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2007

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

A Novel Runx2 Missense Mutation Predicted To Disrupt Dna Binding Causes Cleidocranial Dysplasia In A Large Chinese Family With Hyperplastic Nails, Shaohua Tang, Qiyu Xu, Xueqin Xu, Jicheng Du, Xuemei Yang, Yusheng Jiang, Xiaoqin Wang, Nancy Speck, Taosheng Huang Dec 2007

A Novel Runx2 Missense Mutation Predicted To Disrupt Dna Binding Causes Cleidocranial Dysplasia In A Large Chinese Family With Hyperplastic Nails, Shaohua Tang, Qiyu Xu, Xueqin Xu, Jicheng Du, Xuemei Yang, Yusheng Jiang, Xiaoqin Wang, Nancy Speck, Taosheng Huang

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a dominantly inherited disease characterized by hypoplastic or absent clavicles, large fontanels, dental dysplasia, and delayed skeletal development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the genetic basis of Chinese family with CCD.

Methods: Here, a large Chinese family with CCD and hyperplastic nails was recruited. The clinical features displayed a significant intrafamilial variation. We sequenced the coding region of the RUNX2 gene for the mutation and phenotype analysis.

Results: The family carries a c.T407C (p.L136P) mutation in the DNA- and CBFβ-binding Runt domain of RUNX2. Based on the crystal structure, we predict this …


Repeated N-Acetylcysteine Administration Alters Plasticity-Dependent Effects Of Cocaine, Aric Madayag, Doug Lobner, Kristen S. Kau, John R. Mantsch, Omer Abdulhameed, Matthew Hearing, Mark D. Grier, David A. Baker Dec 2007

Repeated N-Acetylcysteine Administration Alters Plasticity-Dependent Effects Of Cocaine, Aric Madayag, Doug Lobner, Kristen S. Kau, John R. Mantsch, Omer Abdulhameed, Matthew Hearing, Mark D. Grier, David A. Baker

Biomedical Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

Cocaine produces a persistent reduction in cystine–glutamate exchange via system xc− in the nucleus accumbens that may contribute to pathological glutamate signaling linked to addiction. System xc− influences glutamate neurotransmission by maintaining basal, extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens, which, in turn, shapes synaptic activity by stimulating group II metabotropic glutamate autoreceptors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a long-term reduction in system xc− activity is part of the plasticity produced by repeated cocaine that results in the establishment of compulsive drug seeking. To test this, the cysteine prodrug N-acetylcysteine …


Oral Immunization Of Rhesus Macaques With Adenoviral Hiv Vaccines Using Enteric-Coated Capsules, George T. Mercier, Pramod N. Nehete, Marco F. Passeri, Bharti N. Nehete, Eric A. Weaver, Nancy Smyth Templeton, Kimberly Schluns, Stephanie S. Buchl, K. Buchl, Michael A. Barry Dec 2007

Oral Immunization Of Rhesus Macaques With Adenoviral Hiv Vaccines Using Enteric-Coated Capsules, George T. Mercier, Pramod N. Nehete, Marco F. Passeri, Bharti N. Nehete, Eric A. Weaver, Nancy Smyth Templeton, Kimberly Schluns, Stephanie S. Buchl, K. Buchl, Michael A. Barry

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Targeted delivery of vaccine candidates to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract holds potential for mucosal immunization, particularly against mucosal pathogens like the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the different strategies for achieving targeted release in the GI tract, namely the small intestine, pH sensitive enteric coating polymers have been shown to protect solid oral dosage forms from the harsh digestive environment of the stomach and dissolve relatively rapidly in the small intestine by taking advantage of the luminal pH gradient. We developed an enteric polymethacrylate formulation for coating hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose (HPMC) capsules containing lyophilized Adenoviral type 5 (Ad5) vectors expressing HIV-1 gag …


A Study Of Clinical Outcomes Using Serum Albumin And Percentage Of Weight Loss Following Nutritional Intervention In Post-Operative Bariatric Patients., Jennifer Michelle Angus Dec 2007

A Study Of Clinical Outcomes Using Serum Albumin And Percentage Of Weight Loss Following Nutritional Intervention In Post-Operative Bariatric Patients., Jennifer Michelle Angus

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if post-operative serum albumin and percentage of weight loss improved in patients who received formalized pre-operative nutrition counseling. Nutrition intervention was measured quantitatively. A retrospective review of records was conducted on 77 RYGB patients (68 female subjects and 9 male subjects), ages 21-64, during January 2001 through January 2006.

The results indicated that patients who received pre-operative nutrition intervention had better clinical outcomes of serum albumin than those with no nutrition intervention from a registered dietitian. However, outcomes regarding percentage of weight loss varied. Both pre-operatively and at the 3 month post-operative …


Direct Inhibition Of Cdk9 Blocks Hiv-1 Replication Without Preventing T Cell Activation In Primary Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes, Dominic Salerno, Muneer G Hasham, Renée Marshall Demarest, Judit Garriga, Alexander Y Tsygankov, Xavier Graña Dec 2007

Direct Inhibition Of Cdk9 Blocks Hiv-1 Replication Without Preventing T Cell Activation In Primary Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes, Dominic Salerno, Muneer G Hasham, Renée Marshall Demarest, Judit Garriga, Alexander Y Tsygankov, Xavier Graña

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

HIV-1 transcription is essential for the virus replication cycle. HIV-1 Tat is a viral transactivator that strongly stimulates the processivity of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) via recruitment of the cyclin T1/CDK9 positive transcription elongation factor, which phosphorylates the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNAPII. Consistently, HIV-1 replication in transformed cells is very sensitive to direct CDK9 inhibition. Thus, CDK9 could be a potential target for anti-HIV-1 therapy. A clearer understanding of the requirements for CDK9 activity in primary human T cells is needed to assess whether the CDK9-dependent step in HIV-1 transcription can be targeted clinically. We have investigated the effects …


A Developmental Cycle Masks Output From The Circadian Oscillator Under Conditions Of Choline Deficiency In Neurospora, Mi Shi, Luis F. Larrondo, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap Dec 2007

A Developmental Cycle Masks Output From The Circadian Oscillator Under Conditions Of Choline Deficiency In Neurospora, Mi Shi, Luis F. Larrondo, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap

Dartmouth Scholarship

In Neurospora, metabolic oscillators coexist with the circadian transcriptional/translational feedback loop governed by the FRQ (Frequency) and WC (White Collar) proteins. One of these, a choline deficiency oscillator (CDO) observed in chol-1 mutants grown under choline starvation, drives an uncompensated long-period developmental cycle ( approximately 60-120 h). To assess possible contributions of this metabolic oscillator to the circadian system, molecular and physiological rhythms were followed in liquid culture under choline starvation, but these only confirmed that an oscillator with a normal circadian period length can run under choline starvation. This finding suggested that long-period developmental cycles elicited by nutritional stress …


Light-Evoked Calcium Responses Of Isolated Melanopsin- Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells, Andrew T. E. Hartwick, Jayne R. Bramley, Jianing Yu, Kelly T. Stevens, Charles N. Allen, William H. Baldridge, Patricia J. Sollars, Gary E. Pickard Dec 2007

Light-Evoked Calcium Responses Of Isolated Melanopsin- Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells, Andrew T. E. Hartwick, Jayne R. Bramley, Jianing Yu, Kelly T. Stevens, Charles N. Allen, William H. Baldridge, Patricia J. Sollars, Gary E. Pickard

School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences: Faculty Publications

A small number (<2%) of mammalian retinal ganglion cells express the photopigment melanopsin and are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs). Light depolarizes ipRGCs and increases intracellular calcium levels ( [Ca2+]i ) but the signaling cascades underlying these responses have yet to be elucidated. To facilitate physiological studies on these rare photoreceptors, highly enriched ipRGC cultures from neonatal rats were generated using anti-melanopsin-mediated plate adhesion (immunopanning). This novel approach enabled experiments on isolated ipRGCs, eliminating the potential confounding influence of rod/cone-driven input. Light induced a rise in [Ca2+]i (monitored using fura-2 imaging) in the immunopanned ipRGCs and the source of this Ca2+ signal was investigated. The Ca2+ responses were inhibited by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, SKF-96365 (1–2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]ethyl-1H-imidazole), flufenamic acid, …


Tetraspanin Kai1/Cd82 Inhibits Cell Migration-Related Cellular Events Via Reorganizing Actin Network, Wei Liu Dec 2007

Tetraspanin Kai1/Cd82 Inhibits Cell Migration-Related Cellular Events Via Reorganizing Actin Network, Wei Liu

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

To determine how tetraspanin KAI1/CD82, a tumor metastasis suppressor, inhibits cell migration, we assessed which motility-related cellular events are altered by KAI1/CD82 and how KAI1/CD82 regulates these events. We found that KAI1/CD82-overexpressing cancer cells exhibit various morphologies but typically display elongated cellular extensions and a lack of lamellipodia. Live imaging demonstrated that the formation of lamellipodia and retraction of extensions were deficient upon KAI1/CD82 overexpression.

The deficiency in developing motility-related cellular events was accompanied by defects in actin cortical network and stress fiber formations. Notably, actin polymerization was attenuated by KAI1/CD82. Although Rac1 activity was diminished upon KAI1/CD82 expression, Rac1 …


Humanized Chimeric Receptors In The Therapy Of Multiple Sclerosis, Ioana Moisini Dec 2007

Humanized Chimeric Receptors In The Therapy Of Multiple Sclerosis, Ioana Moisini

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The role of autoreactive, antigen-specific T-cells in the development of autoimmunity has long been documented. T-cells expressing chimeric receptors are specifically redirected against such cells and have been proven to suppress autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the murine model of multiple sclerosis. We here demonstrate the ability of humanized chimeric receptors to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in a humanized mouse model by redirecting T lymphocytes against autoreactive T-cells. The receptors were synthesized by linking the 84-102 epitope of human myelin basic protein (MBP) to the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the beta chain of human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule …


Statistical Issues In Proteomic Research, Jeffrey S. Morris Dec 2007

Statistical Issues In Proteomic Research, Jeffrey S. Morris

Jeffrey S. Morris

No abstract provided.


Dietary Canola Oil Suppressed Growth Of Implanted Mda-Mb 231 Human Breast Tumors In Nude Mice, W. Elaine Hardman Dec 2007

Dietary Canola Oil Suppressed Growth Of Implanted Mda-Mb 231 Human Breast Tumors In Nude Mice, W. Elaine Hardman

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Long chain omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to suppress growth of most cancer cells. In vivo, alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) can be converted to EPA or DHA. We hypothesized that substituting canola oil (10% ALA) for the corn oil (1% ALA) in the diet of cancer bearing mice would slow tumor growth by increasing n-3 fatty acids in the diet. Sixty nude mice received MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer cells and were fed a diet containing 8% w/w corn oil until the mean tumor volume was 60 mm 3 . …


A Novel Inhibitory Mechanism Of Mitochondrion-Dependent Apoptosis By A Herpesviral Protein, Pinghui Feng, Chengyu Liang, Young C. Shin, Xiaofei E, Weijun Zhang, Robyn Gravel, Ting-Ting Wu, Ren Sun, Edward Usherwood, Jae U. Jung Dec 2007

A Novel Inhibitory Mechanism Of Mitochondrion-Dependent Apoptosis By A Herpesviral Protein, Pinghui Feng, Chengyu Liang, Young C. Shin, Xiaofei E, Weijun Zhang, Robyn Gravel, Ting-Ting Wu, Ren Sun, Edward Usherwood, Jae U. Jung

Dartmouth Scholarship

Upon viral infection, cells undergo apoptosis as a defense against viral replication. Viruses, in turn, have evolved elaborate mechanisms to subvert apoptotic processes. Here, we report that a novel viral mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein (vMAP) of murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (gammaHV-68) interacts with Bcl-2 and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) in a genetically separable manner. The N-terminal region of vMAP interacted with Bcl-2, and this interaction markedly increased not only Bcl-2 recruitment to mitochondria but also its avidity for BH3-only pro-apoptotic proteins, thereby suppressing Bax mitochondrial translocation and activation. In addition, the central and C-terminal hydrophobic regions of vMAP interacted with VDAC1. …


Neuroadaptive Changes In The Mesocortical Glutamatergic System During Nicotine Self-Administration And After Extinction In Rats, Fan Wang Dec 2007

Neuroadaptive Changes In The Mesocortical Glutamatergic System During Nicotine Self-Administration And After Extinction In Rats, Fan Wang

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The mesocorticolimbic pathway is critical in almost all aspects of drug abuse, including nicotine. Though many of the neurochemical and molecular effects of nicotine have been well studied, nicotine’s long-term neuroadaptive effects, specifically within the mesocorticolimbic pathway, are largely undefined. Thus, in current study, we determined the neuroadaptive changes in the mesocortical glutamatergic system during chronic nicotine self-administration (SA), which emulates important aspects of nicotine intake by humans, and after extinction. In the initial study, after 18 days of nicotine SA, in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), NMDA receptor subunit 2A (NR2A) and NR2B were increased by 67% and 83%, …


Role Of Medial Prefrontal Cortical Group Ii Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor In The Development Of Cocaine Sensitization, Xiaohu Xie Dec 2007

Role Of Medial Prefrontal Cortical Group Ii Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor In The Development Of Cocaine Sensitization, Xiaohu Xie

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The current studies examined the role of medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) in the development of cocaine sensitization. Initial studies demonstrated that intra-mPFC injection of the mGluR2/3 receptor agonist, APDC, dose-dependently reduced acute behavioral response to cocaine (0.015-15 nmol/side with significant effects starting at 1.5nmol/side). The effects of APDC were prevented by intra-mPFC co-injections of an mGluR2/3 antagonist, LY341495 (1.5 nmol/side). Repeated intra-mPFC APDC (1.5 nmol/side) injections also prevented the initiation of behavioral and neurochemical sensitization, which is defined as enhanced nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine response to cocaine. Once sensitization was …


Dna Binding Specificity Of Mu Transcription Factor C And Crystallization Of C : Dna Complex, Karthik Shanmugantham Dec 2007

Dna Binding Specificity Of Mu Transcription Factor C And Crystallization Of C : Dna Complex, Karthik Shanmugantham

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The lytic cycle of phage Mu is regulated by a transcriptional cascade consisting of early, middle and late transcription. The Mor protein is an activator of the middle promoter Pm and is encoded by the last gene of the early transcript. The C protein is an activator of the four late promoters Plys, PI, PP, and Pmom and is expressed from the middle transcript. Both Mor and C proteins bind an imperfect dyad-symmetry element just upstream and overlapping the –35 region of Pm and Plys respectively. The main aims of this study was, (1) To understand the binding specificity of …


Uncovering P53 Mutations And Abnormal Gene Expression In Pediatric Adrenocortical Cancer, Alina Nico West Dec 2007

Uncovering P53 Mutations And Abnormal Gene Expression In Pediatric Adrenocortical Cancer, Alina Nico West

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Pediatric adrenocortical cancer is extremely rare and often fatal (approximately 0.3-0.4 cases per million worldwide; 50% 5-year survival). The incidence of pediatric adrenocortical cancer in southern Brazil is 10-15 times higher than the worldwide incidence. Due to the rarity of adrenocortical cancer, especially in children, underlying gene dysregulation and mechanisms of tumorigenesis of the adrenal gland are very poorly described in the literature. However, it is well-known that the tumor suppressor p53, which is mutated in over 50% of all human cancers, is commonly mutated in pediatric adrenocortical cancer. In addition, evidence strongly suggests that if a child has adrenocortical …


The Effects Of Human/Wildlife Conflict On The Potential For Community-Based Ecotourism In The Kasigau Region Of Southeast Kenya, Natalie Mountjoy Dec 2007

The Effects Of Human/Wildlife Conflict On The Potential For Community-Based Ecotourism In The Kasigau Region Of Southeast Kenya, Natalie Mountjoy

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Many believe community-based ecotourism (CBE) can assist in conservation efforts and community development; however, little research has been done to assess the potential of CBE in a specific region. As part of a large, long-term, international research project, I define three problematic areas that may impede successful CBE efforts in the Kasigau location of southeast Kenya: bushmeat utilization, community attitudes and wildlife abundance. Samples of meat purchased from butcheries and meat markets are identified to species using molecular analysis, community attitudes are ascertained via written social surveys and transect sampling methods are used to determine the relative abundance and diversity …


Auditory Hair Cell Regeneration And Gene Expression In Noise-Exposed Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Julie Schuck Dec 2007

Auditory Hair Cell Regeneration And Gene Expression In Noise-Exposed Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Julie Schuck

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Fishes are capable of regenerating sensory hair cells in the inner ear after exposure to excessive noise. However, a time course of auditory hair cell regeneration has not been characterized for zebrafish, nor has gene expression following noise exposure. To establish a time course of hair cell regeneration, adult zebrafish were exposed to a 100 Hz pure tone at 179 dB re 1 |u.Pa RMS for 36 hours, and then allowed to recover for 0 to 14 days before morphological analysis. Hair cell loss and recovery were determined using phalloidin and DAPI labeling to visualize hair cell bundles and nuclei, …


The Environmental Factors Regulating The Distribution Of Crayfish In The Upper Green River Basin Kentucky, Usa, Eva Ngulo Dec 2007

The Environmental Factors Regulating The Distribution Of Crayfish In The Upper Green River Basin Kentucky, Usa, Eva Ngulo

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Despite the importance of crayfish in aquatic systems there are major issues threatening their conservation, including invasive species, habitat alterations, and species with small distributions or have limited geographical ranges. There is limited information regarding native range, habitat requirements, life histories and biological interactions between crayfish species. In order to examine the relationship between lotic crayfish assemblages and environmental variables at both the watershed and reach scales, data were collected from 46 stream segments in the Upper Green River Basin of Kentucky, U.S.A. An independent sample t-test compared crayfish densities between segments with gravel - small cobble, and large cobble …


Sustainability Of Western Kentucky University: An Examination Of Campus Environmental Policies, Performance And Potential For Change, Christian Ryan-Downing Dec 2007

Sustainability Of Western Kentucky University: An Examination Of Campus Environmental Policies, Performance And Potential For Change, Christian Ryan-Downing

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Institutions of higher learning are in a pivotal position to address the environmental problems that global society faces now, but response to this challenge requires transformation in priorities and practices. Recognizing the impacts that universities have on the environment and the social and economic costs associated with these impacts, institutions of higher learning are changing policies and management to become more sustainable. Sustainability is defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (1987). To evaluate the environmental impacts …


Bactericidal Activity Of Extended 9-Glycyl-Amido-Minocyclines, Chang-Po Chen, Allen R. Zeiger, Dr. Eric Wickstrom Dec 2007

Bactericidal Activity Of Extended 9-Glycyl-Amido-Minocyclines, Chang-Po Chen, Allen R. Zeiger, Dr. Eric Wickstrom

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The need for self-protecting polymer or alloy implants resistant to a broad spectrum of bacterial challenges led us to investigate covalent bonding of minocycline (MIN), a tetracycline derivative, to polystyrene beads and to titanium alloy foils by oligoethylene glycol spacers. 9-Hydrazino-acetyl-amido-MIN, and simpler glycylcycline derivatives, retained minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus comparable to MIN. However, PEG-glycyl-amido-MIN showed very low activity. Hence, we coupled 9-hydrazino-acetyl-amido-MIN to the aldehyde termini of oligoethylene glycol spacers bonded to polystyrene and titanium alloy surfaces to form acid-releasable hydrazone linkages. 9-Hydrazino-acetyl-amido-MIN was released from the monolayers more rapidly at pH 5.0 than at pH …


In Vitro Methods For Generating Highly Purified Ebv Associated Tumor Antigen-Specific T Cells By Using Solid Phase T Cell Selection System For Immunotherapy, Jongming Li, Bijoyesh Mookerjee, John Wagner, Neal Flomenberg Dec 2007

In Vitro Methods For Generating Highly Purified Ebv Associated Tumor Antigen-Specific T Cells By Using Solid Phase T Cell Selection System For Immunotherapy, Jongming Li, Bijoyesh Mookerjee, John Wagner, Neal Flomenberg

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

Adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy has been utilized to treat EBV related human malignancies including post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases, Hodgkin's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, there are limited options available for tumor antigen-specific T cell purification. Here we describe a novel solid phase T cell selection system, in which monocytes or EBV transformed B-lymphocytes are immobilized on solid support for antigen-specific T cell purification. We hypothesize and prove that antigen-specific T cells recognize their cognate antigens and bind to them faster than non-antigen specific T cells. Therefore antigen-specific T cells can be concentrated on the surface after removing the non-adherent cells by …


Exact One-Sided Confidence Limits For The Difference Between Two Correlated Proportions, Chris Lloyd, Max V. Moldovan Nov 2007

Exact One-Sided Confidence Limits For The Difference Between Two Correlated Proportions, Chris Lloyd, Max V. Moldovan

Chris J. Lloyd

We construct exact and optimal one-sided upper and lower confidence bounds for the difference between two probabilities based on matched binary pairs using well-established optimality theory of Buehler (1957). Starting with five different approximate loer and upper limits, we adjust them to have coverage probability exactly equal to the desired nominal level and then compare the resulting exact limits by their mean size. Exact limits based on the signed root likelihood ratio statistic are preferred and recommended for practical use.


A Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase-Like Protein Remodels Gating Charge Dynamics In Kv4.2 Channels, Kevin Dougherty, Manuel Covarrubias Nov 2007

A Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase-Like Protein Remodels Gating Charge Dynamics In Kv4.2 Channels, Kevin Dougherty, Manuel Covarrubias

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase–like proteins (DPLPs) interact with Kv4 channels and thereby induce a profound remodeling of activation and inactivation gating. DPLPs are constitutive components of the neuronal Kv4 channel complex, and recent observations have suggested the critical functional role of the single transmembrane segment of these proteins (Zagha, E., A. Ozaita, S.Y. Chang, M.S. Nadal, U. Lin, M.J. Saganich, T. McCormack, K.O. Akinsanya, S.Y. Qi, and B. Rudy. 2005. J. Biol. Chem. 280:18853–18861). However, the underlying mechanism of action is unknown. We hypothesized that a unique interaction between the Kv4.2 channel and a DPLP found in brain (DPPX-S) may remodel the …


Weight, Mortality, Years Of Healthy Life, And Active Life Expectancy In Older Adults, Paula Diehr Nov 2007

Weight, Mortality, Years Of Healthy Life, And Active Life Expectancy In Older Adults, Paula Diehr

Paula Diehr

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether weight categories predict subsequent mortality and morbidity in older adults. DESIGN: Multistate life tables, using data from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a longitudinal population-based cohort of older adults. SETTING: Data were provided by community-dwelling seniors in four U.S. counties: Forsyth County, North Carolina; Sacramento County, California; Washington County, Maryland; and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS: Five thousand eight hundred eighty-eight adults aged 65 and older at baseline. MEASUREMENTS: The age- and sex-specific probabilities of transition from one health state to another and from one weight category to another were estimated. From these probabilities, future life expectancy, years …


Adaptive Radiotherapy Planning On Decreasing Gross Tumor Volumes As Seen On Megavoltage Computed Tomography Images., Curtis Woodford, Slav Yartsev, R. Dar, Glenn Bauman, Jacob Van Dyk Nov 2007

Adaptive Radiotherapy Planning On Decreasing Gross Tumor Volumes As Seen On Megavoltage Computed Tomography Images., Curtis Woodford, Slav Yartsev, R. Dar, Glenn Bauman, Jacob Van Dyk

Oncology Publications

PURPOSE: To evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) changes for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer by using daily megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT) studies acquired before each treatment fraction on helical tomotherapy and to relate the potential benefit of adaptive image-guided radiotherapy to changes in GTV.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Seventeen patients were prescribed 30 fractions of radiotherapy on helical tomotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer at London Regional Cancer Program from Dec 2005 to March 2007. The GTV was contoured on the daily MVCT studies of each patient. Adapted plans were created using merged MVCT-kilovoltage CT image sets to investigate the advantages …


Leptospira Interrogans Endostatin-Like Outer Membrane Proteins Bind Host Fibronectin, Laminin And Regulators Of Complement, Brian Stevenson, Henry A. Choy, Marija Pinne, Matthew L. Rotondi, M. Clarke Miller, Edward Demoll, Peter Kraiczy, Anne E. Cooley, Trevor P. Creamer, Marc A. Suchard, Catherine A. Brissette, Ashutosh Verma, David A. Haake Nov 2007

Leptospira Interrogans Endostatin-Like Outer Membrane Proteins Bind Host Fibronectin, Laminin And Regulators Of Complement, Brian Stevenson, Henry A. Choy, Marija Pinne, Matthew L. Rotondi, M. Clarke Miller, Edward Demoll, Peter Kraiczy, Anne E. Cooley, Trevor P. Creamer, Marc A. Suchard, Catherine A. Brissette, Ashutosh Verma, David A. Haake

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The pathogenic spirochete Leptospira interrogans disseminates throughout its hosts via the bloodstream, then invades and colonizes a variety of host tissues. Infectious leptospires are resistant to killing by their hosts' alternative pathway of complement-mediated killing, and interact with various host extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The LenA outer surface protein (formerly called LfhA and Lsa24) was previously shown to bind the host ECM component laminin and the complement regulators factor H and factor H-related protein-1. We now demonstrate that infectious L. interrogans contain five additional paralogs of lenA, which we designated lenB, lenC, lenD, lenE and lenF …


Anti-Tumor Effect Of Doxycycline On Glioblastoma Cells, Andrea Wang-Gillam, Eric Siegel, Debra A. Mayes, Laura F. Hutchins, Yi-Hong Zhou Nov 2007

Anti-Tumor Effect Of Doxycycline On Glioblastoma Cells, Andrea Wang-Gillam, Eric Siegel, Debra A. Mayes, Laura F. Hutchins, Yi-Hong Zhou

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

AIM: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in humans, and it is highly invasive. Doxycycline, first identified as an antimicrobial agent, is a nonspecific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Our objective was to investigate the anti-MMP effect of doxycycline at therapeutically acceptable levels on glioma cells in vitro.

METHODS: The MTT assay was used to determine the anti-proliferative effects of doxycycline. MMP2 activity and expression were determined by gelatinase zymography and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Cell invasion was assessed by Matrigel invasion assay.

RESULTS: Doxycycline exerted mild anti-proliferative effects on all three glioma cell lines …


Perinatal Ph And Neuropsychological Outcomes At Age 3 Years In Children Born Preterm: An Exploratory Study, Kimberly A. Espy, Theresa E. Senn, David A. Charak, Jill Tyler, Sandra A. Wiebe Nov 2007

Perinatal Ph And Neuropsychological Outcomes At Age 3 Years In Children Born Preterm: An Exploratory Study, Kimberly A. Espy, Theresa E. Senn, David A. Charak, Jill Tyler, Sandra A. Wiebe

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory: Faculty and Staff Publications

The impact of extreme prematurity and related hypoxic-ischemic events on brain development recently has begun to be characterized with modern neuroimaging methods, although comparatively less is known about the neuropathology in those born at heavier birth weights. Even subclinical levels of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia, as indexed by perinatal blood pH, are related to intelligence in school-aged children born preterm. Given the impact of hypoxia-ischemia on white matter and the emerging evidence of specific executive and mathematic deficits in children born preterm, the impact of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia on these outcomes was explored in children at relatively low-risk for sequelae. In a sample …


A Bayesian Multilevel Modeling Approach For Data Query In Wireless Sensor Networks, H. Wang, H. Fang, K. A. Espy, D. Peng, H. Sharif Nov 2007

A Bayesian Multilevel Modeling Approach For Data Query In Wireless Sensor Networks, H. Wang, H. Fang, K. A. Espy, D. Peng, H. Sharif

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory: Faculty and Staff Publications

In power-limited Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), it is important to reduce the communication load in order to achieve energy savings. This paper applies a novel statistic method to estimate the parameters based on the realtime data measured by local sensors. Instead of transmitting large real-time data, we proposed to transmit the small amount of dynamic parameters by exploiting both temporal and spatial correlation within and between sensor clusters. The temporal correlation is built on the level-1 Bayesian model at each sensor to predict local readings. Each local sensor transmits their local parameters learned from historical measurement data to their cluster …