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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela Feb 2020

Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

New Findings:

What is the central question of the study? What are the effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function in a non-fatigued state and during fatiguing exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? In a non-fatigued state, caffeine decreased the duration of the silent period evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Caffeine-induced reduction of inhibitory mechanisms in the central nervous system before exercise was associated with an increased performance. Individuals who benefit from caffeine ingestion may experience lower perception of effort during exercise and an accelerated recovery of M-wave amplitude postfatigue. This study elucidates the mechanisms of action of …


Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault Jan 2020

Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Even though the acute effects of pre-exercise static stretching and dynamic muscle activity on muscular and functional performance have been largely investigated, their effects on the corticospinal pathway are still unclear. For that reason, this study examined the acute effects of 5×20 s of static stretching, dynamic muscle activity and a control condition on spinal excitability, corticospinal excitability and plantar flexor neuromuscular properties. Fifteen volunteers were randomly tested on separate days. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to investigate corticospinal excitability by recording the amplitude of the motorevoked potential (MEP) and the duration of the cortical silent period (cSP). Peripheral nerve …


Should The Pbl Tutor Be Present? A Cross-Sectional Study Of Group Effectiveness In Synchronous And Asynchronous Settings, Samuel Edelbring, Siw Alehagen, Evalotte Mörelius, Annakarin Johansson, Patrik Rytterström Jan 2020

Should The Pbl Tutor Be Present? A Cross-Sectional Study Of Group Effectiveness In Synchronous And Asynchronous Settings, Samuel Edelbring, Siw Alehagen, Evalotte Mörelius, Annakarin Johansson, Patrik Rytterström

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: The tutorial group and its dynamics are a cornerstone of problem-based learning (PBL). The tutor's support varies according to the setting, and it is pertinent to explore group effectiveness in relation to different settings, for example online or campus-based. The PBL groups' effectiveness can partly be assessed in terms of cognitive and motivational aspects, using a self-report tool to measure PBL group effectiveness, the Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument (TGEI). This study's aim was to explore tutor participation in variations of online and campus-based tutorial groups in relation to group effectiveness. A secondary aim was to validate a tool for …


Randomised Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Study Examining The Role Of Anamorelin In Mesothelioma (The Anthem Study): Rationale And Protocol, Siao Nge Hoon, Katrina Fyfe, Carolyn J. Peddle-Mcintyre, Samantha Bowyer, Felicity Hawkins, Emily Jeffery, Hui Jun Chih, Jenette Creaney, Anna Nowak, Fraser Brims Jan 2020

Randomised Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Study Examining The Role Of Anamorelin In Mesothelioma (The Anthem Study): Rationale And Protocol, Siao Nge Hoon, Katrina Fyfe, Carolyn J. Peddle-Mcintyre, Samantha Bowyer, Felicity Hawkins, Emily Jeffery, Hui Jun Chih, Jenette Creaney, Anna Nowak, Fraser Brims

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Introduction Cachexia is common in malignant mesothelioma (MM); half of patients have malnutrition and low skeletal muscle mass. Malnourished patients have worse quality of life (QoL). Weight loss is strongly associated with poor survival. Anamorelin is an oral ghrelin receptor agonist that improves appetite, body weight and QoL in advanced cancer. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of anamorelin in improving appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and patient-reported outcomes in patients with MM with cachexia. Methods and analysis A single-centre, phase II, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over pilot study with 28-day treatment periods and 3-day washout. Forty patients …


A Rapid Absorbance-Based Growth Assay To Screen The Toxicity Of Oligomer Aβ42 And Protect Against Cell Death In Yeast, Prashant Bharadwaj, Ralph Martins Jan 2020

A Rapid Absorbance-Based Growth Assay To Screen The Toxicity Of Oligomer Aβ42 And Protect Against Cell Death In Yeast, Prashant Bharadwaj, Ralph Martins

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Multiple lines of evidence show that soluble oligomer forms of amyloid β protein (Aβ42) are the most neurotoxic species in the brain and correlates with the degree of neuronal loss and cognitive deficit in Alzheimer's disease. Although many studies have used mammalian cells to investigate oligomer Aβ42 toxicity, the use of more simple eukaryotic cellular systems offers advantages for large-scale screening studies. We have previously established and validated budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be a simple and a robust model to study the toxicity of Aβ. Using colony counting based methods, oligomeric Aβ42 was shown to induce dose-dependent cell death …


Effectiveness Of A Structured, Framework-Based Approach To Implementation: The Researching Effective Approaches To Cleaning In Hospitals (Reach) Trial, Lisa Hall, Nicole M. White, Michelle Allen, Alison Farrington, Brett G. Mitchell, Katie Page, Kate Halton, Thomas V. Riley, Christian A. Gericke, Nicholas Graves, Anne Gardner Jan 2020

Effectiveness Of A Structured, Framework-Based Approach To Implementation: The Researching Effective Approaches To Cleaning In Hospitals (Reach) Trial, Lisa Hall, Nicole M. White, Michelle Allen, Alison Farrington, Brett G. Mitchell, Katie Page, Kate Halton, Thomas V. Riley, Christian A. Gericke, Nicholas Graves, Anne Gardner

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: Implementing sustainable practice change in hospital cleaning has proven to be an ongoing challenge in reducing healthcare associated infections. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable framework-based approach to implement and quantitatively evaluate the implementation of evidence-based practice change in hospital cleaning. DESIGN/METHODS: The Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) trial was a pragmatic, stepped-wedge randomised trial of an environmental cleaning bundle implemented in 11 Australian hospitals from 2016 to 2017. Using a structured multi-step approach, we adapted the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework to support rigorous and …


Clarifying Workforce Flexibility From A Division Of Labor Perspective: A Mixed Methods Study Of An Emergency Department Team, Sarah Wise, Christine Duffield, Margaret Fry, Michael Roche Jan 2020

Clarifying Workforce Flexibility From A Division Of Labor Perspective: A Mixed Methods Study Of An Emergency Department Team, Sarah Wise, Christine Duffield, Margaret Fry, Michael Roche

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: The need for greater flexibility is often used to justify reforms that redistribute tasks through the workforce. However, "flexibility" is never defined or empirically examined. This study explores the nature of flexibility in a team of emergency doctors, nurse practitioners (NPs), and registered nurses (RNs), with the aim of clarifying the concept of workforce flexibility. Taking a holistic perspective on the team's division of labor, it measures task distribution to establish the extent of multiskilling and role overlap, and explores the behaviors and organizational conditions that drive flexibly.

Methods: The explanatory sequential mixed methods study was set in the …


Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic Jan 2020

Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Caffeine’s ergogenic effects on exercise performance are generally explained by its ability to bind to adenosine receptors. ADORA2A is the gene that encodes A2A subtypes of adenosine receptors. It has been suggested that ADORA2A gene polymorphisms may be responsible for the inter-individual variations in the effects of caffeine on exercise performance. In the only study that explored the influence of variation in ADORA2A—in this case, a common polymorphism (rs5751876)—on the ergogenic effects of caffeine on exercise performance, C allele carriers were identified as “non-responders” to caffeine. To explore if C allele carriers are true “non-responders” to the ergogenic effects of …


A Sensorimotor Control Framework For Understanding Emotional Communication And Regulation, Justin H.G. Williams, Charlotte F. Huggins, Barbra Zupan, Megan Willis, Tamsyn E. Van Rheenen, Wataru Sato, Romina Palermo, Catherine Ortner, Martin Krippl, Mariska Kret, Joanne M. Dickson, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Leroy Lowe Jan 2020

A Sensorimotor Control Framework For Understanding Emotional Communication And Regulation, Justin H.G. Williams, Charlotte F. Huggins, Barbra Zupan, Megan Willis, Tamsyn E. Van Rheenen, Wataru Sato, Romina Palermo, Catherine Ortner, Martin Krippl, Mariska Kret, Joanne M. Dickson, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Leroy Lowe

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Our research team was asked to consider the relationship of the neuroscience of sensorimotor control to the language of emotions and feelings. Actions are the principal means for the communication of emotions and feelings in both humans and other animals, and the allostatic mechanisms controlling action also apply to the regulation of emotional states by the self and others. We consider how motor control of hierarchically organised, feedback-based, goal-directed action has evolved in humans, within a context of consciousness, appraisal and cultural learning, to serve emotions and feelings. In our linguistic analysis, we found that many emotion and feelings words …


The Effect Of Sleep Restriction, With Or Without High-Intensity Interval Exercise, On Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis In Healthy Young Men, Nicholas J. Saner, Matthew J. -C. Lee, Nathan W. Pitchford, Jujiao Kuang, Gregory D. Roach, Andrew Garnham, Tanner Stokes, Stuart M. Phillips, David J. Bishop, Jonathan D. Bartlett Jan 2020

The Effect Of Sleep Restriction, With Or Without High-Intensity Interval Exercise, On Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis In Healthy Young Men, Nicholas J. Saner, Matthew J. -C. Lee, Nathan W. Pitchford, Jujiao Kuang, Gregory D. Roach, Andrew Garnham, Tanner Stokes, Stuart M. Phillips, David J. Bishop, Jonathan D. Bartlett

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Key points: Sleep restriction has previously been associated with the loss of muscle mass in both human and animal models. The rate of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) is a key variable in regulating skeletal muscle mass and can be increased by performing high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), although the effect of sleep restriction on MyoPS is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that participants undergoing a sleep restriction protocol (five nights, with 4 h in bed each night) had lower rates of skeletal muscle MyoPS; however, rates of MyoPS were maintained at control levels by performing HIIE during this period. …


First Age- And Gender-Matched Case-Control Study In Australia Examining The Possible Association Between Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Busselton Health Study, Aus Molan, Kazunori Nosaka, Michael Hunter, Jinxia Zhang, Xiaoni Meng, Manshu Song, Wei Wang Jan 2020

First Age- And Gender-Matched Case-Control Study In Australia Examining The Possible Association Between Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Busselton Health Study, Aus Molan, Kazunori Nosaka, Michael Hunter, Jinxia Zhang, Xiaoni Meng, Manshu Song, Wei Wang

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

An emerging field of research is starting to examine the association of infectious pathogens with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An understudied parasite of interest is Toxoplasma gondii. Globally, very few studies have been conducted to investigate this association. Additionally, very little data exists on the prevalence of T. gondii in the general Australian population. Our group sought to determine the prevalence, association, and risk factors between T. gondii infection and T2DM from a representative Australian human population. Through a cross-sectional, age-A nd gender-matched case-control study, 150 subjects with T2DM together with 150 control subjects from the Busselton Health Study …


Elecsys Csf Biomarker Immunoassays Demonstrate Concordance With Amyloid-Pet Imaging, James A. Doecke, Larry Ward, Samantha C. Burnham, Victor L. Villemagne, Qiao-Xin Li, Steven Collins, Christopher J. Fowler, Ekaterina Manuilova, Monika Widmann, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Aibl Research Group Jan 2020

Elecsys Csf Biomarker Immunoassays Demonstrate Concordance With Amyloid-Pet Imaging, James A. Doecke, Larry Ward, Samantha C. Burnham, Victor L. Villemagne, Qiao-Xin Li, Steven Collins, Christopher J. Fowler, Ekaterina Manuilova, Monika Widmann, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Aibl Research Group

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: β-amyloid (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is currently the only Food and Drug Administration-approved method to support clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, numerous research studies support the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, as a cost-efficient, quick and equally valid method to define AD pathology. Methods: Using automated Elecsys® assays (Roche Diagnostics) for Aβ (1-42) (Aβ42), Aβ (1-40) (Aβ40), total tau (tTau) and phosphorylated tau (181P) (pTau), we examined CSF samples from 202 participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing cohort, to demonstrate the concordance with pathological AD via PET imaging. …


Definitions, Sources And Self-Reported Consumption Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables In Two Regions Of Australia, Katherine Kent, Stephanie Godrich, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine Jan 2020

Definitions, Sources And Self-Reported Consumption Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables In Two Regions Of Australia, Katherine Kent, Stephanie Godrich, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Regional food systems are complex networks, with numerous retail sources that underpin a local economy. However, evidence is limited regarding how consumers define, identify, and source regionally grown fresh fruits and vegetables (RGFFV). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tasmania (TAS) and South Western Australia (SWA) to compare how RGFFV are defined, identified and sourced by consumers, including self-reported consumption of selected RGFFV. Survey data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and t-tests. Results (TAS n = 120, SWA n = 123) identified that consumers had mixed perceptions of how RGFFV are defined, including produce sold at farmers markets, or …


Kinetics And Kinematics Of The Squat And Step-Up In Well-Trained Rugby Players, Brendyn B. Appleby, Robert U. Newton, Stuart J. Cormack Jul 2019

Kinetics And Kinematics Of The Squat And Step-Up In Well-Trained Rugby Players, Brendyn B. Appleby, Robert U. Newton, Stuart J. Cormack

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the kinetics and kinematics of squat and step-up performance in well-trained athletes. Triaxial ground reaction force (GRF) and 3D kinematic data were collected in 4 maximal effort repetitions each at 70, 80, and 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of squat and step-up. The difference in concentric phase kinetics and kinematics between the squat and step-up was compared using effect sizes (ES ± 90% confidence limits [CLs]) classified as: less than 0.2 as trivial; 0.2-0.6 as small; 0.6-1.2 as moderate; and 1.2-2.0 as large. Where the 90% CL crossed negative …


Spatial Distribution Of Tuberculosis And Its Association With Meteorological Factors In Mainland China, Yingjie Zhang, Mengyang Liu, Samuel S. Wu, Hui Jiang, Junjie Zhang, Songwang Wang, Wei Ma, Qihuan Li, Yuan Ma, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Endawoke Amsalu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Weimin Li, Xiuhua Guo May 2019

Spatial Distribution Of Tuberculosis And Its Association With Meteorological Factors In Mainland China, Yingjie Zhang, Mengyang Liu, Samuel S. Wu, Hui Jiang, Junjie Zhang, Songwang Wang, Wei Ma, Qihuan Li, Yuan Ma, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Endawoke Amsalu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Weimin Li, Xiuhua Guo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) remains high worldwide. Current strategies will not eradicate TB by 2035; instead, by 2182 is more likely. Therefore, it is urgent that new risk factors be identified.

METHODS: An ecological study was conducted in 340 prefectures in China from 2005 to 2015. The spatial distribution of TB incidence was shown by clustering and hotspot analysis. The relationship between the distribution patterns and six meteorological factors was evaluated by the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model.

RESULTS: During the 11 years of the study period, TB incidence was persistently low in the east and high in …


Canadian Children From Food Insecure Households Experience Low Self-Esteem And Self-Efficacy For Healthy Lifestyle Choices, Stephanie L. Godrich, Olivia K. Loewen, Rosanne Blanchet, Noreen Willows, Paul Veugelers Mar 2019

Canadian Children From Food Insecure Households Experience Low Self-Esteem And Self-Efficacy For Healthy Lifestyle Choices, Stephanie L. Godrich, Olivia K. Loewen, Rosanne Blanchet, Noreen Willows, Paul Veugelers

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to: (i) determine whether there are differences in self-esteem and self-efficacy for healthy lifestyle choices between children living in food secure and food insecure households; and (ii) determine whether the association between household food insecurity (HFI), self-esteem and self-efficacy differs by gender. Survey responses of 5281 fifth-grade students (10 and 11 years of age) participating in the Canadian Children's Lifestyle and School Performance Study II were analyzed using logistic and linear regression. HFI status was determined by the six-item short-form Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM). Students from food insecure households had significantly …


Elbow Angle Modulates Corticospinal Excitability To The Resting Biceps Brachii At Both Spinal And Supraspinal Levels, Siobhan C. Dongés, Janet L. Taylor, James L. Nuzzo Jan 2019

Elbow Angle Modulates Corticospinal Excitability To The Resting Biceps Brachii At Both Spinal And Supraspinal Levels, Siobhan C. Dongés, Janet L. Taylor, James L. Nuzzo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

NEW FINDINGS:

What is the central question of this study?

Corticospinal excitability to biceps brachii is known to modulate according to upper-limb posture. Here, cervicomedullary stimulation was used to investigate potential spinal contributions to elbow angle-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability at rest.

What is the main finding and its importance?

At more extended elbow angles, biceps responses to cervicomedullary stimulation were decreased, whereas cortically evoked responses (normalized to cervicomedullary-evoked responses) were increased. Results suggest decreased spinal excitability but increased cortical excitability as the elbow is placed in a more extended position, an effect that is unlikely to be attributable to …


Cross-Sectional Changes In Weight Status And Weight Related Behaviors Among Australian Children And Australian Indigenous Children Between 2010 And 2015, Louise L. Hardy, Rona Macniven, Tuguy Esgin, Seema Mihrshahi Jan 2019

Cross-Sectional Changes In Weight Status And Weight Related Behaviors Among Australian Children And Australian Indigenous Children Between 2010 And 2015, Louise L. Hardy, Rona Macniven, Tuguy Esgin, Seema Mihrshahi

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: Since 2006 there has been substantial long-term investment in school-based child obesity prevention programs in New South Wales (Australia). Whether these programs have led to population level improvements in children's weight status and weight-related behaviors are yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to describe changes in children's weight status and weight-related behaviors, including Indigenous children, who are at greater risk of poorer health outcomes than non-Indigenous children.

METHODS: Representative cross-sectional population surveys conducted in 2010 and 2015 among children age 5-16 years (n = 15,613). Objective measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, and …


The Incidence, Prevalence, Nature, Severity And Mechanisms Of Injury In Elite Female Cricketers: A Prospective Cohort Study, Nirmala Kanthi Panagodage Perera, Alex Kountouris, Joanne L. Kemp, Corey Joseph, Caroline F. Finch Jan 2019

The Incidence, Prevalence, Nature, Severity And Mechanisms Of Injury In Elite Female Cricketers: A Prospective Cohort Study, Nirmala Kanthi Panagodage Perera, Alex Kountouris, Joanne L. Kemp, Corey Joseph, Caroline F. Finch

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Objectives

Incidence, prevalence, nature, severity and mechanisms of injury in elite female cricketers over two seasons from March 2014 to March 2016, inclusive.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Methods

Injury data collected via Cricket Australia’s Athlete Management System on all elite female players over two seasons were analysed. Profiles of the nature, anatomical location and mechanism of injuries were presented according to dominant player position. Injury incidence rates were calculated based on match playing hours.

Results

There were 600 medical-attention injuries; with 77.7% players reporting ≥1 injury. There were 79.5% acute injuries compared to gradual onset injuries. Of the all medical-attention …


Associations Between Habitual Flavonoid Intake And Hospital Admissions For Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study, Frederik Dalgaard, Nicola P. Bondonno, Kevin Murray, Catherine P. Bondonno, Joshua R. Lewis, Kevin D. Croft, Cecilie Kyrø, Gunnar Gislason, Augustin Scalbert, Aedin Cassidy, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Jonathan M. Hodgson Jan 2019

Associations Between Habitual Flavonoid Intake And Hospital Admissions For Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study, Frederik Dalgaard, Nicola P. Bondonno, Kevin Murray, Catherine P. Bondonno, Joshua R. Lewis, Kevin D. Croft, Cecilie Kyrø, Gunnar Gislason, Augustin Scalbert, Aedin Cassidy, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Jonathan M. Hodgson

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: Flavonoids, compounds found in plant-based foods and beverages, might ameliorate vascular damage and atherosclerosis. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association between flavonoid intake and hospital admissions due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study were cross-linked with Danish nationwide registries. Eligible participants were aged 50–65 years, had no previous history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. We examined associations between flavonoid intake (calculated from food-frequency questionnaires with use of the Phenol-Explorer database) and hospital admissions for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, …


Validity Of The Velocomp Powerpod Compared With The Verve Cycling Infocrank Power Meter, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss Jan 2019

Validity Of The Velocomp Powerpod Compared With The Verve Cycling Infocrank Power Meter, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose: To determine the validity of the Velocomp PowerPod power meter in comparison with the Verve Cycling InfoCrank power meter. Methods: This research involved 2 separate studies. In study 1, 12 recreational male road cyclists completed 7 maximal cycling efforts of a known duration (2 times 5 s and 15, 30, 60, 240, and 600 s). In study 2, 4 elite male road cyclists completed 13 outdoor cycling sessions. In both studies, power output of cyclists was continuously measured using both the PowerPod and InfoCrank power meters. Maximal mean power output was calculated for durations of 1, 5, …


Does Caffeine Ingestion Before A Short-Term Sprint Interval Training Promote Body Fat Loss?, G. A. Ferreira, L. C. Felippe, R. Bertuzzi, David J. Bishop, I. S. Ramos, F. R. De-Oliveira, A. E. Lima-Silva Jan 2019

Does Caffeine Ingestion Before A Short-Term Sprint Interval Training Promote Body Fat Loss?, G. A. Ferreira, L. C. Felippe, R. Bertuzzi, David J. Bishop, I. S. Ramos, F. R. De-Oliveira, A. E. Lima-Silva

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

We investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion combined with a 2-wk sprint interval training (SIT) on training-induced reductions in body adiposity. Twenty physically-active men ingested either 5 mg/kg of cellulose as a placebo (PLA, n=10) or 5 mg/kg of caffeine (CAF, n=10) 60 min before each SIT session (13×30 s sprint/15 s of rest). Body mass and skinfold thickness were measured pre- and post-training. Energy expenditure was measured at rest, during exercise, and 45 min after exercise in the first SIT session. Body fat was similar between PLA and CAF groups at pre-training (P>0.05). However, there was a significant …


Effect Of Ice Slushy Ingestion And Cold Water Immersion On Thermoregulatory Behavior, Hui C. Choo, Jeremiah J. Peiffer, João P. Lopes-Silva, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Tatsuro Amano, Narihiko Kondo, Chris R. Abbiss Jan 2019

Effect Of Ice Slushy Ingestion And Cold Water Immersion On Thermoregulatory Behavior, Hui C. Choo, Jeremiah J. Peiffer, João P. Lopes-Silva, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Tatsuro Amano, Narihiko Kondo, Chris R. Abbiss

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of ice slushy ingestion (ICE) and cold water immersion (CWI) on thermoregulatory and sweat responses during constant (study 1) and self-paced (study 2) exercise. In study 1, 11 men cycled at 40–50% of peak aerobic power for 60 min (33.2 ± 0.3C, 45.9 ± 0.5% relative humidity, RH). In study 2, 11 men cycled for 60 min at perceived exertion (RPE) equivalent to 15 (33.9 ± 0.2C and 42.5 ± 3.9%RH). In both studies, each trial was preceded by 30 min of CWI (~22C), ICE or no cooling (CON). Rectal temperature (T …


Chemical Profile And In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation Of Unripe Citrus Aurantifolia Essential Oil, Christian K. Adokoh, Du-Bois Asante, Desmond O. Acheampong, Yohei Kotsuchibashi, Francis A. Armah, Ignatius H. Sirikyi, Keisuke Kimura, Edward Gmakame, Sey Abdul-Rauf Jan 2019

Chemical Profile And In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation Of Unripe Citrus Aurantifolia Essential Oil, Christian K. Adokoh, Du-Bois Asante, Desmond O. Acheampong, Yohei Kotsuchibashi, Francis A. Armah, Ignatius H. Sirikyi, Keisuke Kimura, Edward Gmakame, Sey Abdul-Rauf

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle (syn. C. MEDICA var. ACIDA Brandis) (family: Rutaceae) essential oil is one of the cheapest oils found in local markets. Although, it is generally accepted as non-toxic to vital organs and cells, majority of people are cynical about it usage. Herein, the present study reports the chemical composition and in vivo oral toxicity study of unripe C. aurantifolia essential oil found in Ghana. The toxicity of C. aurantifolia essential oil extract was investigated via oral administration using two methods: The acute toxicity single dose study (SDS) and the repeated dose method. The oil exhibited no acute …


The Chest Australia Trial: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of An Intervention To Increase Consultation Rates In Smokers At Risk Of Lung Cancer, Jon D. Emery, Sonya R. Murray, Fiona M. Walter, Andrew Martin, Stephen Goodall, Danielle Mazza, Emily Habgood, Yvonne Kutzer, David John Barnes, Peter Murchie Jan 2019

The Chest Australia Trial: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of An Intervention To Increase Consultation Rates In Smokers At Risk Of Lung Cancer, Jon D. Emery, Sonya R. Murray, Fiona M. Walter, Andrew Martin, Stephen Goodall, Danielle Mazza, Emily Habgood, Yvonne Kutzer, David John Barnes, Peter Murchie

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: International research has focused on screening and mass media campaigns to promote earlier patient presentation and detect lung cancer earlier. This trial tested the effect of a behavioural intervention in people at increased risk of lung cancer on help-seeking for respiratory symptoms.

Methods: Parallel, individually randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were long-term smokers with at least 20 pack-years, aged 55 and above. The CHEST intervention entailed a consultation to discuss and implement a self-help manual, followed by self-monitoring reminders to encourage help-seeking for respiratory symptoms. The control group received a brief discussion about lung health. Both groups had baseline …


A Multi-Center Comparison Of Vo2 Peak Trainability Between Interval Training And Moderate Intensity Continuous Training, Camilla J. Williams, Brendon J. Gurd, Jacob T. Bonafiglia, Sarah Voisin, Zhixiu Li, Nicholas Harvey, Ilaria Croci, Jenna L. Taylor, Trishan Gajanand, Joyce S. Ramos, Robert G. Fassett, Jonathan P. Little, Monique E. Francois, Christopher M. Hearon, Satyam Sarma, Sylvan L. J. E. Janssen, Emeline M. Van Craenenbroeck, Paul Beckers, Véronique A. Cornelissen, Nele Pattyn, Erin J. Howden, Shelley E. Keating, Anja Bye, Dorthe Stensvold, Ulrik Wisloff, Ioannis Papadimitriou, Xu Yan, David J. Bishop, Nir Eynon, Jeff S. Coombes Jan 2019

A Multi-Center Comparison Of Vo2 Peak Trainability Between Interval Training And Moderate Intensity Continuous Training, Camilla J. Williams, Brendon J. Gurd, Jacob T. Bonafiglia, Sarah Voisin, Zhixiu Li, Nicholas Harvey, Ilaria Croci, Jenna L. Taylor, Trishan Gajanand, Joyce S. Ramos, Robert G. Fassett, Jonathan P. Little, Monique E. Francois, Christopher M. Hearon, Satyam Sarma, Sylvan L. J. E. Janssen, Emeline M. Van Craenenbroeck, Paul Beckers, Véronique A. Cornelissen, Nele Pattyn, Erin J. Howden, Shelley E. Keating, Anja Bye, Dorthe Stensvold, Ulrik Wisloff, Ioannis Papadimitriou, Xu Yan, David J. Bishop, Nir Eynon, Jeff S. Coombes

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

There is heterogeneity in the observed VO2peak response to similar exercise training, and different exercise approaches produce variable degrees of exercise response (trainability). The aim of this study was to combine data from different laboratories to compare VO2peak trainability between various volumes of interval training and Moderate Intensity Continuous Training (MICT). For interval training, volumes were classified by the duration of total interval time. High-volume High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) included studies that had participants complete more than 15 min of high intensity efforts per session. Low-volume HIIT/Sprint Interval Training (SIT) included studies using less than 15 min …


Predictors Of Noncompliance To Antihypertensive Therapy Among Hypertensive Patients Ghana: Application Of Health Belief Model, Yaa Obirikorang, Christian Obirikorang, Emmanuel Acheampong, Enoch Odame Anto, Daniel Gyamfi, Selorm Philip Segbefia, Michael Opoku Boateng, Dari Pascal Dapilla, Peter Kojo Brenya, Bright Amankwaa, Evans Asamoah Adu, Emmanuel Nsenbah Batu, Adjei Gyimah Akwasi, Beatrice Amoah Jan 2018

Predictors Of Noncompliance To Antihypertensive Therapy Among Hypertensive Patients Ghana: Application Of Health Belief Model, Yaa Obirikorang, Christian Obirikorang, Emmanuel Acheampong, Enoch Odame Anto, Daniel Gyamfi, Selorm Philip Segbefia, Michael Opoku Boateng, Dari Pascal Dapilla, Peter Kojo Brenya, Bright Amankwaa, Evans Asamoah Adu, Emmanuel Nsenbah Batu, Adjei Gyimah Akwasi, Beatrice Amoah

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

This study determined noncompliance to antihypertensive therapy (AHT) and its associated factors in a Ghanaian population by using the health belief model (HBM). This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Kintampo Municipality in Ghana recruited a total of 678 hypertensive patients. The questionnaire constituted information regarding sociodemographics, a five-Likert type HBM questionnaire, and lifestyle-related factors. The rate of noncompliance to AHT in this study was 58.6%. The mean age (SD) of the participants was 43.5 (±5.2) years and median duration of hypertension was 2 years. Overall, the five HBM constructs explained 31.7% of the variance in noncompliance to AHT with a …


An Overview Of Technical Considerations When Using Quantitative Real-Time Pcr Analysis Of Gene Expression In Human Exercise Research, Jujiao Kuang, Xu Yan, Amanda Genders, Cesare Granata, David J. Bishop Jan 2018

An Overview Of Technical Considerations When Using Quantitative Real-Time Pcr Analysis Of Gene Expression In Human Exercise Research, Jujiao Kuang, Xu Yan, Amanda Genders, Cesare Granata, David J. Bishop

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR in skeletal muscle is routine in exercise studies. The reproducibility and reliability of the data fundamentally depend on how the experiments are performed and interpreted. Despite the popularity of the assay, there is a considerable variation in experimental protocols and data analyses from different laboratories, and there is a lack of consistency of proper quality control steps throughout the assay. In this study, we present a number of experiments on various steps of quantitative PCR workflow, and demonstrate how to perform a quantitative PCR experiment with human skeletal muscle samples in an exercise study. …


Newborn Care Practices Of Mothers In Arab Societies: Implication For Infant Welfare, Diana H. Arabiat, Lisa Whitehead, Mohammad A. Al Jabery, Muhammad Darawad, Sadie Geraghty, Suhaila Halasa Jan 2018

Newborn Care Practices Of Mothers In Arab Societies: Implication For Infant Welfare, Diana H. Arabiat, Lisa Whitehead, Mohammad A. Al Jabery, Muhammad Darawad, Sadie Geraghty, Suhaila Halasa

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

INTRODUCTION: There are at least 22 Arab league states and sections in Northern Africa, southwestern Asia, and Europe that incorporate the vast Middle Eastern culture. The purpose of this study was to identify the cultural variations in newborn care practices, self-management of common illnesses, and their potential impact on infant welfare.

METHOD: A qualitative design using a focus group approach with 37 Arab mothers in Jordan was used.

RESULTS: Findings revealed strong similarities in terms of beliefs, care practices, and the experience of intergenerational conflict in establishing and maintaining traditional practices among mothers. Potentially harmful practices included restrictive swaddling, rubbing …


Cruciferous And Allium Vegetable Intakes Are Inversely Associated With 15‐Year Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease Deaths In Older Adult Women, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Catherine P. Bondonno, Joshua Lewis, Amanda Devine, Kun Zhu, Wai Lim, Richard Woodman, Lawrence Beilin, Richard Prince, Jonathan M. Hodgson Oct 2017

Cruciferous And Allium Vegetable Intakes Are Inversely Associated With 15‐Year Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease Deaths In Older Adult Women, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Catherine P. Bondonno, Joshua Lewis, Amanda Devine, Kun Zhu, Wai Lim, Richard Woodman, Lawrence Beilin, Richard Prince, Jonathan M. Hodgson

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background

Higher vegetable intake is consistently associated with lower atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) events. However, the components responsible and mechanisms involved are uncertain. Nonnutritive phytochemicals may be involved. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of total vegetable intake and types of vegetables grouped according to phytochemical constituents with ASVD mortality.

Methods and Results

The cohort consisted of 1226 Australian women aged 70 years and older without clinical ASVD or diabetes mellitus at baseline (1998). Vegetable intakes were calculated per serving (75 g/d) and were also classified into prespecified types relating to phytochemical constituents. ASVD‐related deaths were …