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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Determining Effective Treatment Regimens For Breast Cancer Using Combined Immunotherapy And Chemotherapy In Vivo, Akhila Kunuthuru Jan 2024

Determining Effective Treatment Regimens For Breast Cancer Using Combined Immunotherapy And Chemotherapy In Vivo, Akhila Kunuthuru

Auctus: The Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Scholarship

Breast cancer has the highest incidence rate of all cancers globally in women, and those of African descent, especially West African females, face higher rates of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a more aggressive form of breast cancer. Immunotherapy for breast cancer is a relatively new treatment option, and research is ongoing to identify the best combination treatments for increasing survival of those diagnosed with TNBC. Eganelisib (IPI-549: a PI3K-gamma inhibitor that works to shift M2 macrophages to M1 to augment T cell function) with other combinatory treatments has shown promising results in reducing tumor growth and increasing survival in mice. …


Determining Effective Treatment Regimens For Breast Cancer Using Combined Immunotherapy And Chemotherapy In Vivo, Akhila R. Kunuthuru, Laura Graham, Harry D. Bear Md, Phd Jan 2022

Determining Effective Treatment Regimens For Breast Cancer Using Combined Immunotherapy And Chemotherapy In Vivo, Akhila R. Kunuthuru, Laura Graham, Harry D. Bear Md, Phd

Undergraduate Research Posters

Breast cancer has the highest incidence rate of all cancers globally in women, and those of African descent, especially West African females, face higher rates of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a more aggressive form of breast cancer. Immunotherapy for breast cancer is a relatively new treatment option, and research is ongoing to identify the best combination treatments for increasing survival of those diagnosed with TNBC. Eganelisib (IPI-549: a PI3K-gamma inhibitor that works to shift M2 macrophages to M1 to augment T cell function) with other combinatory treatments has shown promising results in reducing tumor growth and increasing survival in mice. …


A Novel Immunostimulatory Platform For Amplifying The Abscopal Response Rates Of Radiation Therapy, Patrick A. Paez Jan 2021

A Novel Immunostimulatory Platform For Amplifying The Abscopal Response Rates Of Radiation Therapy, Patrick A. Paez

Theses and Dissertations

Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the primary treatment modalities for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). At the time of diagnosis two-thirds of HNSCC patients have local-advanced disease and 50-60% of these patients will experience a local-regional or metastatic relapse within three years. Improving the immunogenic response of RT may help address this clinical problem. However, current RT regimens have failed to reliably generate robust antitumor immunity as evidenced by the rarity of clinical abscopal responses. Recently we engineered a chimeric fusion molecule called Flagrp170, a novel immunostimulatory agent highly capable of promoting antigen presentation and T-cell activation. …


Treatments For The Mitigation Of Immunotherapy-Related Neurotoxicities In Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Gautam Chiang Jan 2021

Treatments For The Mitigation Of Immunotherapy-Related Neurotoxicities In Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Gautam Chiang

Auctus: The Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Scholarship

Lung cancer is the most common cancer type worldwide, with one of the highest mortality rates across all cancer types. Cancer immunotherapeutics such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have improved cancer treatment by promoting the body’s natural immune response to tumor development while avoiding toxic effects associated with traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, immunotherapies have been associated with unique toxic effects similar to autoimmune disorders known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). 4.2% of immunotherapy-treated cancer patients reportedly developed neurological irAEs. In this review, different immunotherapies were studied, including ICIs and mechanism-specific novel therapies, in order to determine a combination therapy to …


Immunotherapy Of Cancer: Reprogramming Tumor/Immune Cellular Crosstalk To Improve Anti-Tumor Efficacy, Kyle K. Payne Jan 2015

Immunotherapy Of Cancer: Reprogramming Tumor/Immune Cellular Crosstalk To Improve Anti-Tumor Efficacy, Kyle K. Payne

Theses and Dissertations

Immunotherapy of cancer has been shown to be promising in prolonging patient survival. However, complete elimination of cancer and life-long relapse-free survival remain to be major challenge for anti-cancer therapeutics. We have previously reported that ex vivo reprogramming of tumor-sensitized immune cells by bryostatin 1/ionomycin (B/I) and the gamma-chain (γ-c) cytokines IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 resulted in the generation of memory T cells as well as CD25+ NKT cells and CD25+ NK cells. Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) utilizing these reprogrammed immune cells protected FVBN202 mice from tumor challenge, and overcame the suppressive functions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We then …


Treatment-Induced Breast Cancer Dormancy And Relapse, Rebecca Keim Jan 2014

Treatment-Induced Breast Cancer Dormancy And Relapse, Rebecca Keim

Theses and Dissertations

When breast tumor cells encounter stress due to cancer therapies, they may enter a dormant state, escaping from treatment-induced apoptosis. Dormant cells may eventually regain proliferative capabilities and cause recurrent metastatic disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in breast cancer patients. We sought to determine if a high dose of radiation therapy (RT) or combined chemo-immunotherapy, with and without the blockade of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ), could overcome treatment-induced tumor dormancy or relapse. We found that autophagy contributes in part to treatment-induced tumor dormancy. We also found that three therapeutic strategies were successful in inhibiting or preventing tumor …


Ex Vivo Reprogramming Of Tumor-Reactive Immune Cells From Fvbn202 Mice Bearing Lung Metastatic Mammary Carcinoma: An Immunotherapeutic Opportunity Revealed Against Recurrence, Charles Hall Jul 2013

Ex Vivo Reprogramming Of Tumor-Reactive Immune Cells From Fvbn202 Mice Bearing Lung Metastatic Mammary Carcinoma: An Immunotherapeutic Opportunity Revealed Against Recurrence, Charles Hall

Theses and Dissertations

Metastatic breast cancer treatment has seen few advances in recent years, yet treatment resistance continues to rise, causing disease recurrence. A pilot study was performed to determine the efficacy of ex vivo expansion and reprogramming of tumor-reactive immune cells from experimental metastatic tumor-sensitized mice. Also, phenotypic changes in tumors due to metastasis or tumor microenvironment influences were characterized. Metastatic neu+ mouse mammary carcinoma (mMMC) and its distant relapsing neu-antigen-negative variant (mANV) were investigated in FVBN202 mice. Tumor-reactive central memory CD8+ T cells and activated NK/NKT cells were successfully reprogrammed and expanded during 6-day expansion from mMMC- and/or mANV-sensitized mice, resulting …


Factors That Lead To The Immunotherapy Gap In Multiple Sclerosis Testing, Karthika Solai Jan 2013

Factors That Lead To The Immunotherapy Gap In Multiple Sclerosis Testing, Karthika Solai

Auctus: The Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Scholarship

Multiple sclerosis is a disease that affects the central nervous system. Most doctors and scientists believe that it is an autoimmune disease. Simply put, the immune system attacks the nerves in a person’s body, thereby causing myelin damage, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. The plaque that then builds up on the nerves is scar tissue created when the wounds made by the immune system heal. It is this plaque that inhibits communication between the axons in the body and causes the symptoms of MS, which includes problems with movement, pain, vision problems, trouble swallowing, fatigue, and heat sensitivity (Baker et al., 2011, …


The Role Of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells In The Immunotherapy Of Breast Carcinomas, Johanna Morales Apr 2009

The Role Of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells In The Immunotherapy Of Breast Carcinomas, Johanna Morales

Theses and Dissertations

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature cells at various stages of differentiation. These cells are broadly characterized by the simultaneous expression of the surface markers CD11b and Gr1 and have been found to accumulate in large numbers in response to many different tumors in both mice and humans, including HER2/neu+ breast cancers. The adoptive immunotherapy of cancers has been a promising field, yet the clinical efficacy of adoptive immunotherapies targeted against human breast cancers and many other cancers has been extremely limited. Given the influx of MDSC in tumor-bearing individuals, we hypothesized that these cells were …