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Laboratory and Basic Science Research

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Articles 1 - 30 of 88

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino Apr 2022

Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a high-burden disease in Pakistan, with multi-drug (MDR) and extensive-drug (XDR) resistance, complicating infection control. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of M. tuberculosis is being used to infer lineages (strain-types), drug resistance mutations, and transmission patterns-all informing infection control and clinical decision making. Here we analyse WGS data on 535 M. tuberculosis isolates sourced across Pakistan between years 2003 and 2020, to understand the circulating strain-types and mutations related to 12 anti-TB drugs, as well as identify transmission clusters. Most isolates belonged to lineage 3 (n = 397; 74.2%) strain-types, and were MDR (n = …


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez Mar 2022

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


A Review Of Coronaviruses Associated With Kawasaki Disease: Possible Implications For Pathogenesis Of The Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Associated With Covid-19, Fatima Farrukh Shahbaz, Russell Seth Martins, Abdullah Umair, Ronika Devi Ukrani, Kauser Jabeen, M Rizwan Sohail, Erum Khan Feb 2022

A Review Of Coronaviruses Associated With Kawasaki Disease: Possible Implications For Pathogenesis Of The Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Associated With Covid-19, Fatima Farrukh Shahbaz, Russell Seth Martins, Abdullah Umair, Ronika Devi Ukrani, Kauser Jabeen, M Rizwan Sohail, Erum Khan

Medical College Documents

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), representing a new entity in the spectrum of manifestations of COVID-19, bears symptomatic resemblance with Kawasaki Disease (KD). This review explores the possible associations between KD and the human coronaviruses and discusses the pathophysiological similarities between KD and MIS-C and proposes implications for the pathogenesis of MIS-C in COVID-19. Since 2005, when a case-control study demonstrated the association of a strain of human coronavirus with KD, several studies have provided evidence regarding the association of different strains of the human coronaviruses with KD. Thus, the emergence of the KD-like disease MIS-C in COVID-19 may …


Distribution Of Serotypes And Antibiotic Resistance Of Invasive Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In A Multi-Country Collection, Shamima Nasrin, Nicolas Hegerle, Shaichi Sen, Joseph Nkeze, Sunil Sen, Jasnehta Permala-Booth, Myeongjin Choi, James Sinclair, Milagritos D. Tapia, Sadia Shakoor Jan 2022

Distribution Of Serotypes And Antibiotic Resistance Of Invasive Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In A Multi-Country Collection, Shamima Nasrin, Nicolas Hegerle, Shaichi Sen, Joseph Nkeze, Sunil Sen, Jasnehta Permala-Booth, Myeongjin Choi, James Sinclair, Milagritos D. Tapia, Sadia Shakoor

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a wide range of acute and chronic infections and is frequently associated with healthcare-associated infections. Because of its ability to rapidly acquire resistance to antibiotics, P. aeruginosa infections are difficult to treat. Alternative strategies, such as a vaccine, are needed to prevent infections. We collected a total of 413 P. aeruginosa isolates from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients from 10 countries located on 4 continents during 2005-2017 and characterized these isolates to inform vaccine development efforts. We determined the diversity and distribution of O antigen and flagellin types and …


D-Dimer Testing In Covid-19: From Basics To Clinical Application, Bushra Moiz Jan 2022

D-Dimer Testing In Covid-19: From Basics To Clinical Application, Bushra Moiz

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

No abstract provided.


Neuroactivational And Behavioral Correlates Of Psychosocial Stress-Induced Cocaine Seeking In Rats, Nicole M. Hinds, Ireneusz D. Wojtas, Desta M. Pulley, Stephany J. Mcdonald, Samantha De Guzman, Nicole E. Hubbard, Colin M. Kulick-Soper, Jessica J. Debski, Bianca Patel, Daniel Manvich May 2021

Neuroactivational And Behavioral Correlates Of Psychosocial Stress-Induced Cocaine Seeking In Rats, Nicole M. Hinds, Ireneusz D. Wojtas, Desta M. Pulley, Stephany J. Mcdonald, Samantha De Guzman, Nicole E. Hubbard, Colin M. Kulick-Soper, Jessica J. Debski, Bianca Patel, Daniel Manvich

Stratford Campus Research Day

A prominent feature of cocaine abuse is a high risk of relapse even despite prolonged periods of abstinence. Psychosocial stress is thought to be a major contributor to the onset of cocaine craving and relapse in human substance abusers, yet most preclinical models of stress-induced relapse employ physical stressors (e.g., unpredictable footshock) or pharmacological stressors (e.g., yohimbine to elicit a drug seeking response) and do not rely upon psychosocial stress per se. Importantly, social stressors are well known to activate distinct neural circuits within the brain as compared to other stressors. It is therefore possible that currently available animal models …


Identification Of Parasites From Wisconsin And Minnesota Diving Ducks In The Winona Area, Morgan Condon, Kimberly Bates Apr 2021

Identification Of Parasites From Wisconsin And Minnesota Diving Ducks In The Winona Area, Morgan Condon, Kimberly Bates

Ramaley Celebration

Many different diving ducks in the Midwest are hosts to parasites like cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes. These parasites often live in the ducks gastrointestinal tract and use the ducks chyme and intestinal tissues to thrive. For this research, local hunters volunteered to donate diving duck carcasses they harvested. Ducks donated were cut open on the ventral side from esophagus to cloaca. Major organs were separated into bottles containing 0.85% saline, shaken, settled, and then the supernatant removed multiple times to isolate any parasites residing within the duck’s organs and tissues. Any parasites found in dissected diving ducks organ wash were …


Functional Influence Of 14-3-3 (Ywha) Proteins In Mammals, Elizabeth Barley, Santanu De Jan 2021

Functional Influence Of 14-3-3 (Ywha) Proteins In Mammals, Elizabeth Barley, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) proteins are homologous, ubiquitous, and conserved in most organisms ranging from plants to animals and play important roles in regulating key cellular events such as cell signaling, development, apoptosis, etc. These proteins consist of seven isoforms in mammals, termed under Greek alphabetization: beta (β), gamma (γ), epsilon (ε), eta (η), tau/theta (τ), sigma (σ), and zeta (ζ). Each of these isoforms can interact with a plethora of binding partners and has been shown to serve a distinct role in molecular crosstalk, biological processes, and disease susceptibility. Protein 14-3-3 isoforms are scaffolding proteins capable of forming homodimers and …


An Approach For The In-Vivo Characterization Of Brain And Heart Inflammation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Joanne Tang Sep 2020

An Approach For The In-Vivo Characterization Of Brain And Heart Inflammation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Joanne Tang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by dystrophin loss—notably within muscles and CNS neurons. DMD presents as cognitive weakness, progressive skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration until pre-mature death from cardiac or respiratory failure. Innovative therapies improved life expectancy, but this is accompanied by increased late-onset heart failure and emergent cognitive degeneration. Thus, there is an increasing need to both better understand and track disease pathophysiology in the dystrophic heart and brain prior to onset of severe degenerative symptoms. Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration, however chronic neuroinflammation’s role is largely unknown in …


Characterization Of Nasal Isolates Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Concordia's Campus, Jeenue Vang Apr 2020

Characterization Of Nasal Isolates Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Concordia's Campus, Jeenue Vang

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Research students from the Concordia University, St. Paul Science Department has collected over 1,000 nasal swabs over the past 5 years in an attempt to characterize nasal isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy individuals. S. aureus is a common commensal bacterium found on the skin, in the nares, or in the vaginal tract of approximately 30% of the population. While S. aureus is typically harmless when it is growing in those areas, it can also pose a public health risk as it can act as an opportunistic pathogen to cause a variety of infections, such as toxic shock syndrome. The …


Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson Jan 2020

Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson

Honors Theses and Capstones

Overall, approximately 95 percent of reported cases of vector-borne disease were associated with ticks, making these the most medically important group of arthropods in the United States.1 Despite the prevalence of tick-borne infections, the process for the diagnosis of this condition is not well studied. This study aims to analyze data from a pool of 100 patients who underwent testing for tick-borne disease in the same institution in Dover, New Hampshire during the most recent peak tick season of 2019. Information utilized in this study included: patient age, sex, location of testing (inpatient versus outpatient), diagnostic testing methods used …


Antifungal Defense Molecules From Bacterial Symbionts Of North American Trachymyrmex Ants, Georgia Scherer Jan 2020

Antifungal Defense Molecules From Bacterial Symbionts Of North American Trachymyrmex Ants, Georgia Scherer

CMC Senior Theses

Defensive symbioses, in which microbes provide molecular defenses for an animal host, hold great potential as untapped sources of therapeutically useful antibiotics. Fungus-growing ants use antifungal defenses from bacterial symbionts to suppress pathogenic fungi in their nests. Preliminary chemical investigations of symbiotic bacteria from this large family of ants have uncovered novel antifungal molecules with therapeutic potential, such as dentigerumycin and selvamicin.

In this study, the bacterial symbionts of North American Trachymyrmex fungus-growing ants are investigated for antifungal molecules. Plate-based bioassays using ecologically-relevant fungal pathogens confirmed that these bacteria have antifungal activity. In order to purify and identify the antifungal …


The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga Dec 2019

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and …


Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks Aug 2019

Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks

MSU Graduate Theses

Bacterial co-infections with influenza A virus (IAV) are extremely serious and life-threatening. However, there exists limited understanding about the importance of fungal infections with IAV. Clinical case reports indicate that fungal co-infections do occur and suggest the IAV pandemic of 2009 had a propensity to predispose patients to secondary fungal infections more than previous IAV strains. IAV-fungal co-infections are marked by high mortality rates of 47 to 61% in previously healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 60. Yet, the variables involved in this co-infection remain undetermined. I achieved effective recapitulation of this co-infection using a C57Bl/6 murine (mouse) …


Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers Apr 2019

Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers

Senior Theses

Iron dysregulation has been linked to a variety of human diseases, such as anemia, Friedreich’s ataxia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia, sideroblastic-like microcytic anemia, and myopathy. Thus, it is vitally important to understand the mechanisms for regulating intracellular iron. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy techniques in live cells to study interactions of the yeast proteins Grx3/4, Aft1/2, and Bol2, which have been shown to be involved in turning off iron import when the cell has adequate iron. Modified versions of genes encoding these proteins have been incorporated into several yeast backgrounds to use fluorescence to monitor interactions under varying iron levels.


Adapting Cell-Free Protein Synthesis As A Platform Technology For Education, Grace W. Chu, Max Z. Levine, Nicole E. Gregorio, Javin P. Oza Oct 2018

Adapting Cell-Free Protein Synthesis As A Platform Technology For Education, Grace W. Chu, Max Z. Levine, Nicole E. Gregorio, Javin P. Oza

STAR Program Research Presentations

Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as an enabling biotechnology for research and biomanufacturing as it allows for the production of protein without the need for a living cell. Applications of CFPS include the construction of libraries for functional genomics and structural biology, the production of personalized medicine, and the expression of virus-like particles. The absence of a cell wall provides an open platform for direct manipulation of the reaction conditions and biological machinery. This project focuses on adapting the CFPS biotechnology to the classroom, making a hands-on bioengineering approach to learning protein synthesis accessible to students grades K-16 through …


Paclitaxel Enhances Oncolytic Potential Of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 In Cancer Cells, Misagh Naderi Apr 2018

Paclitaxel Enhances Oncolytic Potential Of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 In Cancer Cells, Misagh Naderi

LSU Master's Theses

Taxanes are spindle poisons that bind to and stabilize microtubules resulting in mitotic arrest. Herpes simplex Typ-1 (HSV-1) virions utilize the microtubular network for intracellular transport during both virus entry and virus egress from infected cells. It has been reported previously that taxanes may synergize with oncolytic herpes simplex viruses in the treatment of experimental prostate and breast tumors in mice. Other reports have indicated that taxanes may inhibit viral replication in infected cells. In this study the previously characterized Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (OSVP), which was constructed in Kousoulas lab was used in conjugation with paclitaxel (taxol) …


Guidelines And Recommendations On Yeast Cell Death Nomenclature, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Maria Anna Bauer, Andreas Zimmermann, Andrés Aguilera, Nicanor Austriaco, Kathryn Ayscough, Rena Balzan, Shoshana Bar-Nun, Antonio Barrientos, Peter Belenky, Marc Blondel, Ralf J Braun, Michael Breitenbach, William C Burhans, Sabrina Büttner, Duccio Cavalieri, Michael Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Manuela Côrte-Real, Vítor Costa, Christophe Cullin, Ian Dawes, Jörn Dengjel, Martin B Dickman, Tobias Eisenberg, Birthe Fahrenkrog, Nicolas Fasel, Kai-Uwe Fröhlich, Ali Gargouri, Sergio Giannattasio, Paola Goffrini, Campbell W Gourlay, Chris M Grant, Michael T Greenwood, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Thomas Heger, Jürgen Heinisch, Eva Herker, Johannes M Herrmann, Sebastian Hofer, Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz, Helmut Jungwirth, Katharina Kainz, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Paula Ludovico, Stéphen Manon, Enzo Martegani, Cristina Mazzoni, Lynn A Megeney, Chris Meisinger, Jens Nielsen, Thomas Nyström, Heinz D Osiewacz, Tiago F Outeiro, Hay-Oak Park, Tobias Pendl, Dina Petranovic, Stephane Picot, Peter Polčic, Ted Powers, Mark Ramsdale, Mark Rinnerthaler, Patrick Rockenfeller, Christoph Ruckenstuhl, Raffael Schaffrath, Maria Segovia, Fedor F Severin, Amir Sharon, Stephan J Sigrist, Cornelia Sommer-Ruck, Maria João Sousa, Johan M Thevelein, Karin Thevissen, Vladimir Titorenko, Michel B Toledano, Mick Tuite, F-Nora Vögtle, Benedikt Westermann, Joris Winderickx, Silke Wissing, Stefan Wölfl, Zhaojie J Zhang, Richard Y Zhao, Bing Zhou, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer, Frank Madeo Jan 2018

Guidelines And Recommendations On Yeast Cell Death Nomenclature, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Maria Anna Bauer, Andreas Zimmermann, Andrés Aguilera, Nicanor Austriaco, Kathryn Ayscough, Rena Balzan, Shoshana Bar-Nun, Antonio Barrientos, Peter Belenky, Marc Blondel, Ralf J Braun, Michael Breitenbach, William C Burhans, Sabrina Büttner, Duccio Cavalieri, Michael Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Manuela Côrte-Real, Vítor Costa, Christophe Cullin, Ian Dawes, Jörn Dengjel, Martin B Dickman, Tobias Eisenberg, Birthe Fahrenkrog, Nicolas Fasel, Kai-Uwe Fröhlich, Ali Gargouri, Sergio Giannattasio, Paola Goffrini, Campbell W Gourlay, Chris M Grant, Michael T Greenwood, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Thomas Heger, Jürgen Heinisch, Eva Herker, Johannes M Herrmann, Sebastian Hofer, Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz, Helmut Jungwirth, Katharina Kainz, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Paula Ludovico, Stéphen Manon, Enzo Martegani, Cristina Mazzoni, Lynn A Megeney, Chris Meisinger, Jens Nielsen, Thomas Nyström, Heinz D Osiewacz, Tiago F Outeiro, Hay-Oak Park, Tobias Pendl, Dina Petranovic, Stephane Picot, Peter Polčic, Ted Powers, Mark Ramsdale, Mark Rinnerthaler, Patrick Rockenfeller, Christoph Ruckenstuhl, Raffael Schaffrath, Maria Segovia, Fedor F Severin, Amir Sharon, Stephan J Sigrist, Cornelia Sommer-Ruck, Maria João Sousa, Johan M Thevelein, Karin Thevissen, Vladimir Titorenko, Michel B Toledano, Mick Tuite, F-Nora Vögtle, Benedikt Westermann, Joris Winderickx, Silke Wissing, Stefan Wölfl, Zhaojie J Zhang, Richard Y Zhao, Bing Zhou, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer, Frank Madeo

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Elucidating the biology of yeast in its full complexity has major implications for science, medicine and industry. One of the most critical processes determining yeast life and physiology is cellular demise. However, the investigation of yeast cell death is a relatively young field, and a widely accepted set of concepts and terms is still missing. Here, we propose unified criteria for the definition of accidental, regulated, and programmed forms of cell death in yeast based on a series of morphological and biochemical criteria. Specifically, we provide consensus guidelines on the differential definition of terms including apoptosis, regulated necrosis, and autophagic …


The Role Of Mapk And Scf In The Destruction Of Med13 In Cyclin C Mediated Cell Death, David C Stieg, Stephen D Willis, Joseph Scuorzo, Mia Song, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper Dec 2017

The Role Of Mapk And Scf In The Destruction Of Med13 In Cyclin C Mediated Cell Death, David C Stieg, Stephen D Willis, Joseph Scuorzo, Mia Song, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

In response to stress, the yeast1 and mammalian2 cyclin C translocate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it associates with the GTPase Drp1/Dnm1 to drive mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis. Therefore, the decision to release cyclin C represents a key life or death decision. In unstressed cells, the cyclin C‐Cdk8 kinase regulates transcription by associating with the Mediator of RNA polymerase II. We previously reported that the Mediator component Med13 anchors cyclin C in the nucleus3. Loss of Med13 function leads to constitutive cytoplasmic localization of cyclin C, resulting in fragmented mitochondria, hypersensitivity to stress and …


Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik Dec 2017

Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Living organisms are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and internal stressors tha tare detrimental to their cellular physiology and viability. One such condition, oxidativestress, is caused by abnormal amounts of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that can lead to damage to proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Although the mechanisms to neutralize ROS have been widely studied, the understanding of ROS‐mediated signaling for these mechanisms is rather incomplete and sparse. We have uncovered a previously undescribed phenomenon of yeast ribosomes to respond to elevated levels of ROS through a specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the 25S rRNA in the c‐loop of …


Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo Dec 2017

Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo

Honors Projects

Inflammation and gut microbiota are two areas of study that can be linked to aging in the body. As a person ages, systemic inflammation tends to increase, and changes in microbiota in the gastrointestinal system occur as well.


One-Step Hot Formamide Extraction Of Rna From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Natalia Shcherbik, Dimitri G Pestov Dec 2017

One-Step Hot Formamide Extraction Of Rna From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Natalia Shcherbik, Dimitri G Pestov

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Current methods for isolating RNA from budding yeast require lengthy and laborious steps such as freezing and heating with phenol, homogenization with glass beads, or enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. Here, extraction with a solution of formamide and EDTA was adapted to isolate RNA from whole yeast cells through a rapid and easily scalable procedure that does not require mechanical cell lysis, phenol, or enzymes. RNA extracted with formamide-EDTA can be directly loaded on gels for electrophoretic analysis without alcohol precipitation. A simplified protocol for downstream DNase treatment and reverse transcription reaction is also included. The formamide-EDTA extraction of …


Using Extremophile Bacteriophage Discovery In A Stem Education Professional Development Partnership To Explore Model Classroom Research Experiences Integrating The Three Dimentions Of The Next Generation Science Standards, Carrie L. Boudreau Ms Jan 2017

Using Extremophile Bacteriophage Discovery In A Stem Education Professional Development Partnership To Explore Model Classroom Research Experiences Integrating The Three Dimentions Of The Next Generation Science Standards, Carrie L. Boudreau Ms

All Theses & Dissertations

The National Research Council’s (NRC) A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas describes a vision of what it means to be proficient in science. The project discussed in this thesis was developed with a NIH SEPA Grant 8R25OD010937 to the Virology and Electron Microscopy Laboratory at the University of Southern Maine (USM) under the direction of Dr. S. Monroe Duboise. The goal of the project was to explore using discovery of extreme environment bacteria and their bacteriophages as a model for using the three dimensions of learning to teach Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Specifically, …


Artificial Neural Network Approach For Revealing Individuality, Group Membership And Age Information In Goat Kid Contact Calls, Livio Favaro, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott Sep 2016

Artificial Neural Network Approach For Revealing Individuality, Group Membership And Age Information In Goat Kid Contact Calls, Livio Favaro, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Elodie Briefer, PhD

Machine learning techniques are becoming an important tool for studying animal vocal communication. The goat (Capra hircus) is a very social species, in which vocal communication and recognition are important. We tested the reliability of a Multi-Layer Perceptron (feed-forward Artificial Neural Network, ANN) to automate the process of classification of calls according to individual identity, group membership and maturation in this species. Vocalisations were obtained from 10 half-sibling (same father but different mothers) goat kids, belonging to 3 distinct social groups. We recorded 157 contact calls emitted during first week, and 164 additional calls recorded from the same individuals at …


Chimpanzee Research: An Examination Of Its Contribution To Biomedical Knowledge And Efficacy In Combating Human Diseases, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe, Theodora Capaldo Sep 2016

Chimpanzee Research: An Examination Of Its Contribution To Biomedical Knowledge And Efficacy In Combating Human Diseases, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe, Theodora Capaldo

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

Research on captive chimpanzees incurs considerable animal welfare, ethical and financial costs. Advocates of such research claim these costs are outweighed by substantial advancements in biomedical knowledge, and that the genetic similarity of chimpanzees to humans enables the former to make critical contributions to preventing, diagnosing and combating human diseases. To assess these claims, we examined the disciplines investigated in 749 studies of captive chimpanzees published from 1995-2004 inclusive, and subjected 95 randomly selected papers to a detailed citation analysis:

49.5% (47/95) of papers had not been cited at the time of this study; 38.5% (34/95) were cited by 116 …


An Examination Of Chimpanzee Use In Human Cancer Research, Jarrod Bailey Sep 2016

An Examination Of Chimpanzee Use In Human Cancer Research, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Advocates of chimpanzee research claim the genetic similarity of humans and chimpanzees make them an indispensable research tool to combat human diseases. Given that cancer is a leading cause of human death worldwide, one might expect that if chimpanzees were needed for, or were productive in, cancer research, then they would have been widely used. This comprehensive literature analysis reveals that chimpanzees have scarcely been used in any form of cancer research, and that chimpanzee tumours are extremely rare and biologically different from human cancers. Often, chimpanzee citations described peripheral use of chimpanzee cells and genetic material in predominantly human …


An Analysis Of The Use Of Dogs In Predicting Human Toxicology And Drug Safety, Jarrod Bailey, Michelle Thew, Michael Balls Sep 2016

An Analysis Of The Use Of Dogs In Predicting Human Toxicology And Drug Safety, Jarrod Bailey, Michelle Thew, Michael Balls

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Dogs remain the main non-rodent species in preclinical drug development. Despite the current dearth of new drug approvals and meagre pipelines, this continues, with little supportive evidence of its value or necessity. To estimate the evidential weight provided by canine data to the probability that a new drug may be toxic to humans, we have calculated Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive dataset of 2,366 drugs with both animal and human data, including tissue-level effects and Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Level 1–4 biomedical observations. The resulting LRs show that the absence of toxicity in dogs provides virtually no …


Non-Human Primates In Neuroscience Research: The Case Against Its Scientific Necessity, Jarrod Bailey, Katy Taylor Sep 2016

Non-Human Primates In Neuroscience Research: The Case Against Its Scientific Necessity, Jarrod Bailey, Katy Taylor

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Public opposition to non-human primate (NHP) experiments is significant, yet those who defend them cite minimal harm to NHPs and substantial human benefit. Here we review these claims of benefit, specifically in neuroscience, and show that: a) there is a default assumption of their human relevance and benefit, rather than robust evidence; b) their human relevance and essential contribution and necessity are wholly overstated; c) the contribution and capacity of non-animal investigative methods are greatly understated; and d) confounding issues, such as species differences and the effects of stress and anaesthesia, are usually overlooked. This is the case in NHP …


Monkey-Based Research On Human Disease: The Implications Of Genetic Differences, Jarrod Bailey Sep 2016

Monkey-Based Research On Human Disease: The Implications Of Genetic Differences, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Assertions that the use of monkeys to investigate human diseases is valid scientifically are frequently based on a reported 90–93% genetic similarity between the species. Critical analyses of the relevance of monkey studies to human biology, however, indicate that this genetic similarity does not result in sufficient physiological similarity for monkeys to constitute good models for research, and that monkey data do not translate well to progress in clinical practice for humans. Salient examples include the failure of new drugs in clinical trials, the highly different infectivity and pathology of SIV/HIV, and poor extrapolation of research on Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s …


An Assessment Of The Role Of Chimpanzees In Aids Vaccine Research, Jarrod Bailey Sep 2016

An Assessment Of The Role Of Chimpanzees In Aids Vaccine Research, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Prior to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-infected macaques becoming the ‘model of choice’ in the 1990s, chimpanzees were widely used in AIDS vaccine research and testing. Faced with the continued failure to develop an effective human vaccine, some scientists are calling for a return to their widespread use. To assess the past and potential future contribution of chimpanzees to AIDS vaccine development, databases and published literature were systematically searched to compare the results of AIDS vaccine trials in chimpanzees with those of human clinical trials, and to determine whether the chimpanzee trials were predictive of the human response. Protective and/or therapeutic …