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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Resilience And Associated Factors In Orphaned And Separated Adolescents In Kenya: Understanding The Relationship With Care Environment And Hiv Risks., Sarah Sutherland, Harry Shannon, David Ayuku, David Kleiner, Olli Saarela, Lukoye Atwoli, Joseph Hogan, Paula Braitstein Jan 2024

Resilience And Associated Factors In Orphaned And Separated Adolescents In Kenya: Understanding The Relationship With Care Environment And Hiv Risks., Sarah Sutherland, Harry Shannon, David Ayuku, David Kleiner, Olli Saarela, Lukoye Atwoli, Joseph Hogan, Paula Braitstein

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Orphans are at higher risk of HIV infection and several important HIV risk factors than non-orphans; however, this may be due to a combination of related social, psychological, and economic factors, as well as care environment, rather than orphan status alone. Understanding these complex relationships may aid policy makers in supporting evidence-based, cost-effective programming for this vulnerable population. This longitudinal study uses a causal effect model to examine, through decomposition, the relationship between care environment and HIV risk factors in orphaned and separated adolescents and youths (OSAY) in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya; considering resilience, social, peer, or family support, volunteering, …


Determinants Of Immunization In Polio Super High-Risk Union Councils Of Pakistan, Ahmad Khan, Imtiaz Hussain, Dale A. Rhoda, Muhammad Umer, Uzair Ansari, Imran Ahmed, Caitlin Clary, Rana Muhammad Safdar, Sajid Bashir Soofi Dec 2023

Determinants Of Immunization In Polio Super High-Risk Union Councils Of Pakistan, Ahmad Khan, Imtiaz Hussain, Dale A. Rhoda, Muhammad Umer, Uzair Ansari, Imran Ahmed, Caitlin Clary, Rana Muhammad Safdar, Sajid Bashir Soofi

Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health

Background: The current polio epidemiology in Pakistan poses a unique challenge for global eradication as the country is affected by ongoing endemic poliovirus transmission. Across the country, 40 union councils (UCs) which serve as core reservoirs for poliovirus with continuous incidences of polio cases are categorized as super-high-risk union councils (SHRUCs).
Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 39 SHRUCs using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. 6,976 children aged 12-23 months were covered. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using STATA version 17.
Results: Based on both vaccination records and recall, 48.3% of children …


Bilateral Interstitial Keratitis Following Covid-19: A Case Report, Nathalie D. Daher, Zeba A. Syed Oct 2023

Bilateral Interstitial Keratitis Following Covid-19: A Case Report, Nathalie D. Daher, Zeba A. Syed

Wills Eye Hospital Papers

BACKGROUND: Although the primary target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the respiratory tract, the expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in other tissues facilitates viral entry in others parts of the body, including ocular structures. Ocular manifestations may occur before, during, or after systemic infection.

CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 60-year-old male who presented with bilateral interstitial keratitis after the onset of COVID-19, with ocular symptoms starting within 7 days after systemic symptoms. Laboratory investigation did not identify any alternative etiology for his disease, although the possibility of Epstein-Barr virus or herpes simpex …


Molecular Characterization Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Causing Disease Among Children In Nigeria During The Introduction Of Pcv10 (Gsk), Stephanie W. Lo, Paulina A. Hawkins, Binta Jibir, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Mahmoud Gambo, Rasaq Olaosebikan, Grace Olanipekun, Huda Munir, Nicholas Kocmich, Amy Rezac-Elgohary, Safiya Gambo, Danstan Bagenda, Paul Fey, Robert F. Breiman, Lesley Mcgee, Stephen D. Bentley, Stephen K. Obaro, Community Acquired Pneumonia And Invasive Bacterial Disease Capibd Consortium Sep 2023

Molecular Characterization Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Causing Disease Among Children In Nigeria During The Introduction Of Pcv10 (Gsk), Stephanie W. Lo, Paulina A. Hawkins, Binta Jibir, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Mahmoud Gambo, Rasaq Olaosebikan, Grace Olanipekun, Huda Munir, Nicholas Kocmich, Amy Rezac-Elgohary, Safiya Gambo, Danstan Bagenda, Paul Fey, Robert F. Breiman, Lesley Mcgee, Stephen D. Bentley, Stephen K. Obaro, Community Acquired Pneumonia And Invasive Bacterial Disease Capibd Consortium

Student Papers, Posters & Projects

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading vaccine-preventable cause of childhood invasive disease. Nigeria has the second highest pneumococcal disease burden globally, with an estimated ~49 000 child deaths caused by pneumococcal infections each year. Ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (GSK; PCV10) was introduced in December 2014 in a phased approach. However, few studies have characterized the disease-causing pneumococci from Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence of serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility and genomic lineages using whole genome sequencing and identified lineages that could potentially escape PCV10 (GSK). We also investigated the potential differences in pneumococcal lineage features between children with and without sickle …


Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke Aug 2023

Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The number of daily bacterial infections is climbing and the CDC explains that this is due to the antibiotic-resistant threat in the United States. Finding a faster way of bacterial identification is necessary as it currently takes 1-4 days for a medical lab to culture and identify bacteria. Photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) can be used as an alternative method resulting in swift identification within an hour (Edgar, 2019). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cell line PA01, will be coated in up to a few hundred red dyed phages making it detectible by the photoacoustic flow cytometry system. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that …


Neurotropic Manifestations As A Potential Risk Factor For Schizophrenia Following In Utero Exposure To Sars-Cov-2, Mir Ali R Talpur, Omar H. Elsayed, Rif S. El-Mallakh Jul 2023

Neurotropic Manifestations As A Potential Risk Factor For Schizophrenia Following In Utero Exposure To Sars-Cov-2, Mir Ali R Talpur, Omar H. Elsayed, Rif S. El-Mallakh

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: COVID-19 infection is associated with neurologic and psychiatric morbidity that suggests a direct effect of the virus or secondary effect of an inflammatory process. These neuropsychiatric consequences may increase the likelihood of schizophrenia in the offspring of women who become infected with COVID-19 during their pregnancy.

Methods: We performed a directed narrative review of the literature focusing on the proposed pathophysiological processes that lead to schizophrenia and known pathological consequences of COVID-19 infection.

Results: Schizophrenia in adult offspring has been associated with maternal infections during pregnancy by a wide range of respiratory and neurotropic pathogens. Spikes in the incidence …


On The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine, Forest W. Arnold Jun 2023

On The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Time Is Ticking For Cervical Cancer, Vijay Kumar, Caitlin Bauer, John H. Stewart Jun 2023

Time Is Ticking For Cervical Cancer, Vijay Kumar, Caitlin Bauer, John H. Stewart

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Cervical cancer (CC) is a major health problem among reproductive-age females and comprises a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor associated with CC incidence. However, lifestyle is also a critical factor in CC pathogenesis. Despite HPV vaccination introduction, the incidence of CC is increasing worldwide. Therefore, it becomes critical to understand the CC tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) to develop immune cell-based vaccination and immunotherapeutic approaches. The current article discusses the immune environment in the normal cervix of adult females and its role in HPV infection. The subsequent sections discuss the alteration of different …


Equine Polyclonal Antibodies Prevent Acute Chikungunya Virus Infection In Mice, Douglas Barker, Xiaobing Han, Eryu Wang, Ashley Dagley, Deborah M. Anderson, Aruni Jha, Scott C. Weaver, Justin Julander, Cory Nykiforuk, Shantha Kodihalli Jun 2023

Equine Polyclonal Antibodies Prevent Acute Chikungunya Virus Infection In Mice, Douglas Barker, Xiaobing Han, Eryu Wang, Ashley Dagley, Deborah M. Anderson, Aruni Jha, Scott C. Weaver, Justin Julander, Cory Nykiforuk, Shantha Kodihalli

Office of Research Faculty and Staff Publications

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted pathogen that causes chikungunya disease (CHIK); the disease is characterized by fever, muscle ache, rash, and arthralgia. This arthralgia can be debilitating and long-lasting, seriously impacting quality of life for years. Currently, there is no specific therapy available for CHIKV infection. We have developed a despeciated equine polyclonal antibody (CHIKV-EIG) treatment against CHIKV and evaluated its protective efficacy in mouse models of CHIKV infection. In immunocompromised (IFNAR−/−) mice infected with CHIKV, daily treatment for five consecutive days with CHIKV-EIG administered at 100 mg/kg starting on the day of infection prevented mortality, reduced …


Mirnas Signature As Potential Biomarkers For Cervical Precancerous Lesions In Human Papillomavirus Positive Women, Martha I. González-Ramírez, Yurley T. Cardona, María C. Agudelo, Carolina López, Juan J. Florez-Acosta, Samuel Agudelo-Gamboa, Jone Garai, Li Li, Carlos A. Orozco-Castaño, Jovanny Zabaleta, Gloria I. Sánchez Jun 2023

Mirnas Signature As Potential Biomarkers For Cervical Precancerous Lesions In Human Papillomavirus Positive Women, Martha I. González-Ramírez, Yurley T. Cardona, María C. Agudelo, Carolina López, Juan J. Florez-Acosta, Samuel Agudelo-Gamboa, Jone Garai, Li Li, Carlos A. Orozco-Castaño, Jovanny Zabaleta, Gloria I. Sánchez

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Biomarkers to identify women at risk of cervical cancer among those with high-risk HPV infection (hrHPV+) are needed. Deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to hrHPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis. We aimed at identifying miRNAs with the capacity to distinguish high (CIN2+) and low (≤ CIN1) grade cervical lesions. We sequenced miRNA libraries from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissues from women with CIN2+ (n = 10) and age-matched women with ≤ CIN1 (n = 10), randomly and retrospectively selected from a trial that followed women for 24 months after a hrHPV+ test at the screening visit. Five miRNAs differentially expressed were validated by …


Center Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Outcomes Associated With Covid-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Comparative Cohort Study, Haley Williams, Kayla Woodworth May 2023

Center Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Outcomes Associated With Covid-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Comparative Cohort Study, Haley Williams, Kayla Woodworth

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects: College of Nursing

Background: Traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a multidisciplinary, multifaceted program for cardiac patients. Throughout the Covid-19 pandemic, health care, including center-based CR (CBCR) programs, were closed to in-person sessions. Even with the return to CBCR participation, patient outcomes may have been affected by this disruption in care. The goal of this study was to determine if CR participation outcomes differed before and after CBCR program closure due to Covid-19.

Methods: A retrospective comparative cohort design was used to examine CR participant outcome data before and after the Covid-19 pandemic. Convenience sampling of CR participants at a large, urban …


Echinomycin As A Promising Therapeutic Agent Against Kshv-Related Malignancies, Jungang Chen, Zhen Lin, Jiao Song, Karlie Plaisance-Bonstaff, Jennifer James, Shengyu Mu, Steven R. Post, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin May 2023

Echinomycin As A Promising Therapeutic Agent Against Kshv-Related Malignancies, Jungang Chen, Zhen Lin, Jiao Song, Karlie Plaisance-Bonstaff, Jennifer James, Shengyu Mu, Steven R. Post, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several human cancers, including Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which preferentially arise in immunocompromised patients while lack of effective therapeutic options. Oncoproteins Myc and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) have been found closely related to KSHV infection, replication and oncogenesis. However, the strategies of dual targeting these two oncoproteins have never been developed and tested for treatments of KSHV-related malignancies. In the current study, we report that treatment of echinomycin dramatically regresses cell growth both in vitro-cultured KSHV + tumor cells and in vivo KS or PEL xenograft mice models, …


An Overview Of Viruses And The Infamous Sars-Cov-2, Jake Sun May 2023

An Overview Of Viruses And The Infamous Sars-Cov-2, Jake Sun

The Confluence

Background information on viruses is first presented which include topics like evolution, ecology, history, identification, structure, and application. The novel SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, pandemic originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Millions of people were infected with the virus in a short time period causing urgent concern worldwide. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief and general understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 to increase awareness and actions toward preventive measures. COVID-19 is a (+) ssRNA spherical enveloped virion that causes primarily respiratory illnesses. The S protein interacts with ACE-2 receptors on the host cell to gain entry …


Identification Of Molecular Markers Associated With Copd In Non-Smokers And Smokers: A Bioinformatics Analysis, Agede O. Ayodele, Isa M. Wasagu, Ademola E. Fawibe, Alakija K. Salami May 2023

Identification Of Molecular Markers Associated With Copd In Non-Smokers And Smokers: A Bioinformatics Analysis, Agede O. Ayodele, Isa M. Wasagu, Ademola E. Fawibe, Alakija K. Salami

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background

Even though the proportional burden of COPD among never-smokers is significant in both developing and developed nations, accounting for around 30% of all COPD in the community, there is little awareness of the prevalence of COPD in this population. Understanding the molecular processes that underlie COPD in nonsmokers is essential.

Methods

Dataset (GSE146560) was acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The limma and clusterProfiler software tools were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and conduct a functional enrichment analysis respectively.

Results

In all, 10,583 DEGs were found, of which 1,065 were up-regulated and 9,518 were down-regulated. The …


Exploring The Possible Phenomenon Of Viral Interference Between The Novel Coronavirus And Common Respiratory Viruses, Spencer Deleveaux, Alexandria Clarke-Kregor, Xavier Fonseca-Fuentes, Essam Mekhaiel Apr 2023

Exploring The Possible Phenomenon Of Viral Interference Between The Novel Coronavirus And Common Respiratory Viruses, Spencer Deleveaux, Alexandria Clarke-Kregor, Xavier Fonseca-Fuentes, Essam Mekhaiel

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

At the peak of the 2021 wave of the SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant in North America, there was concern for a superimposed wave of viral respiratory infections. There was, however, an apparent shift in the usual epidemiology of these pathogens, especially during the traditional influenza season from approximately October 2020 to March 2021. This article seeks to briefly describe the epidemiology of notable respiratory pathogens during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and to focus on one possible factor for the trends observed. There are many contributory elements to the observed viral trends, but in particular, we present a synopsis …


Prevalence Of Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies In Liberty University Student Population, Emily Bonus Apr 2023

Prevalence Of Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies In Liberty University Student Population, Emily Bonus

Senior Honors Theses

In 2020, the virus SARS-CoV-2 gained attention as it spread around the world. Its antibodies are poorly understood, and little research focuses on those with few COVID-19 complications yet large numbers of close contacts: university students. This longitudinal study recorded SARS-CoV-2 antibody presence in 107 undergraduate Liberty University students twice during early 2021. After extensive data cleaning and the application of various statistical tests and ANOVAs, the data seems to show that in the case of COVID-19 infections, SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies are immediately produced, and then IgG antibodies follow later. However, the COVID-19 vaccine causes the production of both IgM …


Performance Of A Sars-Cov-2 Rt-Pcr Assay With Non-Traditional Specimen Types, Subathra Marimuthu, Holly Aliesky, Heather Ness, Daniya Sheikh, Sathya Rashmit, Dawn Balcom, Leslie A. Wolf Feb 2023

Performance Of A Sars-Cov-2 Rt-Pcr Assay With Non-Traditional Specimen Types, Subathra Marimuthu, Holly Aliesky, Heather Ness, Daniya Sheikh, Sathya Rashmit, Dawn Balcom, Leslie A. Wolf

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

During the first two years of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens were the gold standard for clinical diagnostic testing. As information about the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the pandemic continued to be shared, it was clear that the virus could be detected in other specimen types during an active infection. The University of Louisville Infectious Diseases Laboratory accepted non-traditional specimen types, most without a paired, positive NP result, for research purposes only to support local epidemiology efforts. A real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay originally validated for NP specimens was used …


What? Now A Respiratory Syncytial Virus Epidemic, Aya Allam, Steven B Lippmann Feb 2023

What? Now A Respiratory Syncytial Virus Epidemic, Aya Allam, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Endogenous Mirna-Based Innate-Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2 Invasion Of The Brain, Walter J. Lukiw, Aileen I. Pogue Feb 2023

Endogenous Mirna-Based Innate-Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2 Invasion Of The Brain, Walter J. Lukiw, Aileen I. Pogue

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, possesses an unusually large positive-sense, single-stranded viral RNA (ssvRNA) genome of about ~29,903 nucleotides (nt). In many respects, this ssvRNA resembles a very large, polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA) possessing a 5′-methyl cap (m7GpppN), a 3′- and 5′-untranslated region (3′-UTR, 5′-UTR), and a poly-adenylated (poly-A+) tail. As such, the SARS-CoV-2 ssvRNA is susceptible to targeting by small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) and/or microRNA (miRNA), as well as neutralization and/or inhibition of its infectivity via the human body’s natural complement of about ~2650 miRNA species. Depending on host cell and tissue …


Implementation Of Mrsa Nasal Swabs As An Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention To Decrease Anti-Mrsa Therapy In Covid-19 Infection, Alaina Dekerlegand, Emily Johnston, Britney Mellor, Melanie Rae Schrack, Catherine O’Neal Jan 2023

Implementation Of Mrsa Nasal Swabs As An Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention To Decrease Anti-Mrsa Therapy In Covid-19 Infection, Alaina Dekerlegand, Emily Johnston, Britney Mellor, Melanie Rae Schrack, Catherine O’Neal

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

In the early stages of treating patients with SARS-CoV-2, limited information was available to guide antimicrobial stewardship interventions. The COVID-19 Task Force and Antimicrobial Stewardship Committee, at a 988-bed academic medical center, implemented the use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing to assist with the de-escalation of anti-MRSA therapy in patients with suspected superimposed bacterial pneumonia in COVID-19. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the impact of MRSA nasal swab PCR testing on the rate of anti-MRSA therapy between 13 April 2020 and 26 July 2020. A total of 122 patients were included …


Investigating Stigma During The Early Stages Of A Pandemic Through The Lens Of Covid-19, Zach Thornton, Bethany Hodge, Sheridan Langford Jan 2023

Investigating Stigma During The Early Stages Of A Pandemic Through The Lens Of Covid-19, Zach Thornton, Bethany Hodge, Sheridan Langford

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Individuals face stigma associated with numerous health conditions. Stigma can arise rapidly during the early spread of a new disease, adding to the burden felt by those affected. COVID-19 can be used as an example to study stigma during the early phases of a pandemic. This narrative review is a descriptive analysis that tracks the ways in which COVID-19 stigma was discussed in the scholarly literature during the first year of the pandemic to understand how stigma was viewed in the context of a rapidly spreading pandemic.

Methods: PubMed was used as a non-exhaustive sample of the literature. Searches …


Covid-19 Vaccine Effectiveness In Preventing Severe Infections And Mortality Among Patients In Kerala, India., Surag Mk, Sarin S. M, Sarosh Kumar K K, Udaya A Jan 2023

Covid-19 Vaccine Effectiveness In Preventing Severe Infections And Mortality Among Patients In Kerala, India., Surag Mk, Sarin S. M, Sarosh Kumar K K, Udaya A

Digital Journal of Clinical Medicine

ABSTRACT

Background:

India has a top status among world countries, related to the COVID-19 mortality that had crossed the 3-lakh level. The second wave of COVID19 had ravaged the world countries, created havoc of the highest order, leaving many hapless, thanks to the low availability of oxygen, ICU facilities, vaccines and counselling prospects.

There is a lack of information about how COVID-19 vaccines have affected mortality in specific geographic areas.

Method:

A Retrospective record-based design. Patients were matched for age, sex, ethnicity, co-morbidities and grouped into fully immunized, partially immunized and non-immunized.

The primary outcome was in-hospital deaths and secondary …


Promiscuous Feeding Across Multiple Honey Bee Hosts Amplifies The Vectorial Capacity Of Varroa Destructor, Zachary S. Lamas, Serhat Solmaz, Eugene V. Ryabov, Joseph Mowery, Matthew Heermann, Daniel Sonenshine, Jay D. Evans, David J. Hawthorne Jan 2023

Promiscuous Feeding Across Multiple Honey Bee Hosts Amplifies The Vectorial Capacity Of Varroa Destructor, Zachary S. Lamas, Serhat Solmaz, Eugene V. Ryabov, Joseph Mowery, Matthew Heermann, Daniel Sonenshine, Jay D. Evans, David J. Hawthorne

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Varroa destructor is a cosmopolitan pest and leading cause of colony loss of the European honey bee. Historically described as a competent vector of honey bee viruses, this arthropod vector is the cause of a global pandemic of Deformed wing virus, now endemic in honeybee populations in all Varroa-infested regions. Our work shows that viral spread is driven by Varroa actively switching from one adult bee to another as they feed. Assays using fluorescent microspheres were used to indicate the movement of fluids in both directions between host and vector when Varroa feed. Therefore, Varroa could be in either …


Proposing An Rna Interference (Rnai)-Based Treatment For Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) By Analyzing The Post-Transcriptional Gene Targeting Of Sars-Cov-2, Hepatitis C Virus, And A549 Lung Cancer Cells, Arjun Jagdeesh Jan 2023

Proposing An Rna Interference (Rnai)-Based Treatment For Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) By Analyzing The Post-Transcriptional Gene Targeting Of Sars-Cov-2, Hepatitis C Virus, And A549 Lung Cancer Cells, Arjun Jagdeesh

Undergraduate Research Posters

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects CD4+ T cell lymphocytes in humans, leading to the development of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) if left untreated. While current treatment methods, including antiretroviral combination treatments, effectively limit HIV replication, HIV can evade these treatments due to its high mutation rate. Long-term antiretroviral treatment can also be toxic to patients, meaning patients would benefit from a new mechanism of HIV treatment. RNA interference (RNAi) is an antiviral pathway found in mammals, plants, and insects that involves a small-interfering RNA that is incorporated into a protein complex called the RNA-induced Silencing Complex …


Recent Advances In Research And Management Of Human Monkeypox Virus: An Emerging Global Health Threat, Parveen Kumar, Benu Chaudhary, Nishant Yadav, Sushma Devi, Ashutosh Pareek, Sujatha Alla, Fnu Kajal, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Madan Mohan Gupta Jan 2023

Recent Advances In Research And Management Of Human Monkeypox Virus: An Emerging Global Health Threat, Parveen Kumar, Benu Chaudhary, Nishant Yadav, Sushma Devi, Ashutosh Pareek, Sujatha Alla, Fnu Kajal, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Madan Mohan Gupta

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Faculty Publications

In 2003, the United States saw an epidemic of monkeypox that was later traced back to rodents of West Africa infected with the monkeypox virus (MPXV). Disease in the United States seemed less severe than the smallpox-like disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In this study, researchers analyzed data from Central Africa: two distinct MPXV clades were confirmed by sequencing the genomes of MPXV isolates from Western Africa, the United States, and Central Africa. By comparing open reading frames across MPXV clades, scientists can infer which virus proteins might account for the observed variation in pathogenicity in …


Electrochemical Inactivation Of Tobacco Mosaic Virus: A Novel Vaccine Method, Angelica Diaz Dec 2022

Electrochemical Inactivation Of Tobacco Mosaic Virus: A Novel Vaccine Method, Angelica Diaz

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

We tested the effectiveness of using electrochemistry to irreversibly damage Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). Hypothesis: By utilizing the acidic properties of DNA and RNA, viral genetic material can be irreversibly and selectively damaged using electrochemical methods. Technique could assist in development of highly targeted and effective vaccines.


Poliovirus Detection In Las Vegas Wastewater, Sage Boss, Hayley Baker, Ching-Lan Chang Dec 2022

Poliovirus Detection In Las Vegas Wastewater, Sage Boss, Hayley Baker, Ching-Lan Chang

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Wastewater surveillance for poliovirus is a useful tool for spatial surveillance and evaluation of immunization efficacy. Polio testing in wastewater has been conducted since the 1980s in Finland and Israel, and the virus was recently discovered in New York. With increasing concern regarding the vaccination of children against the virus, there has been worry that polio cases could once again present themselves in the Las Vegas Valley. By testing for the virus in wastewater, we can monitor any new cases or outbreaks that occur and inform authorities as to the location and viral count. The wastewater samples were collected at …


Knowledge, Attitudes, And Practices (Kap) Towards Covid-19 Pandemic Among Pregnant Women In A Tertiary Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan, Sumaira Naz, Syeda Dur E Shawar, Shamila Saleem, Ayesha Malik, Amir Raza Nov 2022

Knowledge, Attitudes, And Practices (Kap) Towards Covid-19 Pandemic Among Pregnant Women In A Tertiary Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan, Sumaira Naz, Syeda Dur E Shawar, Shamila Saleem, Ayesha Malik, Amir Raza

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the pregnant population during the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care hospital.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. KAP towards COVID-19 was assessed using 21-item questionnaires. A score for each category was calculated and points were summed. The outcome variables of KAP were compared with demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 19.
Results: A total of 377 patients participated in the study. The majority of the patients were multiparous (36.8%) in the age group of …


Impact Of Alcohol On Bone Health In People Living With Hiv: Integrating Clinical Data From Serum Bone Markers With Morphometric Analysis In A Non-Human Primate Model, Alexandra Denys, Allison Norman, Daniel S. Perrien, Larry J. Suva, Liz Simon, Lee S. Mcdaniel, Tekeda Ferguson, Kim Pedersen, David Welsh, Patricia E. Molina, Martin J.J. Ronis Nov 2022

Impact Of Alcohol On Bone Health In People Living With Hiv: Integrating Clinical Data From Serum Bone Markers With Morphometric Analysis In A Non-Human Primate Model, Alexandra Denys, Allison Norman, Daniel S. Perrien, Larry J. Suva, Liz Simon, Lee S. Mcdaniel, Tekeda Ferguson, Kim Pedersen, David Welsh, Patricia E. Molina, Martin J.J. Ronis

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

People living with HIV (PLWH) represent a vulnerable population to adverse musculoskeletal outcomes due to HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and at-risk alcohol use. Developing measures to prevent skeletal degeneration in this group requires a grasp of the relationship between alcohol use and low bone mass in both the PLWH population and its constituents as defined by sex, age, and race. We examined the association of alcohol use with serum biochemical markers of bone health in a diverse cohort of PLWH enrolled in the New Orleans Alcohol Use in HIV (NOAH) study. To explore the effects of alcohol on bone …


What? Is Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Linked To Multiple Sclerosis?, Asha Mahajan, Steven B Lippmann Oct 2022

What? Is Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Linked To Multiple Sclerosis?, Asha Mahajan, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.