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Pain

2010

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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Haploinsufficiency Of Rai1 And Its Effect On Bdnf Expression, Sun Kim Dec 2010

Haploinsufficiency Of Rai1 And Its Effect On Bdnf Expression, Sun Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) [OMIM, #182290] is a congenital anomaly and mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome17p11.2 [1]. The clinical phenotype has been well described and includes minor craniofacial anomalies, self-injurious behaviors as well as sleep disturbances, speech delays, and obesity [1,2,3]. The incidence of SMS is estimated to be ~ 1:15,000 - 25,000 births [2,6]. Among SMS patients, ~90% are comprised of 17p11.2 deletions, while ~10% have RAI1 mutations [8]. All 17p11.2 deletions associated with SMS include RAI1 deletion [10]. RAI1 is thought to function as a transcriptional factor although its cellular role is still unclear. First, …


Facial Expression Discriminates Between Pain And Absence Of Pain In The Non-Communicative, Critically Ill Adult Patient, Mamoona Arif-Rahu Dec 2010

Facial Expression Discriminates Between Pain And Absence Of Pain In The Non-Communicative, Critically Ill Adult Patient, Mamoona Arif-Rahu

Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND: Pain assessment is a significant challenge in critically ill adults, especially those unable to communicate their pain level. At present there is no universally accepted pain scale for use in the non-communicative (cognitively impaired, sedated, paralyzed or mechanically ventilated) patient. Facial expressions are considered among the most reflexive and automatic nonverbal indices of pain. The facial expression component of pain assessment tools include a variety of facial descriptors (wincing, frowning, grimacing, smile/relaxed) with inconsistent pain intensity ratings or checklists of behaviors. The lack of consistent facial expression description and quantification of pain intensity makes standardization of pain evaluation difficult. …


Infant Pain Management, Breanne Ziraldo Nov 2010

Infant Pain Management, Breanne Ziraldo

Senior Honors Theses

Emphasis on infant pain management has recently become prominent in the medical field. Though it was once thought that infants do not feel pain or remember pain, this thinking has changed due to recent research on the subject. This research has found that infants’ underdeveloped nervous systems actually leads to increased pain rather than decreased pain as previously thought. Research has also found that there are long-term developmental risks associated with prolonged or unmanaged pain in infancy. However, this has not been applied to clinical practice. Studies show that infants are still being under-medicated, if medicated at all, for painful …


Chronic Spontaneous Activity Generated In The Somata Of Primary Nociceptors Is Associated With Pain-Related Behavior After Spinal Cord Injury, Supinder S Bedi, Qing Yang, Robyn J Crook, Junhui Du, Zizhen Wu, Harvey M Fishman, Raymond J Grill, Susan M Carlton, Edgar T Walters Nov 2010

Chronic Spontaneous Activity Generated In The Somata Of Primary Nociceptors Is Associated With Pain-Related Behavior After Spinal Cord Injury, Supinder S Bedi, Qing Yang, Robyn J Crook, Junhui Du, Zizhen Wu, Harvey M Fishman, Raymond J Grill, Susan M Carlton, Edgar T Walters

Journal Articles

Mechanisms underlying chronic pain that develops after spinal cord injury (SCI) are incompletely understood. Most research on SCI pain mechanisms has focused on neuronal alterations within pain pathways at spinal and supraspinal levels associated with inflammation and glial activation. These events might also impact central processes of primary sensory neurons, triggering in nociceptors a hyperexcitable state and spontaneous activity (SA) that drive behavioral hypersensitivity and pain. SCI can sensitize peripheral fibers of nociceptors and promote peripheral SA, but whether these effects are driven by extrinsic alterations in surrounding tissue or are intrinsic to the nociceptor, and whether similar SA occurs …


Sex Differences In Symptom Presentation Associated With Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Perspective, Robert Goldberg, Caitlin O'Donnell, Jorge Yarzebski, Carol Bigelow, Judith Savageau, Joel Gore Jul 2010

Sex Differences In Symptom Presentation Associated With Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Perspective, Robert Goldberg, Caitlin O'Donnell, Jorge Yarzebski, Carol Bigelow, Judith Savageau, Joel Gore

Jorge L. Yarzebski

OBJECTIVES: To describe sex differences in symptom presentation after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) while controlling for differences in age and other potentially confounding factors. BACKGROUND: Although several studies have examined sex differences in diagnosis, management, and survival after AMI, limited data exist about possible sex differences in symptom presentation in the setting of AMI. METHODS: Community-based study of patients hospitalized with confirmed AMI in all 16 metropolitan Worcester, Mass., hospitals (1990 census population = 437,000). Men (n = 810) and women (n = 550) hospitalized with validated AMI in 1986 and 1988 comprised the study sample. RESULTS: After simultaneously controlling …


Positioning Techniques To Reduce The Occurrence Of Dequervain’S Tendonitis In Nursing Mothers, Alison Virzi Jul 2010

Positioning Techniques To Reduce The Occurrence Of Dequervain’S Tendonitis In Nursing Mothers, Alison Virzi

Dissertations, Masters Theses, Capstones, and Culminating Projects

DeQuervain's tendonitis is an inflammation of two tendons: the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus as they cross in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. Symptoms include pain, swelling along the radial aspect of the wrist, and a decrease in thumb motion. A positive Finkelstein's test at examination is seen. Frequently it is caused by repetitively gripping, lifting, and positioning the wrist in flexion, ulnar deviation with thumb extension. It is a common diagnosis in women, referred to as "washerwoman's syndrome". It is also common for new mothers to experience due to the demands their wrists are …


Comparison Of Carprofen, Vedaprofen And Tepoxalin For Postoperative Analgesia And Serum Pge2 Level In Dogs After Ovariohysterectomy, Naris Thengchaisri, Panpicha Sattasathuchana, Sirirat Niyom, Wannasit Chantornvong Jun 2010

Comparison Of Carprofen, Vedaprofen And Tepoxalin For Postoperative Analgesia And Serum Pge2 Level In Dogs After Ovariohysterectomy, Naris Thengchaisri, Panpicha Sattasathuchana, Sirirat Niyom, Wannasit Chantornvong

The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine

Comparison of analgesic efficacy of 3 non-steroidal analgesic drugs (carprofen, vedaprofen and tepoxalin) were performed in 40 dogs after ovariohysterectomy. Oral administration of placebo (sugar pill), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg/day), vedaprofen (0.5 mg/kg/day), or tepoxalin (20 mg/kg/day) for 3 days were performed in dogs recovering from ovariohysterectomy. Numerical pain scores (descriptive and composite pain scores) were measured in blinded fashion by three investigators at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 hrs following the recovery. The average descriptive and composite pain scores of dogs treated with carprofen or tepoxalin were significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.05), however, no significance difference was found between the vedaprofen-treated and control groups (p>0.05). Serum …


Evidence For A Role Of Endocannabinoids, Astrocytes And P38 Phosphorylation In The Resolution Of Postoperative Pain, Matthew S. Alkaitis, Carlos Solorzano, Russell P. Landry, Daniele Piomelli, Joyce A. Deleo, E. Alfonso Romero-Sandoval May 2010

Evidence For A Role Of Endocannabinoids, Astrocytes And P38 Phosphorylation In The Resolution Of Postoperative Pain, Matthew S. Alkaitis, Carlos Solorzano, Russell P. Landry, Daniele Piomelli, Joyce A. Deleo, E. Alfonso Romero-Sandoval

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background: An alarming portion of patients develop persistent or chronic pain following surgical procedures, but the mechanisms underlying the transition from acute to chronic pain states are not fully understood. In general, endocannabinoids (ECBs) inhibit nociceptive processing by stimulating cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2). We have previously shown that intrathecal administration of a CB2 receptor agonist reverses both surgical incision-induced behavioral hypersensitivity and associated over-expression of spinal glial markers. We therefore hypothesized that endocannabinoid signaling promotes the resolution of acute postoperative pain by modulating pro-inflammatory signaling in spinal cord glial cells. …


The Conundrum Of Sensitization When Recording From Nociceptors, Geoffrey M. Bove, Andrew Dilley May 2010

The Conundrum Of Sensitization When Recording From Nociceptors, Geoffrey M. Bove, Andrew Dilley

Biomedical Sciences Faculty Publications

Nociceptors are sensory neurons that detect harmful, or potentially harmful, stimuli, and can become sensitized following injury or repetitive stimulation. When sensitized, nociceptors often exhibit activity in the absence of apparent or additional stimulation, called ongoing (or spontaneous) activity (OA). In this report, we provide evidence that OA in nociceptors can be caused by the stimuli typically used to identify and characterize the neuron, which must by definition be noxious and therefore potentially sensitizing. Such OA caused by the experimental methodology can confound interpretation. In our nerve inflammation model, OA can potentially arise from multiple sites, including the lesion site …


Pain Management In Nursing Home Residents With Cancer And Dementia With And Without Hospice Services, Todd Bryant Monroe May 2010

Pain Management In Nursing Home Residents With Cancer And Dementia With And Without Hospice Services, Todd Bryant Monroe

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Aims: We sought to identify differences in pain management between two groups; nursing home residents with malignant cancer and dementia with and without hospice services.

Methods: Decedent records from 2003-2009 were assessed for diagnosis of dementia and cause of death as cancer. Ten malignant cancer diagnoses were determined a priori from the CDC 2004 data on the top 10 malignant cancers for all races and genders. Fifty-five decedents from 10 nursing homes were included in the final sample. Four instruments were used: Minimum Data Set (MDS) a standardized assessment tool required of most U.S. nursing homes. A large …


The Correlation Between Visual Observations And Inclinometric Measurements For Special Tests Related To Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome, Erin Quada Apr 2010

The Correlation Between Visual Observations And Inclinometric Measurements For Special Tests Related To Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome, Erin Quada

Human Movement Sciences & Special Education Theses & Dissertations

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is generally described as an insidious onset with pain increasing during running, jumping, ascending and descending stairs as well as sitting with the knees flexed for an extended period of time. Clinicians often use special tests in injury evaluations and range of motion assessments, usually making a visual observation of that status of the patient. The purpose of this study was to examine how interval measurements utilized in flexibility and range of motion assessments correlate with visual observations of special tests (active knee extension test, Thomas test, Ober's test, rectus femoris flexibility, and Craig's test). The …


Genetic Influences On The Dynamics Of Pain And Affect In Fibromyalgia, Howard A. Tennen, Jonathan Covault Mar 2010

Genetic Influences On The Dynamics Of Pain And Affect In Fibromyalgia, Howard A. Tennen, Jonathan Covault

UCHC Articles - Research

Objective The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) genes is associated with pain-related positive affective regulation in fibromyalgia (FM). Design Forty-six female FM patients completed an electronic diary that included daily assessments of positive affect and pain. Between- and within-person analyses were conducted with multilevel modeling. Main Outcome Measure Daily positive affect was the primary outcome measure. Results Analyses revealed a significant gene × experience interaction for COMT, such that individuals with met/met genotype experienced a greater decline in positive affect on days …


The Contribution Of Nmda Receptors Within The Central Nucleus Of The Amygdala To The Suppression Of Pain Affect, Catherine Ann Spuz Jan 2010

The Contribution Of Nmda Receptors Within The Central Nucleus Of The Amygdala To The Suppression Of Pain Affect, Catherine Ann Spuz

Wayne State University Dissertations

The amygdala processes stimuli that threaten an individual and organizes the execution of affective behaviors designed to cope with the threat. The prototypical threat to an individual is exposure to a noxious stimulus. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) receives nociceptive afferents and exhibits neuronal activation in response to noxious peripheral stimulation. NMDA receptors within CeA mediate this noxious-evoked neural excitation, and previous studies in the laboratory have shown that blockade of CeA NMDA receptors via the antagonist APV elevates the threshold for noxious tail-shock-induced vocalization afterdischarges (VADs), a validated measure of pain affect in the rat. The present …


Tender Point Count, Pain, And Mobility In The Older Population: The Mobilize Boston Study, Suzanne G. Leveille, Laura H.P. Eggermont Jan 2010

Tender Point Count, Pain, And Mobility In The Older Population: The Mobilize Boston Study, Suzanne G. Leveille, Laura H.P. Eggermont

Suzanne G. Leveille

Abstract: Prevalence of tender points (TP), and widespread pain and fibromyalgia, as well as the relationship between TP and widespread pain and mobility, was examined in 585 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 78.2 years, 63.4% female). Pain was based on location (none, single site, multisite, widespread). Mobility was measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, and self-reported (S-R) mobility difficulty. Tender-point count and health characteristics (ie, BMI, chronic conditions, analgesic use, number of medications, depression, and blocks walked per week) were assessed. Several participants had 3 or more TP (22.1%) although prevalence of criteria-based fibromyalgia was low …


Expectations Of Pain Relief Utilizing Epidural Analgesia, Kelly Powell Morris Jan 2010

Expectations Of Pain Relief Utilizing Epidural Analgesia, Kelly Powell Morris

Nursing Theses and Capstone Projects

This study describes patient expectations and actual pain relief reported by patients experiencing childbirth while utilizing epidural analgesia as their method of choice to reduce the pain associated with childbirth using a quantitative descriptive design. Data were collected using the Expectations of Pain Relief Utilizing Epidural Analgesia Questionnaire. The sample (N=17) consisted of first-time mothers delivering at an acute community hospital who were participants in the county's Nurse-Family Partnership Program. The questionnaire, developed by the researcher, was distributed to participants by their Nurse-Family Partnership Registered Nurse during a routine postpartum home visit during the three month study time span. The …


Single Shot “3-In-1” Femoral Nerve Blockade With 0.25% Or 0.375% Levobupivacaine Provides Similar Postoperative Analgesia For Total Knee Replacement, Alpaslan Apan, Fi̇li̇z Sari, Alp Burak Ekmekçi̇ Jan 2010

Single Shot “3-In-1” Femoral Nerve Blockade With 0.25% Or 0.375% Levobupivacaine Provides Similar Postoperative Analgesia For Total Knee Replacement, Alpaslan Apan, Fi̇li̇z Sari, Alp Burak Ekmekçi̇

Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences

To compare postoperative analgesia provided by single shot "3-in-1" femoral nerve blockade using 0.25% or 0.375% levobupivacaine in preceding with spinal anesthesia for unilateral total knee replacement surgery. Materials and methods: Forty consenting patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty were included in this prospective randomized study. Spinal anesthesia was achieved with 15 mg plain bupivacaine at the L3-4 or L4-5 interspace. After resolution of the spinal anesthesia, patients were randomized into 2 groups: "3-in-1" femoral nerve blocks were performed using 30 mL of 0.25% levobupivacaine (Group 1, n = 20) or 0.375% levobupivacaine (Group 2, n = 20). Pain was …