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Naturify 2300, Yarina Yiwei Dai Jun 2024

Naturify 2300, Yarina Yiwei Dai

Masters Theses

In my art practice, I explore the interplay between human desires to manipulate and anthropomorphize nature, as seen in the technological augmentation of plants and living entities. This investigation delves into how this intersection, alongside empathy towards these creations, contributes to fears of uncontrollability and the risks of addiction and excessive dependence on technology.

Bioengineering and genetic modification have cultivated unprecedented developments, allowing humans to manipulate the fundamental building blocks of life. My research speculates on this technology further, modifying the genetic code of organisms and creating bioengineered wearable entities with enhanced traits or entirely new functionalities. The primary objective …


Compassion As A Practical And Evolved Ethic For Conservation, David Ramp, Marc Bekoff Sep 2016

Compassion As A Practical And Evolved Ethic For Conservation, David Ramp, Marc Bekoff

Marc Bekoff, PhD

The ethical position underpinning decisionmaking is an important concern for conservation biologists when setting priorities for interventions. The recent debate on how best to protect nature has centered on contrasting intrinsic and aesthetic values against utilitarian and economic values, driven by an inevitable global rise in conservation conflicts. These discussions have primarily been targeted at species and ecosystems for success, without explicitly expressing concern for the intrinsic value and welfare of individual animals. In part, this is because animal welfare has historically been thought of as an impediment to conservation. However, practical implementations of conservation that provide good welfare outcomes …


Harry F. Harlow And Animal Research: Reflection On The Ethical Paradox, John P. Gluck Aug 2016

Harry F. Harlow And Animal Research: Reflection On The Ethical Paradox, John P. Gluck

John P. Gluck, PhD

With respect to the ethical debate about the treatment of animals in biomedical and behavioral research, Harry F. Harlow represents a paradox. On the one hand, his work on monkey cognition and social development fostered a view of the animals as having rich subjective lives filled with intention and emotion. On the other, he has been criticized for the conduct of research that seemed to ignore the ethical implications of his own discoveries. The basis of this contradiction is discussed and propositions for current research practice are presented.


Rethinking The Ethics Of Research Involving Nonhuman Animals: Introduction, Tom L. Beauchamp, Hope Ferdowsian, John P. Gluck Aug 2016

Rethinking The Ethics Of Research Involving Nonhuman Animals: Introduction, Tom L. Beauchamp, Hope Ferdowsian, John P. Gluck

John P. Gluck, PhD

No abstract provided.


Animals In Biomedical Research: The Undermining Effect Of The Rhetoric Of The Besieged, John P. Gluck, Steven R. Kubacki Aug 2016

Animals In Biomedical Research: The Undermining Effect Of The Rhetoric Of The Besieged, John P. Gluck, Steven R. Kubacki

John P. Gluck, PhD

It is correctly asserted that the intensity of the current debate over the use of animals in biomedical research is unprecedented. The extent of expressed animosity and distrust has stunned many researchers. In response, researchers have tended to take a strategic defensive posture, which involves the assertation of several abstract positions that serve to obstruct resolution of the debate. Those abstractions include the notions that the animal protection movement is trivial and purely anti-intellectual in scope, that all science is good (and some especially so), and the belief that an ethical consensus can never really be reached between the parties.


Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle Iii, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja Van De Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett Aug 2016

Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle Iii, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja Van De Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett

Gill Langley, PhD

Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual …


Alzheimer Disease Research In The 21st Century: Past And Current Failures, New Perspectives And Funding Priorities, Francesca Pistollato, Elan L. Ohayon, Ann Lam, Gillian R. Langley, Thomas J. Novak, David Pamies, George Perry, Eugenia Trushina, Robin S.B. Williams, Alex E. Roher, Thomas Hartung, Stevan Harnad, Neal D. Barnard, Martha Clare Morris, Mei-Chun Lai, Ryan Merkley, P. Charukeshi Chandrasekera Aug 2016

Alzheimer Disease Research In The 21st Century: Past And Current Failures, New Perspectives And Funding Priorities, Francesca Pistollato, Elan L. Ohayon, Ann Lam, Gillian R. Langley, Thomas J. Novak, David Pamies, George Perry, Eugenia Trushina, Robin S.B. Williams, Alex E. Roher, Thomas Hartung, Stevan Harnad, Neal D. Barnard, Martha Clare Morris, Mei-Chun Lai, Ryan Merkley, P. Charukeshi Chandrasekera

Gill Langley, PhD

Much of Alzheimer disease (AD) research has been traditionally based on the use of animals, which have been extensively applied in an effort to both improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and to test novel therapeutic approaches. However, decades of such research have not effectively translated into substantial therapeutic success for human patients. Here we critically discuss these issues in order to determine how existing human-based methods can be applied to study AD pathology and develop novel therapeutics. These methods, which include patient-derived cells, computational analysis and models, together with large-scale epidemiological studies represent novel and …


Toxicity Testing In The 21st Century: A Vision And A Strategy, Daniel Krewski, Daniel Acosta Jr, Melvin Anderson, Henry Anderson, John C. Bailar Iii, Kim Boekelheide, Robert Brent, Gail Charnley, Vivian G. Cheung, Sidney Green Jr, Karl T. Kelsey, Nancy I. Kerkvliet, Abby A. Li, Lawrence Mccray, Otto Meyer, Reid D. Patterson, William Pennie, Robert A. Scala, Gina M. Solomon, Martin Stephens, James Yager, Lauren Zeise Jul 2016

Toxicity Testing In The 21st Century: A Vision And A Strategy, Daniel Krewski, Daniel Acosta Jr, Melvin Anderson, Henry Anderson, John C. Bailar Iii, Kim Boekelheide, Robert Brent, Gail Charnley, Vivian G. Cheung, Sidney Green Jr, Karl T. Kelsey, Nancy I. Kerkvliet, Abby A. Li, Lawrence Mccray, Otto Meyer, Reid D. Patterson, William Pennie, Robert A. Scala, Gina M. Solomon, Martin Stephens, James Yager, Lauren Zeise

Martin Stephens, PhD

With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal usage by transitioning from current expensive and lengthy in vivo testing with qualitative endpoints to in vitro toxicity pathway assays on human cells or cell lines using robotic high-throughput screening with mechanistic quantitative parameters. Risk assessment in the exposed human population would focus on avoiding significant perturbations in these toxicity pathways. Computational systems …


Pursuing Medawar’S Challenge For Full Replacement, Martin Stephens Jul 2016

Pursuing Medawar’S Challenge For Full Replacement, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, PhD

In 1969, Nobel Prize-winning scientist Peter Medawar predicted that scientific innovation would someday fully replace the use of animals in biomedical research. Medawar correctly forecast the leveling off and subsequent decline in animal use in the last quarter of the 20th century – a period of remarkable innovation in the life sciences. A 2007 report by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century, proposed a strategy that is likely to replace all routine animal use in toxicology with innovative methods within one to two decades. Replacing animal use throughout biomedical research is more challenging given …


Personal Reflections On Russell And Burch, Frame, And The Hsus, Martin Stephens Jul 2016

Personal Reflections On Russell And Burch, Frame, And The Hsus, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, PhD

The coincidence of anniversaries associated with the publication of William Russell and Rex Burch’s The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, the founding of the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME), and the establishment of the collaboration between FRAME and the University of Nottingham, provides an opportunity to reflect on Russell and Burch’s legacy and how it was carried forward by FRAME. The Principles, published in 1959, was the pioneering work in what later became the alternatives or Three Rs field of replacement, reduction, and refinement of animal use. Such was the book’s initial and undeserved obscurity, …


Noncompliance With Public Health Service (Phs) Policy On Humane Care And Use Of Laboratory Animals: An Exploratory Analysis, Leah M. Gomez, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens Jul 2016

Noncompliance With Public Health Service (Phs) Policy On Humane Care And Use Of Laboratory Animals: An Exploratory Analysis, Leah M. Gomez, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, PhD

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a major biomedical research-funding body in the United States. Approximately 40% of NIH-funded research involves experimentation on nonhuman animals (Monastersky, 2008). Institutions that conduct animal research with NIH funds must adhere to the Public Health Service (PHS) care and use standards of the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW, 2002a). Institutions deviating significantly from the PHS’s animal care and use standards must report these incidents to the NIH’s OLAW. This study is an exploratory analysis of all the significant deviations reported by animal-research facilities to OLAW during a 3-month period. The study identifies …


Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan Jul 2016

Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan

Martin Stephens, PhD

While most people recognize that biomedical scientists are searching for knowledge that will improve the health of humans and animals, the image of someone deliberately causing harm to an animal in order to produce data that may lead to some future benefit has always prompted an uncomfortable reaction outside the laboratory. However, proponents of animal research have usually justified the practice by reference to greater benefits (new knowledge and medical treatments) over lesser costs (in animal suffering and death). Given that one of the costs of animal research is the suffering experienced by the animals, the goal of eliminating distress …


The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch Jul 2016

The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch

Martin Stephens, PhD

No abstract provided.


Consensus Report On The Future Of Animal-Free Systemic Toxicity Testing, Marcel Leist, Nina Hasiwa, Costanza Rovida, Mardas Daneshian, David Basketter, Ian Kimber, Harvey Clewell, Tilman Gocht, Alan Goldberg, Francois Busquet, Anna-Maria Rossi, Michael Schwarz, Martin Stephens, Rob Taalman, Thomas B. Knudsen, James Mckim, Georgina Harris, David Pamies, Thomas Hartung Jul 2016

Consensus Report On The Future Of Animal-Free Systemic Toxicity Testing, Marcel Leist, Nina Hasiwa, Costanza Rovida, Mardas Daneshian, David Basketter, Ian Kimber, Harvey Clewell, Tilman Gocht, Alan Goldberg, Francois Busquet, Anna-Maria Rossi, Michael Schwarz, Martin Stephens, Rob Taalman, Thomas B. Knudsen, James Mckim, Georgina Harris, David Pamies, Thomas Hartung

Martin Stephens, PhD

Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council’s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century in 2007. It is now possible to provide a more defined roadmap on how to implement this vision for the four principal areas of …


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens Jul 2016

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens

Martin Stephens, PhD

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress …


Self-Harm In Laboratory-Housed Primates: Where Is The Evidence That The Animal Welfare Act Amendment Has Worked?, Jonathan Balcombe, Hope Ferdowsian, Debra Durham Jun 2016

Self-Harm In Laboratory-Housed Primates: Where Is The Evidence That The Animal Welfare Act Amendment Has Worked?, Jonathan Balcombe, Hope Ferdowsian, Debra Durham

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

The 1985 amendment to the United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to promote psychological well being of primates in the laboratory represents an acknowledgment of an important welfare problem concerning nonhuman animals. How effective has this amendment been? Perhaps the best-known contributor to psychological distress in primates in the laboratory is nonsocial housing; yet, available analyses suggest that little progress has been made in avoiding single-caging of these animals. Another way to assess psychological well being is to examine rates of self-abusive behavior in laboratory primates. If the AWA has been effective, then post-AWA self-harm rates might be lower than …


Self-Harm In Laboratory-Housed Primates: Where Is The Evidence That The Animal Welfare Act Amendment Has Worked?, Jonathan Balcombe, Hope Ferdowsian, Debra Durham Jun 2016

Self-Harm In Laboratory-Housed Primates: Where Is The Evidence That The Animal Welfare Act Amendment Has Worked?, Jonathan Balcombe, Hope Ferdowsian, Debra Durham

Debra Durham, PhD

The 1985 amendment to the United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to promote psychological well being of primates in the laboratory represents an acknowledgment of an important welfare problem concerning nonhuman animals. How effective has this amendment been? Perhaps the best-known contributor to psychological distress in primates in the laboratory is nonsocial housing; yet, available analyses suggest that little progress has been made in avoiding single-caging of these animals. Another way to assess psychological well being is to examine rates of self-abusive behavior in laboratory primates. If the AWA has been effective, then post-AWA self-harm rates might be lower than …


Scientific Autonomy And The 3rs, Bernard E. Rollin Jun 2016

Scientific Autonomy And The 3rs, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

No abstract provided.


The Moral Status Of Invasive Animal Research, Bernard E. Rollin Jun 2016

The Moral Status Of Invasive Animal Research, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

No abstract provided.


Ethics And Euthanasia, Bernard E. Rollin Jun 2016

Ethics And Euthanasia, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

No abstract provided.


A New Invasiveness Scale: Its Role In Reducing Animal Distress, Kenneth J. Shapiro, Peter B. Field Apr 2016

A New Invasiveness Scale: Its Role In Reducing Animal Distress, Kenneth J. Shapiro, Peter B. Field

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

No abstract provided.


Animal Mourning: Précis Of How Animals Grieve (King 2013), Barbara J. King Jan 2016

Animal Mourning: Précis Of How Animals Grieve (King 2013), Barbara J. King

Animal Sentience

Abstract: When an animal dies, that individual’s mate, relatives, or friends may express grief. Changes in the survivor’s patterns of social behavior, eating, sleeping, and/or of expression of affect are the key criteria for defining grief. Based on this understanding of grief, it is not only big-brained mammals like elephants, apes, and cetaceans who can be said to mourn, but also a wide variety of other animals, including domestic companions like cats, dogs, and rabbits; horses and farm animals; and some birds. With keen attention placed on seeking where grief is found to occur and where it is absent …


Use Morality As Basis For Animal Treatment, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

Use Morality As Basis For Animal Treatment, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

No abstract provided.


Psychology And Its Animal Subjects, Kenneth J. Shapiro Oct 2015

Psychology And Its Animal Subjects, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

By way of introducing Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PsyETA) to readers of the journal, I have been asked to make some comments about the organization and, from a personal point of view, to suggest some of my own positions and views.


Rational Engagement, Emotional Response, And The Prospects For Moral Progress In Animal Use “Debates”, Nathan Nobis Mar 2015

Rational Engagement, Emotional Response, And The Prospects For Moral Progress In Animal Use “Debates”, Nathan Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, PhD

This chapter is designed to help people rationally engage moral issues regarding the treatment of animals, specifically in experimentation, research, product testing, and education. Little “new” philosophy is offered here, strictly speaking. New arguments are unnecessary to help make progress in how people think about these issues. What is needed are improved abilities to engage the arguments already on the table, for example, stronger skills at identifying and evaluating the existing reasons given for and against conclusions on the morality of various uses of animals. To help improve these abilities, this chapter sets forth a set of basic but powerful …


The Harmful, Nontherapeutic Use Of Animals In Research Is Morally Wrong, Nathan Nobis Mar 2015

The Harmful, Nontherapeutic Use Of Animals In Research Is Morally Wrong, Nathan Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, PhD

It is argued that using animals in research is morally wrong when the research is nontherapeutic and harmful to the animals. This article discusses methods of moral reasoning and discusses how arguments on this and other bioethical issues might be defended and critiqued. A basic method of moral argument analysis is presented and used to show that common objections to the view that “animal research is morally wrong” fail: ie, common arguments for the view that “animal research is morally permissible” are demonstrably unsound or in need of defense. It is argued that the best explanations why harmful, nontherapeutic research …


Interests And Harms In Primate Research, Nathan Nobis Mar 2015

Interests And Harms In Primate Research, Nathan Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, PhD

The article discusses the moral issues on primate research in reference to the moral defenses by Sughrue and colleagues. It states that Sughrue and colleagues have claimed to provide equal examination of the primate stroke research's ethics. It mentions that the promise to straighten out a number of ethical arguments in favor and against primate research was not fulfilled. Several moral arguments are presented in response to Sughrue and colleagues' moral defense for animal experimentation.


The Ethics Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Pediatric Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis Mar 2015

The Ethics Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Pediatric Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, PhD

Introduction: Pediatric health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR). We aim to determine whether HCW consider common arguments (and counterarguments) in support (or not) of AR convincing. Design: After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, support for AR, and common arguments (with their counterarguments) to justify the moral permissibility (or not) of AR. Responses are reported using standard tabulations. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were …


The Class B Dealer: Down And Out?, Bernard Unti Mar 2015

The Class B Dealer: Down And Out?, Bernard Unti

Bernard Unti, PhD

The supply of dogs and cats to laboratories by Class B animal dealers has been a contentious matter for decades. The subject engenders heated debate whenever it surfaces, most recently in September 2005 when Senator Daniel Akaka (D-HI) proposed an amendment to the FY 2006 agriculture funding bill to withhold federal monies to research institutions that purchase animals from Class B dealers.


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens Mar 2015

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress …