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The Happy Older Latinos Are Active (Hola) Health Promotion And Prevention Study: Study Protocol For A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial, Daniel E. Jimenez, Charles F. Reynolds, Margarita Alegría, Philip Harvey, Stephen Bartels Dec 2015

The Happy Older Latinos Are Active (Hola) Health Promotion And Prevention Study: Study Protocol For A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial, Daniel E. Jimenez, Charles F. Reynolds, Margarita Alegría, Philip Harvey, Stephen Bartels

Dartmouth Scholarship

Results of previous studies attest to the greater illness burden of common mental disorders (anxiety and depression) in older Latinos and the need for developing preventive interventions that are effective, acceptable, and scalable. Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA) is a newly developed intervention that uses a community health worker (CHW) to lead a health promotion program in order to prevent common mental disorders among at-risk older Latinos. This pilot study tests the feasibility and acceptability of delivering HOLA to older, at-risk Latinos.

Methods/Design: HOLA is a multi-component, health promotion intervention funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). …


Correspondence Between Self-Report And Interview-Based Assessments Of Antisocial Personality Disorder, Laura Guy, Norman Poythress, Kevin Douglas, Jennifer Skeem, John Edens Dec 2015

Correspondence Between Self-Report And Interview-Based Assessments Of Antisocial Personality Disorder, Laura Guy, Norman Poythress, Kevin Douglas, Jennifer Skeem, John Edens

Norman Poythress

Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with suicide, violence, and risk-taking behavior and can slow response to first-line treatment for Axis I disorders. ASPD may be assessed infrequently because few efficient diagnostic tools are available. This study evaluated 2 promising self-report measures for assessing ASPD--the ASPD scale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4; S. E. Hyler, 1994) and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. Morey, 1991, 2007)--as well as the ASPD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II (SCID-II; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, J. B. W. Williams, and L. S. Benjamin, 1997). The …


Factors Differentiating Successful Versus Unsuccessful Malingerers, John Edens, Laura Guy, Randy Otto, Jacqueline Buffington, Tara Tomicic, Norman Poythress Dec 2015

Factors Differentiating Successful Versus Unsuccessful Malingerers, John Edens, Laura Guy, Randy Otto, Jacqueline Buffington, Tara Tomicic, Norman Poythress

Norman Poythress

Relatively little is known about the processes in which "successful" malingerers engage to avoid detection. This study summarizes the response strategies used by participants (N = 540) instructed to feign a specific mental disorder while completing various self-report instruments designed to detect faking. Postexperiment questionnaires indicated that those who were able to appear symptomatic while avoiding being detected as feigning (n = 60) were more likely to endorse a lower rate of legitimate symptoms, to avoid overly unusual or bizarre items, and to base their responses on their own personal experiences.


Trends In Psychotropic Dispensing Among Older Adults With Dementia Living In Long-Term Care Facilities: 2004-2013., Akshya Vasudev, Salimah Z Shariff, Kuan Liu, Amer M Burhan, Nathan Herrmann, Sean Leonard, Muhammad Mamdani Dec 2015

Trends In Psychotropic Dispensing Among Older Adults With Dementia Living In Long-Term Care Facilities: 2004-2013., Akshya Vasudev, Salimah Z Shariff, Kuan Liu, Amer M Burhan, Nathan Herrmann, Sean Leonard, Muhammad Mamdani

Psychiatry Publications

OBJECTIVE: Guidelines worldwide have cautioned against the use of antipsychotics as first-line agents to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. We aimed to investigate the changes over time in the dispensing of antipsychotics and other psychotropics among older adults with dementia living in long-term care facilities.

METHODS: We used drug claims data from Ontario, Canada, to calculate quarterly rates of prescription dispensing of six psychotropic drug classes among all elderly (≥65 years of age) long-term care residents with dementia from January 1, 2004, to March 31, 2013. Psychotropic drugs were classified into the following categories: atypical and conventional antipsychotics, non-sedative and …


How Clinicians Feel About Working With Spouses Of The Chronically Ill, Douglas Ingram Sep 2015

How Clinicians Feel About Working With Spouses Of The Chronically Ill, Douglas Ingram

NYMC Faculty Publications

Clinicians who provide psychotherapy to spouses or partners of the chronically ill were solicited through listserves of psychodynamic and other organizations. The current report excluded those therapists working with spouses of dementia patients. Interviews were conducted with clinicians who responded. The interviews highlight the challenges commonly encountered by psychotherapeutic work with this cohort of therapy patients. A comparison is drawn that shows both overlap and distinctions between the experiences of those therapists engaging with spouses of chronically ill patients without a dementing process and those working with spouses of chronically ill patients who do suffer from a dementing process.


Maternal Psychiatric Disease And Epigenetic Evidence Suggest A Common Biology For Poor Fetal Growth, Timothy H. Ciesielski, Carmen J. Marsit, Scott M. Williams Aug 2015

Maternal Psychiatric Disease And Epigenetic Evidence Suggest A Common Biology For Poor Fetal Growth, Timothy H. Ciesielski, Carmen J. Marsit, Scott M. Williams

Dartmouth Scholarship

We sought to identify and characterize predictors of poor fetal growth among variables extracted from perinatal medical records to gain insight into potential etiologic mechanisms. In this process we reevaluated a previously observed association between poor fetal growth and maternal psychiatric disease. We evaluated 449 deliveries of >36 weeks gestation that occurred between 9/2008 and 9/2010 at the Women and Infants Hospital in Providence Rhode Island. This study group was oversampled for Small-for-Gestational-Age (SGA) infants and excluded Large-for-Gestational-Age (LGA) infants. We assessed the associations between recorded clinical variables and impaired fetal growth: SGA or Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) diagnosis. After …


Use Of Medications Of Questionable Benefit In Advanced Dementia, Jennifer Tjia, Becky Briesacher, Daniel Peterson, Qin Liu, Susan Andrade, Susan Mitchell Jul 2015

Use Of Medications Of Questionable Benefit In Advanced Dementia, Jennifer Tjia, Becky Briesacher, Daniel Peterson, Qin Liu, Susan Andrade, Susan Mitchell

Jennifer Tjia

IMPORTANCE: Advanced dementia is characterized by severe cognitive impairment and complete functional dependence. Patients' goals of care should guide the prescribing of medication during such terminal illness. Medications that do not promote the primary goal of care should be minimized. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of medications with questionable benefit used by nursing home residents with advanced dementia, identify resident- and facility-level characteristics associated with such use, and estimate associated medication expenditures. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study of medication use by nursing home residents with advanced dementia using a nationwide long-term care pharmacy database linked to the Minimum Data …


Statin Discontinuation In Nursing Home Residents With Advanced Dementia, Jennifer Tjia, Sarah Cutrona, Daniel Peterson, George Reed, Susan Andrade, Susan Mitchell May 2015

Statin Discontinuation In Nursing Home Residents With Advanced Dementia, Jennifer Tjia, Sarah Cutrona, Daniel Peterson, George Reed, Susan Andrade, Susan Mitchell

Jennifer Tjia

OBJECTIVES: To describe patterns of, and factors associated with, statin use and discontinuation in nursing home (NH) residents progressing to advanced dementia and followed for at least 90 days.

DESIGN: Retrospective inception cohort using a dataset linking 2007 to 2008 Minimum Data Set (MDS) to Medicare denominator and Part D files.

SETTING: All NHs in five states (Minnesota, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, California, Florida).

PARTICIPANTS: NH residents with dementia.

MEASUREMENTS: Residents who developed advanced dementia were observed from baseline (date of progression to very severe cognitive impairment with eating problems) and followed for at least 90 days to statin discontinuation or death. …


Belief About Nicotine Selectively Modulates Value And Reward Prediction Error Signals In Smokers, Xiaosi Gu, Terry Lohrenz, Ramiro Salas, Philip R. Baldwin, Alireza Soltani Feb 2015

Belief About Nicotine Selectively Modulates Value And Reward Prediction Error Signals In Smokers, Xiaosi Gu, Terry Lohrenz, Ramiro Salas, Philip R. Baldwin, Alireza Soltani

Dartmouth Scholarship

Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers' prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers' beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems. Belief of "no nicotine in cigarette" (compared with "nicotine in …


Is It Abuse? Deaf Female Undergraduates' Labeling Of Partner Violence, Melissa Anderson, Caroline Kobek Pezzarossi Jan 2015

Is It Abuse? Deaf Female Undergraduates' Labeling Of Partner Violence, Melissa Anderson, Caroline Kobek Pezzarossi

Melissa L. Anderson

The current study investigated the labeling of abuse experiences in a sample of 97 Deaf female undergraduate students, exploring the following questions: What is the prevalence of violent behaviors experienced by Deaf female undergraduates in their past-year relationships, what proportion of these relationships are identified as "abuse," and what scripts and strategies do Deaf female undergraduates utilize to label their experiences of partner violence? Results indicated that over half of the sample chose not to label past-year experiences of psychological aggression, physical assault, and sexual coercion as abuse, even when these experiences included severe violence. Implications for the Deaf education …


Intimate Partner Violence Against Deaf Female College Students, Melissa Anderson, Irene Leigh Jan 2015

Intimate Partner Violence Against Deaf Female College Students, Melissa Anderson, Irene Leigh

Melissa L. Anderson

It has been estimated that roughly 25% of all Deaf women in the United States are victims of intimate partner violence (Abused Deaf Women's Advocacy Services [ADWAS]), a figure similar to annual prevalence rates of 16% to 30% for intimate partners in the general population. One goal of the present study was to ascertain the prevalence of intimate partner violence victimization in a sample of Deaf female college students. When comparing the prevalence of physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion victimization to hearing female undergraduates, the current sample was approximately two times as likely to have experienced victimization in …


Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence Of Asl, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, And Education, Candace Myers, M. Diane Clark, Millicent Musyoka, Melissa Anderson, Gizelle Gilbert, Selina Agyen, Peter Hauser Jan 2015

Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence Of Asl, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, And Education, Candace Myers, M. Diane Clark, Millicent Musyoka, Melissa Anderson, Gizelle Gilbert, Selina Agyen, Peter Hauser

Melissa L. Anderson

Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on …


The Interdependence Of Long And Short-Term Components In Unmasked Repetition Priming: An Indication Of Shared Resources, Matt R. Merema, Craig P. Speelman Jan 2015

The Interdependence Of Long And Short-Term Components In Unmasked Repetition Priming: An Indication Of Shared Resources, Matt R. Merema, Craig P. Speelman

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

It has been suggested that unmasked repetition priming is composed of distinct long-and short-term priming components. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between these components by examining the relationship between them. A total of 60 people (45 females, 15 males) participated in a computer-based lexical decision task designed to measure levels of short-term priming across different levels of long-term priming. The results revealed an interdependent relationship between the two components, whereby an increase in long-term priming prompted a decrease in short-term priming. Both long-term and short-term priming were accurately captured by a single power function over seven minutes …