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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Naturify 2300, Yarina Yiwei Dai Jun 2024

Naturify 2300, Yarina Yiwei Dai

Masters Theses

In my art practice, I explore the interplay between human desires to manipulate and anthropomorphize nature, as seen in the technological augmentation of plants and living entities. This investigation delves into how this intersection, alongside empathy towards these creations, contributes to fears of uncontrollability and the risks of addiction and excessive dependence on technology.

Bioengineering and genetic modification have cultivated unprecedented developments, allowing humans to manipulate the fundamental building blocks of life. My research speculates on this technology further, modifying the genetic code of organisms and creating bioengineered wearable entities with enhanced traits or entirely new functionalities. The primary objective …


Evaluating The Importance Of Biosecurity In Swine Operations, Lindsey Lemley, Lilly Rogers, Austin Calhoun Apr 2024

Evaluating The Importance Of Biosecurity In Swine Operations, Lindsey Lemley, Lilly Rogers, Austin Calhoun

ATU Research Symposium

Swine health is critical to maintaining a profitable and productive swine operation. Biosecurity and sanitation are important practices that help maintain herd health. This study aimed to discover how biosecurity protocols and management practices differ between swine operations of different sizes. With diseases such as Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Brucellosis, and Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) being common in the swine industry, a strong biosecurity protocol protects swine farmers from financial losses associated with disease outbreaks. In 2004 alone, the estimated financial loss to PRRSV was over $761 million. Data concerning biosecurity and sanitation was collected from …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia Dec 2023

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Development Of Evidence-Based Covid-19 Management Guidelines For Local Context: The Methodological Challenges, Sarah Nadeem, Salima Saleem Aamdani, Bushra Ayub, Nashia Ali Rizvi, Fatima Safi Arslan, Russell Seth Martins, Maria Khan, Syed Faisal Mahmood Apr 2022

Development Of Evidence-Based Covid-19 Management Guidelines For Local Context: The Methodological Challenges, Sarah Nadeem, Salima Saleem Aamdani, Bushra Ayub, Nashia Ali Rizvi, Fatima Safi Arslan, Russell Seth Martins, Maria Khan, Syed Faisal Mahmood

Section of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented as a therapeutic challenge for clinicians worldwide due to its rapid spread along with evolving evidence and understanding of the disease. Internationally, recommendations to guide the management of COVID-19 have been created and updated continuously by the WHO and CDC, which have been locally adapted by different countries. Similarly, Pakistan's National Command Operation Center (NCOC), in its national COVID-19 management strategy, generated guidelines for national implementation. Keeping the guidelines updated has proved challenging globally and locally. Here, we present a summary of the process to assess the evidence, including a time-restricted …


From Bloom To Bust: Harmful Algae Blooms And Their Impacts On The Waterfront Economy, Sergio Alvarez Jul 2021

From Bloom To Bust: Harmful Algae Blooms And Their Impacts On The Waterfront Economy, Sergio Alvarez

Rosen Research Review

The true costs of harmful algae blooms (HABs) and the mechanics that determine their socio-economic impacts are for the most part unknown. Florida’s 2017–2019 red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom is a historical case study of the ever-growing threats to coastal welfare posed by HABs. A new research project at Rosen College of Hospitality Management has this at its heart. The central objective of the project is the identification of direct, indirect, and induced socioeconomic impacts caused by the 2017–2019 K. brevis bloom in Florida.


Valuing The Negative Impacts Of Harmful Algae Blooms, Sergio Alvarez Jul 2021

Valuing The Negative Impacts Of Harmful Algae Blooms, Sergio Alvarez

Rosen Research Review

Ecological disturbances can impact several ecosystem services, including cultural services such as outdoor recreation opportunities. In Florida, one ecological disturbance that is negatively impacting recreation is the occurrence of harmful algae blooms. In recent work, Dr. Sergio Alvarez at UCF Rosen College of Hospitality Management has assessed the impact that harmful algae blooms have on human wellbeing by using random utility models to estimate changes in the value of recreation in coastal ecosystems resulting from these blooms. The results indicate that harmful algae blooms, which reduced boating access between June and September 2018, may have resulted in losses of up …


Hexadecane Petroleum, And Biofuel Utilization In Marine Bacteria Isolated From Ballast Tanks, Alex Yashchenko May 2020

Hexadecane Petroleum, And Biofuel Utilization In Marine Bacteria Isolated From Ballast Tanks, Alex Yashchenko

Graduate Theses

This study characterized the growth of bacteria isolated from ballast tank fluids in hexadecane, petroleum, plant, and algae-derived fuels. The study was performed to explore the capacity of ballast tank isolates to survive and grow within fuels that may be stored within ballast tanks. Results of the hexadecane analysis indicated that most isolates had higher viable cell counts in media supplemented with hexadecane. Members of Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, and a single Brevundimonas species had viable cell counts that were one or several orders ofmagnitude greater than that of controls. Results offuel analysis indicated higher viable cell counts in pure JP-5 and …


An Analysis Of The Use Of Dogs In Predicting Human Toxicology And Drug Safety, Jarrod Bailey, Michelle Thew, Michael Balls Sep 2016

An Analysis Of The Use Of Dogs In Predicting Human Toxicology And Drug Safety, Jarrod Bailey, Michelle Thew, Michael Balls

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Dogs remain the main non-rodent species in preclinical drug development. Despite the current dearth of new drug approvals and meagre pipelines, this continues, with little supportive evidence of its value or necessity. To estimate the evidential weight provided by canine data to the probability that a new drug may be toxic to humans, we have calculated Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive dataset of 2,366 drugs with both animal and human data, including tissue-level effects and Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Level 1–4 biomedical observations. The resulting LRs show that the absence of toxicity in dogs provides virtually no …


Canada’S Commercial Seal Hunt: It’S More Than A Question Of Humane Killing, David M. Lavigne, William S. Lynn Aug 2016

Canada’S Commercial Seal Hunt: It’S More Than A Question Of Humane Killing, David M. Lavigne, William S. Lynn

William S. Lynn, PhD

No abstract provided.


Exponential Growth, Animal Welfare, Environmental And Food Safety Impact: The Case Of China’S Livestock Production, Peter J. Li Jul 2016

Exponential Growth, Animal Welfare, Environmental And Food Safety Impact: The Case Of China’S Livestock Production, Peter J. Li

Peter J. Li, PhD

Developmental states are criticized for rapid “industrialization without enlightenment.” In the last 30 years, China’s breathtaking growth has been achieved at a high environmental and food safety cost. This article, utilizing a recent survey of China’s livestock industry, illustrates the initiating role of China’s developmental state in the exponential expansion of the country’s livestock production. The enthusiastic response of the livestock industry to the many state policy incentives has made China the world’s biggest animal farming nation. Shortage of meat and dairy supply is history. Yet, the Chinese government is facing new challenges of no less a threat to political …


China’S Bear Farming And Long-Term Solutions, Peter J. Li Jul 2016

China’S Bear Farming And Long-Term Solutions, Peter J. Li

Peter J. Li, PhD

No abstract provided.


Diversity Of Behaviour During Novel Object Tests Is Reduced In Pigs Housed In Substrate-Impoverished Conditions, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Marie Haskell, Michael T. Mendl, Sheena Calvert, Alistair B. Lawrence Jun 2016

Diversity Of Behaviour During Novel Object Tests Is Reduced In Pigs Housed In Substrate-Impoverished Conditions, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Marie Haskell, Michael T. Mendl, Sheena Calvert, Alistair B. Lawrence

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

Modern intensive farming conditions lack the diversity of substrates present in more natural environments and offer young animals fewer opportunities for interaction. Evidence exists that this may affect the organization of interactive patterns of behaviour, but shifts in behavioural diversity have not been measured directly. We investigated the effect of the substrate in the home pen on the diversity of behaviour in young growing pigs, Sus scrofa. Over 5 months, 26 pigs were housed singly in either substrate-impoverished (SI) or substrate-enriched (SE) conditions. Once every month we recorded the behaviour of these pigs in detail both in the home pens …


Qualitative Assessment Of Animal Behaviour As An On-Farm Welfare-Monitoring Tool, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Alistair B. Lawrence Jun 2016

Qualitative Assessment Of Animal Behaviour As An On-Farm Welfare-Monitoring Tool, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Alistair B. Lawrence

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

There is a growing need to monitor the health and welfare of farm animals, and to develop methods which do so efficiently and reliably. A crucial problem with current methods is the integration of separate measurements taken during farm visits into accurate judgements of an animal’s overall welfare state. This paper proposes that the qualitative assessment of animal behaviour may serve as an integrative methodology which could guide the interpretation of other, more detailed welfare measurements. Recent research has demonstrated qualitative behaviour assessment to be reliable and repeatable under controlled experimental conditions. The paper concludes with a discussion of ways …


Flooring And Driving Conditions During Road Transport Influence The Behavioural Expression Of Cattle, Catherine A. Stockman, Teresa Collins, Anne L. Barnes, David Miller, Sarah L. Wickham, David T. Beatty, Dominique Blache, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Patricia A. Fleming Jun 2016

Flooring And Driving Conditions During Road Transport Influence The Behavioural Expression Of Cattle, Catherine A. Stockman, Teresa Collins, Anne L. Barnes, David Miller, Sarah L. Wickham, David T. Beatty, Dominique Blache, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Patricia A. Fleming

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

This study examined whether observers could distinguish between cattle that were exposed to various road transport conditions: Experiment 1 compared a manipulated flooring treatment (non-grip flooring, NG) with a control transport event (grip flooring, G) and Experiment 2 compared a manipulated driving style (stop-start driving, SS) with a control transport event of smooth, continuous (C) driving. The behavioural expression of cattle was assessed through the process of Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA), and these assessments were tested for correlation with various physiological parameters. Fourteen Angus steers were assessed. Blood samples were collected immediately before and after transport, and heart rate and …


Experience In Substrate-Enriched And Substrate-Impoverished Environments Affects Behaviour Of Pigs In A T-Maze Task, Michael Mendl, Hans W. Erhard, Marie Haskell, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Alistair B. Lawrence Jun 2016

Experience In Substrate-Enriched And Substrate-Impoverished Environments Affects Behaviour Of Pigs In A T-Maze Task, Michael Mendl, Hans W. Erhard, Marie Haskell, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Alistair B. Lawrence

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

Previous research showed that pigs reared in substrate-impoverished conditions performed a smaller proportion of their total behavioural repertoire in their home pens (showed lower behavioural diversity), than pigs reared in substrate-enriched conditions. This study examined whether these differences were the result of fundamental changes in behavioural organisation. A T-maze task was used to test the hypothesis that substrate-impoverished pigs are prone to develop fixed, unvarying behaviour which may underlie their reduced behavioural diversity. They were predicted to be poorer at reversing previous response patterns in the maze, and less able to alter their behaviour in response to a novel (distracting) …


Welfare Assessment: Correlations And Integration Between A Qualitative Behavioural Assessment And A Clinical/Health Protocol Applied In Veal Calves Farms, Marta Brscic, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Elena Tessitore, Flaviana Gottardo, Giulio Cozzi, Cornelis G. Van Reenen Jun 2016

Welfare Assessment: Correlations And Integration Between A Qualitative Behavioural Assessment And A Clinical/Health Protocol Applied In Veal Calves Farms, Marta Brscic, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Elena Tessitore, Flaviana Gottardo, Giulio Cozzi, Cornelis G. Van Reenen

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

This study is aimed at finding correlations and possible integration among Qualitative Behavioural assessment (QBA) and a specific protocol of clinical/health evaluation. Both welfare assessment methods were based on direct animal observation and were applied in 24 Italian veal calves farms at 3 weeks (wks) of rearing. Principal component analysis (PCA) summarized 20 QBA descriptors on two main components (PC1 and PC2) with eigenvalues above 4 and explaining 29.6 and 20.3% of the variation respectively. PCA on residuals obtained after correcting for housing condition yielded highly similar results, indicating that the rearing environment of the calves was not an important …


The Effect Of Substrate-Enriched And Substrate-Impoverished Housing Environments On The Diversity Of Behaviour In Pigs, Marie Haskell, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Michael T. Mendl, Sheena Calvert, Alistair B. Lawrence Jun 2016

The Effect Of Substrate-Enriched And Substrate-Impoverished Housing Environments On The Diversity Of Behaviour In Pigs, Marie Haskell, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Michael T. Mendl, Sheena Calvert, Alistair B. Lawrence

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

In intensive farming situations, growing animals are housed in relatively barren environments. The lack of opportunity to perform substrate-interactive and manipulative behaviour patterns may affect the expression and organization of these behaviours. However, making direct comparisons of the behaviour expressed in environments of differing physical complexity is difficult. In this experiment a relative diversity index was used to compare the behavioural repertoires of pigs housed in two different environments for a period of five months. One group of pigs (substrate-enriched) had straw, forest bark and branches added to the standard pens and the other group (substrate-impoverished) did not. The pigs …


A Critical Review Of Electrical Water-Bath Stun Systems For Poultry Slaughter And Recent Developments In Alternative Technologies, Sara J. Shields, A. B. M. Raj Jun 2015

A Critical Review Of Electrical Water-Bath Stun Systems For Poultry Slaughter And Recent Developments In Alternative Technologies, Sara J. Shields, A. B. M. Raj

Sara Shields, PhD

Prior to slaughter, most farmed birds move through a constant-voltage, multiple- bird, electrical water-bath stun system. Using this system subjects live birds to stressful and painful shackling, and the potential exists for them to receive prestun electric shocks and induction of seizures while still conscious. The existing elec- trical water-bath stunner settings, particularly those used in U.S. slaughter plants, are not necessarily based on sound scientific data that they produce a consistent, immediate stun, and research indicates that they are not effective in all birds. Further, in multiple-bird, electrical water-bath systems, birds may miss the stunner completely. Evidence suggests that …


The Class B Dealer: Down And Out?, Bernard Unti Mar 2015

The Class B Dealer: Down And Out?, Bernard Unti

Bernard Unti, PhD

The supply of dogs and cats to laboratories by Class B animal dealers has been a contentious matter for decades. The subject engenders heated debate whenever it surfaces, most recently in September 2005 when Senator Daniel Akaka (D-HI) proposed an amendment to the FY 2006 agriculture funding bill to withhold federal monies to research institutions that purchase animals from Class B dealers.


Bulletin 2220: Best Management Practices For Small Scale Poultry Producers In Maine, Richard Brzozowski, Donna R. Coffin, Michael Darre Jan 2015

Bulletin 2220: Best Management Practices For Small Scale Poultry Producers In Maine, Richard Brzozowski, Donna R. Coffin, Michael Darre

Cooperative Extension - Agriculture

Written for small-scale poultry producers. University specialists, Extension educators, and agriculture service providers from New England and New York developed this list of Best Management Practices to assist small-scale poultry growers to provide the best of care for their birds, minimize losses due to disease and predation, as well as minimizing the impact on the environment while assuring a high quality, wholesome product for their family and customers.


Examining The Regulatory Value Of Multi-Route Mammalian Acute Systemic Toxicity Studies, Troy Seidle, Pilar Prieto, Anna Bulgheroni Dec 2014

Examining The Regulatory Value Of Multi-Route Mammalian Acute Systemic Toxicity Studies, Troy Seidle, Pilar Prieto, Anna Bulgheroni

Troy Seidle, PhD

Regulatory information requirements for pesticides call for submission of acute systemic toxicity data for up to three different exposure routes (oral, dermal, inhalation) for both active ingredients and formulated products. Similar multi-route testing is required in the European Union and elsewhere for industrial chemicals. To determine the value of acute toxicity testing by more than one route, oral-dermal and oralinhalation concordances among regulatory classifications were examined for large data sets of chemicals and pesticide active ingredients. Across all sectors examined, oral acute toxicity classifications for pure active substances were more severe than those derived from dermal data in more than …


An Evaluation Of The Us High Production Volume (Hpv) Chemical-Testing Programme: A Study In (Ir)Relevance, Redundancy And Retro Thinking, Andrew Nicholson, Jessica Sandler, Troy Seidle Dec 2014

An Evaluation Of The Us High Production Volume (Hpv) Chemical-Testing Programme: A Study In (Ir)Relevance, Redundancy And Retro Thinking, Andrew Nicholson, Jessica Sandler, Troy Seidle

Troy Seidle, PhD

Under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Programme, chemical companies have volunteered to conduct screening-level toxicity tests on approximately 2800 widely-used industrial chemicals. Participating companies are committed to providing available toxicity information to the EPA and presenting testing proposals for review by the EPA and posting on the EPA Web site as public information. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and a coalition of animal protection organisations have reviewed all the test plans submitted by the participating chemical companies for compliance with the original HPV framework, as well as with animal welfare guidelines …


Humane Society International’S Global Campaign To End Animal Testing, Troy Seidle Dec 2014

Humane Society International’S Global Campaign To End Animal Testing, Troy Seidle

Troy Seidle, PhD

The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 …


The Effects That Liquid And Solid Cattle Manure Have On The Water Quality Of Drainage Ditches In Putnam County, Ohio, Janelle Horstman Jan 2014

The Effects That Liquid And Solid Cattle Manure Have On The Water Quality Of Drainage Ditches In Putnam County, Ohio, Janelle Horstman

Honors Projects

Lake Erie has experienced harmful algal blooms with increased frequency since the mid-1990s due to excess nutrients from Rivers, such as the Maumee River, and largely agricultural watersheds. Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture contributes to eutrophication, algal blooms, and the degradation of water quality. This creates stress on aquatic fauna, reduced aesthetic quality, odor, and limits of the water for usage of drinking, recreation, and industry. This research paper asks what the contributions of having access to manure application records, soil records, and information about antibiotics have on what is known about manure management and antibiotic resistance, which has been …


Environmental Trade Measures, The Shrimp-Turtle Rulings, And The Ordinary Meaning Of The Text Of The Gatt, Howard F. Chang Jan 2005

Environmental Trade Measures, The Shrimp-Turtle Rulings, And The Ordinary Meaning Of The Text Of The Gatt, Howard F. Chang

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.