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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Attention, Working Memory, And Adaptive Functioning In Emerging Young Adults With Psychometrically-Defined Schizotypy, Parth Nakirikanti Jan 2023

Attention, Working Memory, And Adaptive Functioning In Emerging Young Adults With Psychometrically-Defined Schizotypy, Parth Nakirikanti

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Schizotypy, a complex construct linked to schizophrenia-related traits, encompasses positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms. This study offers a review of the concept of schizotypy, including its historical evolution, tracing it from Bleuler's early mention in 1911 to Meehl's continuum model. Embracing a dimensional perspective, this research underscores the interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors in understanding schizotypy. Deficits in sustained attention and working memory within schizotypy remain underexplored, with prior studies yielding inconsistent results. Adaptive functioning deficits in individuals with schizotypy are also inadequately understood. Examining a college student population, this investigation utilized scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire …


Diabetes Mellitus Affects Working Memory, Dylone C. Braganza, Emmanuel Flores, Lauren A. Crew, Ryan A. Wirt, Andrew A. Ortiz, Adam M. Mcneela, Jefferson W. Kinney, James M. Hyman Aug 2021

Diabetes Mellitus Affects Working Memory, Dylone C. Braganza, Emmanuel Flores, Lauren A. Crew, Ryan A. Wirt, Andrew A. Ortiz, Adam M. Mcneela, Jefferson W. Kinney, James M. Hyman

Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) degrades the brain’s ability to remember, think, and carry out tasks. The exact cause is not known, but several risk factors have been identified, including diabetes mellitus (DM). DM causes elevated blood sugar levels due to reduced insulin production in the pancreas. The linkage between elevated glucose levels and the behavioral impairments are not fully understood, which was the focus of this study. Rats were trained to alternate directions in a maze to receive a reward on consecutive trials. After training, five rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ), which induces hyperglycemia by injuring pancreatic beta cells. Three …


Working Memory As A Predictor Of Social Distancing And Face Mask Compliance During Covid-19 Pandemic, Cassandra Jean Kemmel Aug 2021

Working Memory As A Predictor Of Social Distancing And Face Mask Compliance During Covid-19 Pandemic, Cassandra Jean Kemmel

MSU Graduate Theses

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about many changes in daily lives around the world. In the United States, face masks and social distancing rules have been suggested and even enforced in areas throughout the country. Compliance with these regulations will in turn, hopefully, reduce transmission and therefore the threat of the COVID-19 virus. Working memory (WM) has been found to be an integral part of the decision-making process, by assessing costs and benefits, both individually and for others. In May 2019, Xie, Campbell, and Zhang (2020) found that WM capabilities were predictive of social distancing compliance. The purpose of this …


Healthy Dietary Intake Moderates The Effects Of Age On Brain Iron Concentration And Working Memory Performance, Valentinos Zachariou, Christopher E. Bauer, Elayna R. Seago, Georgia Panayiotou, Edward D. Hall, D. Allan Butterfield, Brian T. Gold Jun 2021

Healthy Dietary Intake Moderates The Effects Of Age On Brain Iron Concentration And Working Memory Performance, Valentinos Zachariou, Christopher E. Bauer, Elayna R. Seago, Georgia Panayiotou, Edward D. Hall, D. Allan Butterfield, Brian T. Gold

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Age-related brain iron accumulation is linked with oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Certain nutrients can reduce brain iron concentration in animal models, however, this association is not well established in humans. Moreover, it remains unknown if nutrition can moderate the effects of age on brain iron concentration and/or cognition. Here, we explored these issues in a sample of 73 healthy older adults (61-86 years old), while controlling for several factors such as age, gender, years of education, physical fitness and alcohol-intake. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used for assessment of brain iron concentration and participants performed an N-Back paradigm to …


Gauging Working Memory Capacity From Differential Resting Brain Oscillations In Older Individuals With A Wearable Device, Soheil Borhani, Xiaopeng Zhao, Margaret R. Kelly, Karah E. Gottschalk, Fengpei Yuan, Gregory A. Jicha, Yang Jiang Feb 2021

Gauging Working Memory Capacity From Differential Resting Brain Oscillations In Older Individuals With A Wearable Device, Soheil Borhani, Xiaopeng Zhao, Margaret R. Kelly, Karah E. Gottschalk, Fengpei Yuan, Gregory A. Jicha, Yang Jiang

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Working memory is a core cognitive function and its deficits is one of the most common cognitive impairments. Reduced working memory capacity manifests as reduced accuracy in memory recall and prolonged speed of memory retrieval in older adults. Currently, the relationship between healthy older individuals’ age-related changes in resting brain oscillations and their working memory capacity is not clear. Eyes-closed resting electroencephalogram (rEEG) is gaining momentum as a potential neuromarker of mild cognitive impairments. Wearable and wireless EEG headset measuring key electrophysiological brain signals during rest and a working memory task was utilized. This research’s central hypothesis is that rEEG …


Memory-Related Frontal Brainwaves Predict Transition To Mild Cognitive Impairment In Healthy Older Individuals Five Years Before Diagnosis, Yang Jiang, Juan Li, Frederick A. Schmitt, Gregory A. Jicha, Nancy B. Munro, Xiaopeng Zhao, Charles D. Smith, Richard J. Kryscio, Erin L. Abner Jan 2021

Memory-Related Frontal Brainwaves Predict Transition To Mild Cognitive Impairment In Healthy Older Individuals Five Years Before Diagnosis, Yang Jiang, Juan Li, Frederick A. Schmitt, Gregory A. Jicha, Nancy B. Munro, Xiaopeng Zhao, Charles D. Smith, Richard J. Kryscio, Erin L. Abner

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Early prognosis of high-risk older adults for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), using noninvasive and sensitive neuromarkers, is key for early prevention of Alzheimer's disease. We have developed individualized measures in electrophysiological brain signals during working memory that distinguish patients with aMCI from age-matched cognitively intact older individuals.

OBJECTIVE: Here we test longitudinally the prognosis of the baseline neuromarkers for aMCI risk. We hypothesized that the older individuals diagnosed with incident aMCI already have aMCI-like brain signatures years before diagnosis.

METHODS: Electroencephalogram (EEG) and memory performance were recorded during a working memory task at baseline. The individualized baseline neuromarkers, …


The Effects Of Emotional Working Memory Training On Trait Anxiety, Gabrielle C. Veloso, Welison Evenston G. Ty Jan 2021

The Effects Of Emotional Working Memory Training On Trait Anxiety, Gabrielle C. Veloso, Welison Evenston G. Ty

Psychology Department Faculty Publications

Background: Trait anxiety is a pervasive tendency to attend to and experience fears and worries to a disproportionate degree, across various situations. Decreased vulnerability to trait anxiety has been linked to having higher working memory capacity and better emotion regulation; however, the relationship between these factors has not been well-established.

Objective: This study sought to determine if participants who undergo emotional working memory training will have significantly lower trait anxiety post-training. The study also sought to determine if emotion regulation mediated the relationship between working memory training and trait anxiety.

Method: An experimental group comprising of 49 participants underwent 20 …


Cortical Iron Disrupts Functional Connectivity Networks Supporting Working Memory Performance In Older Adults, Valentinos Zachariou, Christopher E. Bauer, Elayna R. Seago, Flavius D. Raslau, David K. Powell, Brian T. Gold Dec 2020

Cortical Iron Disrupts Functional Connectivity Networks Supporting Working Memory Performance In Older Adults, Valentinos Zachariou, Christopher E. Bauer, Elayna R. Seago, Flavius D. Raslau, David K. Powell, Brian T. Gold

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Excessive brain iron negatively affects working memory and related processes but the impact of cortical iron on task-relevant, cortical brain networks is unknown. We hypothesized that high cortical iron concentration may disrupt functional circuitry within cortical networks supporting working memory performance. Fifty-five healthy older adults completed an N-Back working memory paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Participants also underwent quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) imaging for assessment of non-heme brain iron concentration. Additionally, pseudo continuous arterial spin labeling scans were obtained to control for potential contributions of cerebral blood volume and structural brain images were used to control …


Measuring Listening Effort Using Physiological, Behavioral And Subjective Methods In Normal Hearing Subjects: Effect Of Signal To Noise Ratio And Presentation Level, Lakshmi Magudilu Srishyla Kumar Aug 2020

Measuring Listening Effort Using Physiological, Behavioral And Subjective Methods In Normal Hearing Subjects: Effect Of Signal To Noise Ratio And Presentation Level, Lakshmi Magudilu Srishyla Kumar

Dissertations, 2020-current

The main objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of pupillometry, working memory and subjective rating scale —the physiological, behavioral, and subjective measures of listening effort— at different signal to noise ratios (SNR) and presentation levels: when administered together. Eleven young normal hearing individuals with mean age of 21.7 years (SD=1.9 years) participated in the study. The HINT sentences were used for speech perception in noise task. The listening effort was quantified using peak pupil dilation, working memory, working memory difference, subjective rating of listening and recall effort. The rating of perceived performance, frustration level and …


The Neural Oscillatory Dynamics Underlying Motor And Cognitive Abilities In Children And Adults With Cerebral Palsy, Rashelle M. Hoffman May 2020

The Neural Oscillatory Dynamics Underlying Motor And Cognitive Abilities In Children And Adults With Cerebral Palsy, Rashelle M. Hoffman

Theses & Dissertations

Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common neuromotor developmental diagnosis that can result in a myriad of activity impairments. The literature has primarily explored motor impairments in children with CP. Additionally, there is evidence of CP impacting several cognitive domains in children and adults with CP. Very little literature has explored if these impairments persist into adulthood, and the underlying neurophysiology serving these functions in individuals with CP is unknown.

The first purpose of this dissertation was to quantify the cortical oscillations serving hand movement with magnetoencephalography (MEG) and determine if differences were present as a function of age between …


Impact Of Sickle Cell Disease On Executive Functioning In An Adult Population, Christina Wade Jan 2020

Impact Of Sickle Cell Disease On Executive Functioning In An Adult Population, Christina Wade

Theses and Dissertations

Children diagnosed with sickle cell disease (SCD) struggle with executive functions (EF); however, there is a paucity of research on neuropsychological outcomes in adults with SCD. This study aimed to examine differences in EF between adults with SCD and healthy controls. Thirty- one patients with SCD and 34 healthy controls (ages 18-45) participating in an IRB-approved Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) study of cerebral blood flow underwent neuropsychological evaluation using the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Trail Making and Color Word Interference Tests and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Digit Span subtest to assess various aspects …


A Comparison Of The Storage-Only Deficit And Joint Mechanism Deficit Hypotheses Of The Verbal Working Memory Storage Capacity Limitation Of Children With Developmental Language Disorder, James W. Montgomery, Ronald B. Gillam, Julia L. Evans, Sarah Schwartz, Jamison D. Fargo Oct 2019

A Comparison Of The Storage-Only Deficit And Joint Mechanism Deficit Hypotheses Of The Verbal Working Memory Storage Capacity Limitation Of Children With Developmental Language Disorder, James W. Montgomery, Ronald B. Gillam, Julia L. Evans, Sarah Schwartz, Jamison D. Fargo

Communicative Disorders and Deaf Education Faculty Publications

Purpose: The storage-only deficit and joint mechanism deficit hypotheses are two possible explanations of the verbal working memory (vWM) storage capacity limitation of school-age children with developmental language disorder (DLD). We assessed the merits of each hypothesis in a large group of children with DLD and a group of same-age typically developing (TD) children.

Method: Participants were 117 children with DLD and 117 propensity-matched TD children 7-11 years of age. Children completed tasks indexing vWM capacity, verbal short-term storage, sustained attention, attention switching, and lexical long-term memory (LTM).

Results: For the DLD group, all of the mechanisms jointly explained 26.5% …


The Effects Of Mindfulness Practice With Music Listening On Working Memory, Emily Irene Messick Jan 2019

The Effects Of Mindfulness Practice With Music Listening On Working Memory, Emily Irene Messick

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate mindfulness strategies and their influence on working memory. The potential role of music in facilitating mindfulness practice is explored. Various listening exercises were investigated along with their influence on working memory (i.e. attention control). Thirty-four individuals were randomly assigned to participate in one of four listening groups: 1) mindfulness with music, 2) mindfulness without music, 3) music only, and 4) silence. Thirty-four participants engaged in a computerized digit-span task before and after the listening exercise to assess pre- and post-test working memory performance. Thirty participants were included in data-analysis due to …


Executive (Dys)Function After Traumatic Brain Injury: Special Considerations For Behavioral Pharmacology, Jenny E. Ozga, Jessica M. Povroznik, Elizabeth B. Engler-Chiurazzi, Cole Vonder Haar Oct 2018

Executive (Dys)Function After Traumatic Brain Injury: Special Considerations For Behavioral Pharmacology, Jenny E. Ozga, Jessica M. Povroznik, Elizabeth B. Engler-Chiurazzi, Cole Vonder Haar

Clinical and Translational Science Institute

Executive function is an umbrella term that includes cognitive processes such as decision-making, impulse control, attention, behavioral flexibility, and working memory. Each of these processes depends largely upon monoaminergic (dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic) neurotransmission in the frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus, among other brain areas. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces disruptions in monoaminergic signaling along several steps in the neurotransmission process – synthesis, distribution, and breakdown – and in turn, produces long-lasting deficits in several executive function domains. Understanding how TBI alters monoamingeric neurotransmission and executive function will advance basic knowledge of the underlying principles that govern executive function and …


Executive (Dys)Function After Stroke: Special Considerations For Behavioral Pharmacology, Jessica M. Povroznik, Jenny E. Ozga, Cole Vonder Haar, Elizabeth B. Engler-Chiurazzi Oct 2018

Executive (Dys)Function After Stroke: Special Considerations For Behavioral Pharmacology, Jessica M. Povroznik, Jenny E. Ozga, Cole Vonder Haar, Elizabeth B. Engler-Chiurazzi

Clinical and Translational Science Institute

Stroke is a world-wide leading cause of death and long-term disability with concurrent secondary consequences that are largely comprised of mood dysfunction, as well as sensory, motor, and cognitive deficits. This review focuses on the cognitive deficits associated with stroke specific to executive dysfunction (including decision making, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) in humans, non-human primates, and additional animal models. Further, we review some of the cellular and molecular underpinnings of the individual components of executive dysfunction and their neuroanatomical substrates after stroke, with an emphasis on the changes that occur during biogenic monoamine neurotransmission. We concentrate primarily on changes …


Anxiety Modulates The Relation Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Severity And Working Memory-Related Brain Activity, Dennis Van Der Meer, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Daan Van Rooij, Anderson M. Winkler, Hanneke Van Ewijk, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Stephen V. Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K. Buitelaar Sep 2018

Anxiety Modulates The Relation Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Severity And Working Memory-Related Brain Activity, Dennis Van Der Meer, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Daan Van Rooij, Anderson M. Winkler, Hanneke Van Ewijk, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Stephen V. Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K. Buitelaar

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

OBJECTIVES: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have heightened levels of anxiety, which has been associated with worse performance on working memory tasks. Knowledge of the neural pathways underlying the combined presence of ADHD and anxiety may aid in a better understanding of their co-occurrence. Therefore, we investigated how anxiety modulates the effect of ADHD severity on neural activity during a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task.

METHODS: Neuroimaging data were available for 371 adolescents and young adults participating in the multicentre cohort study NeuroIMAGE (average age 17.1 years). We analysed the effects of ADHD severity, anxiety severity and their …


Working Memory And Falls Risk In Older Adults: An Event-Related Potential Study, Yee (Michelle) S. Wong Aug 2018

Working Memory And Falls Risk In Older Adults: An Event-Related Potential Study, Yee (Michelle) S. Wong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

BACKGROUND: The aging population is rapidly increasing, where currently in North America, the population of older adults (ages 60+) outnumbers the population of children. Falls are a major concern for older adults and their quality of life. Cognitive impairment has been shown to be declined in older adults at-risk for falls, but working memory has not been thoroughly investigated within this population. PURPOSE: To examine differences in Non-Fallers, Moderate Risk for Falls, and Fallers in a working memory task using electroencephalography (EEG). METHODS: Older adults (n=44, female=27) aged 60 – 80 years (m=68.8, SD=4.7) completed two sessions. The first session …


Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (Pacap) Signaling In The Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Cued Fear Learning, But Not Spatial Working Memory, In Female Rats, Adam J. Kirry, Matthew R. Herbst, Sarah E. Poirier, Michelle M. Maskeri, Amy C. Rothwell, Robert C. Twining, Marieke R. Gilmartin May 2018

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (Pacap) Signaling In The Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Cued Fear Learning, But Not Spatial Working Memory, In Female Rats, Adam J. Kirry, Matthew R. Herbst, Sarah E. Poirier, Michelle M. Maskeri, Amy C. Rothwell, Robert C. Twining, Marieke R. Gilmartin

Biomedical Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

A genetic polymorphism within the gene encoding the pituitary adenylate cyclase- activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor type I (PAC1R) has recently been associated with hyper-reactivity to threat-related cues in women, but not men, with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PACAP is a highly conserved peptide, whose role in mediating adaptive physiological stress responses is well established. Far less is understood about the contribution of PACAP signaling in emotional learning and memory, particularly the encoding of fear to discrete cues. Moreover, a neurobiological substrate that may account for the observed link between PAC1R and PTSD in women, but not men, has yet to …


Deficits In Visual Working-Memory Capacity And General Cognition In African Americans With Psychosis, Samuel R. Mathias, Emma E. Knowles, Jennifer Barrett, Tamara Beetham, Olivia Leach, Sebastiano Buccheri, Katrina Aberizk, John Blangero, Russell A. Poldrack, David C. Glahn Mar 2018

Deficits In Visual Working-Memory Capacity And General Cognition In African Americans With Psychosis, Samuel R. Mathias, Emma E. Knowles, Jennifer Barrett, Tamara Beetham, Olivia Leach, Sebastiano Buccheri, Katrina Aberizk, John Blangero, Russell A. Poldrack, David C. Glahn

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

On average, patients with psychosis perform worse than controls on visual change-detection tasks, implying that psychosis is associated with reduced capacity of visual working memory (WM). In the present study, 79 patients diagnosed with various psychotic disorders and 166 controls, all African Americans, completed a change-detection task and several other neurocognitive measures. The aims of the study were to (1) determine whether we could observe a between-group difference in performance on the change-detection task in this sample; (2) establish whether such a difference could be specifically attributed to reduced WM capacity (k); and (3) estimate k in the …


The Potential Effects Of Exercise-Induced Cortisol Release On Executive Functioning In Preadolescents, Kory Matthew Bettencourt Jan 2018

The Potential Effects Of Exercise-Induced Cortisol Release On Executive Functioning In Preadolescents, Kory Matthew Bettencourt

Master's Theses

Purpose: Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (MAE) has been shown to elicit improvements in cognition and subsequent academic performance among preadolescents. Aerobic exercise has also shown to increase cortisol release in response to increasing exercise intensity. However, it is unknown if increased cortisol levels following exercise are related to acute improvements in executive function following a bout of MAE in preadolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effects of increased cortisol release after acute MAE on attention and working memory among preadolescents. Methods: Eleven preadolescents [6 males, 5 females] volunteered to participate in this study (age=9.45±1.03). …


Assessing Cognitive Abilities In High-Performing Cochlear Implant Users., Jake Hillyer, Elizabeth Elkins, Chantel Hazlewood, Stacey D Watson, Julie G Arenberg, Alexandra Parbery-Clark Jan 2018

Assessing Cognitive Abilities In High-Performing Cochlear Implant Users., Jake Hillyer, Elizabeth Elkins, Chantel Hazlewood, Stacey D Watson, Julie G Arenberg, Alexandra Parbery-Clark

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Despite being considered one of the most successful neural prostheses, cochlear implants (CIs) provide recipients with a wide range of speech perception performance. While some CI users can understand speech in the absence of visual cues, other recipients exhibit more limited speech perception. Cognitive skills have been documented as a contributor to complex auditory processing, such as language understanding; however, there are no normative data for existing standardized clinical tests assessing cognitive abilities in CI users. Here, we assess the impact of modality of presentation (i.e., auditory-visual versus visual) for the administration of working memory tests in high-performing CI users …


Low Arousal Positive Emotional Stimuli Attenuate Aberrant Working Memory Processing In Persons With Mild Cognitive Impairment, Lucas S. Broster, Shonna L. Jenkins, Sarah D. Holmes, Gregory A. Jicha, Yang Jiang Nov 2017

Low Arousal Positive Emotional Stimuli Attenuate Aberrant Working Memory Processing In Persons With Mild Cognitive Impairment, Lucas S. Broster, Shonna L. Jenkins, Sarah D. Holmes, Gregory A. Jicha, Yang Jiang

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

Emotional enhancement effects on memory have been reported to mitigate the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, relative to their manifestation in persons without pathologic aging, these effects may be reduced in magnitude or even deleterious, especially in tasks that more closely model ecologic memory performance. Based upon a synthesis of such reports, we hypothesized that in persons with AD low arousal positive stimuli would evoke relatively intact emotional enhancement effects, but that high arousal negative stimuli would evoke disordered emotional enhancement effects. To assess this, participants with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) presumed to be due to AD …


A Cognitive Electrophysiological Signature Differentiates Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment From Normal Aging, Juan Li, Lucas S. Broster, Gregory A. Jicha, Nancy B. Munro, Frederick A. Schmitt, Erin L. Abner, Richard J. Kryscio, Charles D. Smith, Yang Jiang Jan 2017

A Cognitive Electrophysiological Signature Differentiates Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment From Normal Aging, Juan Li, Lucas S. Broster, Gregory A. Jicha, Nancy B. Munro, Frederick A. Schmitt, Erin L. Abner, Richard J. Kryscio, Charles D. Smith, Yang Jiang

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

Background: Noninvasive and effective biomarkers for early detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) before measurable changes in behavioral performance remain scarce. Cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) measure synchronized synaptic neural activity associated with a cognitive event. Loss of synapses is a hallmark of the neuropathology of early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ERP responses during working memory retrieval discriminate aMCI from cognitively normal controls (NC) matched in age and education.

Methods: Eighteen NC, 17 subjects with aMCI, and 13 subjects with AD performed a delayed match-to-sample task specially designed not only to be …


Working Memory And Language Learning: A Review, Lisa Archibald, Lisa Archibald Jan 2017

Working Memory And Language Learning: A Review, Lisa Archibald, Lisa Archibald

Communication Sciences and Disorders Publications

Children with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN) form a highly heterogeneous group including those with an unexplained delay in language development known as specific language impairment (SLI). There is growing recognition that multiple mechanisms underlie the range of profiles observed in these children. Broadly speaking, both the domain-general executive attentional system known as working memory and domain-specific linguistic processing have been implicated in children with SLI. It has been challenging to tease apart these influences, however, due to the symbiotic relationship between working memory and language learning. For example, working memory limits might constrain the linguistic detail encoded whereas …


Relative Clause Sentence Comprehension By Japanese-Speaking Children With Specific Language Impairment And Children With Typical Language Development, Miho Sasaki Sep 2016

Relative Clause Sentence Comprehension By Japanese-Speaking Children With Specific Language Impairment And Children With Typical Language Development, Miho Sasaki

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Comprehension of sentences with relative clauses was examined in Japanese-speaking children with SLI and children with TLD. The children with SLI showed comparable comprehension with the TLD peers, when the language and memory tests’ scores were controlled. The children with TLD consistently had difficulties in OR sentences than SR sentences, in spite of that Japanese relative clauses are different from English ones. The children with SLI showed the opposite pattern. Working memory rather than language knowledge predicted better the comprehension performance for all the children.


The Development Of Attention Systems And Working Memory In Infancy, Greg D. Reynolds, Alexandra C. Romano Mar 2016

The Development Of Attention Systems And Working Memory In Infancy, Greg D. Reynolds, Alexandra C. Romano

Psychology Publications and Other Works

In this article, we review research and theory on the development of attention and working memory in infancy using a developmental cognitive neuroscience framework. We begin with a review of studies examining the influence of attention on neural and behavioral correlates of an earlier developing and closely related form of memory (i.e., recognition memory). Findings from studies measuring attention utilizing looking measures, heart rate, and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicate significant developmental change in sustained and selective attention across the infancy period. For example, infants show gains in the magnitude of the attention related response and spend a greater proportion of …


Oscillation Phase Locking And Late Erp Components Of Intracranial Hippocampal Recordings Correlate To Patient Performance In A Working Memory Task, Jonathan K. Kleen, Markus E. Testorf, David W. Roberts, Rod C. Scott Jan 2016

Oscillation Phase Locking And Late Erp Components Of Intracranial Hippocampal Recordings Correlate To Patient Performance In A Working Memory Task, Jonathan K. Kleen, Markus E. Testorf, David W. Roberts, Rod C. Scott

Dartmouth Scholarship

In working memory tasks, stimulus presentation induces a resetting of intracranial temporal lobe oscillations in multiple frequency bands. To further understand the functional relevance of this phenomenon, we investigated whether working memory performance depends on the phase precision of ongoing oscillations in the hippocampus. We recorded intra-hippocampal local field potentials in individuals performing a working memory task. Two types of trials were administered. For high memory trials presentation of a list of four letters ("List") was followed by a single letter memory probe ("Test"). Low memory load trials, consisting of four identical letters (AAAA) followed by a probe with the …


Predicting Second Grade Listening Comprehension Using Prekindergarten Measures, Crystle N. Alonzo, Gloria Yeomans-Maldonado, Kimberly A. Murphy, Beau Bevens, Language And Reading Research Consortium (Larrc) Jan 2016

Predicting Second Grade Listening Comprehension Using Prekindergarten Measures, Crystle N. Alonzo, Gloria Yeomans-Maldonado, Kimberly A. Murphy, Beau Bevens, Language And Reading Research Consortium (Larrc)

Communication Disorders & Special Education Faculty Publications

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine prekindergarten predictors of listening comprehension in second grade. Methods: Within a large, 5-year longitudinal study, children progressing from prekindergarten to second grade were administered a comprehensive set of prekindergarten measures of foundational language skills (vocabulary and grammar), higher-level language skills (inferencing, comprehension monitoring, and text structure knowledge), listening comprehension, working memory, and nonverbal processing, as well as second grade measures of listening comprehension. Results: A prekindergarten measure of listening comprehension-the Test of Narrative Language-and a prekindergarten measure of foundational language skills and working memory-the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 Recalling …


Working Memory And Interference Control In Children With Specific Language Impairment, Klara Marton, Naomi Eichorn, Luca Campanelli, Lilla Zakarias Jan 2016

Working Memory And Interference Control In Children With Specific Language Impairment, Klara Marton, Naomi Eichorn, Luca Campanelli, Lilla Zakarias

Publications and Research

Language and communication disorders are often associated with deficits in working memory (WM) and interference control. WM studies involving children with specific language impairment (SLI) have traditionally been framed using either resource theories or decay accounts, particularly Baddeley's model. Although significant interference problems in children with SLI are apparent in error analysis data from WM and language tasks, interference theories and paradigms have not been widely used in the SLI literature. A primary goal of the present paper is to provide an overview of interference deficits in children with SLI. Review of the extant literature on interference control shows deficits …


Standardized Patient Encounters Periodic Versus Postencounter Evaluation Of Nontechnical Clinical Performance, T. Robert Turner, Mark W. Scerbo, Gayle A. Gliva-Mcconvey, Amelia M. Wallace Jan 2016

Standardized Patient Encounters Periodic Versus Postencounter Evaluation Of Nontechnical Clinical Performance, T. Robert Turner, Mark W. Scerbo, Gayle A. Gliva-Mcconvey, Amelia M. Wallace

Psychology Faculty Publications

Introduction: Standardized patients are a beneficial component of modern healthcare education and training, but few studies have explored cognitive factors potentially impacting clinical skills assessment during standardized patient encounters. This study examined the impact of a periodic (vs. traditional postencounter) evaluation approach and the appearance of critical verbal and nonverbal behaviors throughout a standardized patient encounter on scoring accuracy in a video-based scenario.

Methods: Forty-nine standardized patients scored either periodically or at only 1 point in time (postencounter) a healthcare provider's verbal and nonverbal clinical performance during a videotaped standardized patient encounter. The healthcare provider portrayed in this study was …