper-fragmentation and programmed cell death2. This suggests a model in …


The Role Of Mapk And Scf In The Destruction Of Med13 In Cyclin C Mediated Cell Death, David C Stieg, Stephen D Willis, Joseph Scuorzo, Mia Song, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper Dec 2017

The Role Of Mapk And Scf In The Destruction Of Med13 In Cyclin C Mediated Cell Death, David C Stieg, Stephen D Willis, Joseph Scuorzo, Mia Song, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

In response to stress, the yeast1 and mammalian2 cyclin C translocate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it associates with the GTPase Drp1/Dnm1 to drive mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis. Therefore, the decision to release cyclin C represents a key life or death decision. In unstressed cells, the cyclin C‐Cdk8 kinase regulates transcription by associating with the Mediator of RNA polymerase II. We previously reported that the Mediator component Med13 anchors cyclin C in the nucleus3. Loss of Med13 function leads to constitutive cytoplasmic localization of cyclin C, resulting in fragmented mitochondria, hypersensitivity to stress and …


Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik Dec 2017

Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Living organisms are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and internal stressors tha tare detrimental to their cellular physiology and viability. One such condition, oxidativestress, is caused by abnormal amounts of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that can lead to damage to proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Although the mechanisms to neutralize ROS have been widely studied, the understanding of ROS‐mediated signaling for these mechanisms is rather incomplete and sparse. We have uncovered a previously undescribed phenomenon of yeast ribosomes to respond to elevated levels of ROS through a specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the 25S rRNA in the c‐loop of …


Translocation Of Cyclin C During Oxidative Stress Is Regulated By Interactions With Multiple Trafficking Proteins, Daniel G J Smethurst, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich Dec 2017

Translocation Of Cyclin C During Oxidative Stress Is Regulated By Interactions With Multiple Trafficking Proteins, Daniel G J Smethurst, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Eukaryotic cells take cues from their environment and interpret them to enact a response. External stresses can produce a decision between adjusting to behaviors which promote surviving the stress, or enacting a cell death program. The decision to undergo programmed cell death (PCD) is controlled by a complex interaction between nuclear and mitochondrial signals. The mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion. However, a dramatic shift in mitochondrial morphology toward fission occurs early in the PCD process. We have identified the transcription factor cyclin C as the biochemical trigger for stress‐induced mitochondrial hyper‐fragmentation in yeast (Cooper …