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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Prevalence Of Frailty And Pain In Hospitalised Adult Patients In An Acute Hospital: A Protocol For A Point Prevalence Observational Study, Rosemary Saunders, Kate Crookes, Mustafa Atee, Caroline Bulsara, Max K. Bulsara, Christopher Etherton-Beer, Beverley Ewens, Olivia Gallagher, Renee M. Graham, Karen Gullick, Sue Haydon, Kim-Huong Nguyen, Bev O'Connell, Karla Seaman, Jeff Hughes Jan 2021

Prevalence Of Frailty And Pain In Hospitalised Adult Patients In An Acute Hospital: A Protocol For A Point Prevalence Observational Study, Rosemary Saunders, Kate Crookes, Mustafa Atee, Caroline Bulsara, Max K. Bulsara, Christopher Etherton-Beer, Beverley Ewens, Olivia Gallagher, Renee M. Graham, Karen Gullick, Sue Haydon, Kim-Huong Nguyen, Bev O'Connell, Karla Seaman, Jeff Hughes

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Introduction Frailty and pain are associated with adverse patient clinical outcomes and healthcare system costs. Frailty and pain can interact, such that symptoms of frailty can make pain assessment difficult and pain can exacerbate the progression of frailty. The prevalence of frailty and pain and their concurrence in hospital settings are not well understood, and patients with cognitive impairment are often excluded from pain prevalence studies due to difficulties assessing their pain. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of frailty and pain in adult inpatients, including those with cognitive impairment, in an acute care private metropolitan …


Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela Feb 2020

Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

New Findings:

What is the central question of the study? What are the effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function in a non-fatigued state and during fatiguing exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? In a non-fatigued state, caffeine decreased the duration of the silent period evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Caffeine-induced reduction of inhibitory mechanisms in the central nervous system before exercise was associated with an increased performance. Individuals who benefit from caffeine ingestion may experience lower perception of effort during exercise and an accelerated recovery of M-wave amplitude postfatigue. This study elucidates the mechanisms of action of …


Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic Jan 2020

Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Caffeine’s ergogenic effects on exercise performance are generally explained by its ability to bind to adenosine receptors. ADORA2A is the gene that encodes A2A subtypes of adenosine receptors. It has been suggested that ADORA2A gene polymorphisms may be responsible for the inter-individual variations in the effects of caffeine on exercise performance. In the only study that explored the influence of variation in ADORA2A—in this case, a common polymorphism (rs5751876)—on the ergogenic effects of caffeine on exercise performance, C allele carriers were identified as “non-responders” to caffeine. To explore if C allele carriers are true “non-responders” to the ergogenic effects of …


The Effect Of Sleep Restriction, With Or Without High-Intensity Interval Exercise, On Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis In Healthy Young Men, Nicholas J. Saner, Matthew J. -C. Lee, Nathan W. Pitchford, Jujiao Kuang, Gregory D. Roach, Andrew Garnham, Tanner Stokes, Stuart M. Phillips, David J. Bishop, Jonathan D. Bartlett Jan 2020

The Effect Of Sleep Restriction, With Or Without High-Intensity Interval Exercise, On Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis In Healthy Young Men, Nicholas J. Saner, Matthew J. -C. Lee, Nathan W. Pitchford, Jujiao Kuang, Gregory D. Roach, Andrew Garnham, Tanner Stokes, Stuart M. Phillips, David J. Bishop, Jonathan D. Bartlett

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Key points: Sleep restriction has previously been associated with the loss of muscle mass in both human and animal models. The rate of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) is a key variable in regulating skeletal muscle mass and can be increased by performing high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), although the effect of sleep restriction on MyoPS is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that participants undergoing a sleep restriction protocol (five nights, with 4 h in bed each night) had lower rates of skeletal muscle MyoPS; however, rates of MyoPS were maintained at control levels by performing HIIE during this period. …


Predictors Of Ceasing Or Reducing Statin Medication Following A Large Increase In The Consumer Copayment For Medications: A Retrospective Observational Study, Karla Seamon, Frank Sanfilippo, Max Bulsara, Libby Roughead, Anna Kemp-Casey, Caroline Bulsara, Gerald F. Watts, David Preen Jan 2020

Predictors Of Ceasing Or Reducing Statin Medication Following A Large Increase In The Consumer Copayment For Medications: A Retrospective Observational Study, Karla Seamon, Frank Sanfilippo, Max Bulsara, Libby Roughead, Anna Kemp-Casey, Caroline Bulsara, Gerald F. Watts, David Preen

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

OBJECTIVES:

Previous Australian research has shown that following the 21% increase in patient copayments for medications on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2005, the use of lipid-lowering therapy declined by 5%. This study aimed to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals who continued, reduced or ceased their use of statin medication in 2005.

STUDY TYPE:

Retrospective observational study using routinely collected administrative data.

METHOD:

We used pharmaceutical claims, hospital separations and mortality records from 2000 to 2005 for the Western Australian population. The cohort comprised stable users of statin medication in 2004. Based on changes in statin …


Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault Jan 2020

Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Even though the acute effects of pre-exercise static stretching and dynamic muscle activity on muscular and functional performance have been largely investigated, their effects on the corticospinal pathway are still unclear. For that reason, this study examined the acute effects of 5×20 s of static stretching, dynamic muscle activity and a control condition on spinal excitability, corticospinal excitability and plantar flexor neuromuscular properties. Fifteen volunteers were randomly tested on separate days. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to investigate corticospinal excitability by recording the amplitude of the motorevoked potential (MEP) and the duration of the cortical silent period (cSP). Peripheral nerve …


Should The Pbl Tutor Be Present? A Cross-Sectional Study Of Group Effectiveness In Synchronous And Asynchronous Settings, Samuel Edelbring, Siw Alehagen, Evalotte Mörelius, Annakarin Johansson, Patrik Rytterström Jan 2020

Should The Pbl Tutor Be Present? A Cross-Sectional Study Of Group Effectiveness In Synchronous And Asynchronous Settings, Samuel Edelbring, Siw Alehagen, Evalotte Mörelius, Annakarin Johansson, Patrik Rytterström

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: The tutorial group and its dynamics are a cornerstone of problem-based learning (PBL). The tutor's support varies according to the setting, and it is pertinent to explore group effectiveness in relation to different settings, for example online or campus-based. The PBL groups' effectiveness can partly be assessed in terms of cognitive and motivational aspects, using a self-report tool to measure PBL group effectiveness, the Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument (TGEI). This study's aim was to explore tutor participation in variations of online and campus-based tutorial groups in relation to group effectiveness. A secondary aim was to validate a tool for …


First Age- And Gender-Matched Case-Control Study In Australia Examining The Possible Association Between Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Busselton Health Study, Aus Molan, Kazunori Nosaka, Michael Hunter, Jinxia Zhang, Xiaoni Meng, Manshu Song, Wei Wang Jan 2020

First Age- And Gender-Matched Case-Control Study In Australia Examining The Possible Association Between Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Busselton Health Study, Aus Molan, Kazunori Nosaka, Michael Hunter, Jinxia Zhang, Xiaoni Meng, Manshu Song, Wei Wang

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

An emerging field of research is starting to examine the association of infectious pathogens with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An understudied parasite of interest is Toxoplasma gondii. Globally, very few studies have been conducted to investigate this association. Additionally, very little data exists on the prevalence of T. gondii in the general Australian population. Our group sought to determine the prevalence, association, and risk factors between T. gondii infection and T2DM from a representative Australian human population. Through a cross-sectional, age-A nd gender-matched case-control study, 150 subjects with T2DM together with 150 control subjects from the Busselton Health Study …


Definitions, Sources And Self-Reported Consumption Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables In Two Regions Of Australia, Katherine Kent, Stephanie Godrich, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine Jan 2020

Definitions, Sources And Self-Reported Consumption Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables In Two Regions Of Australia, Katherine Kent, Stephanie Godrich, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Regional food systems are complex networks, with numerous retail sources that underpin a local economy. However, evidence is limited regarding how consumers define, identify, and source regionally grown fresh fruits and vegetables (RGFFV). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tasmania (TAS) and South Western Australia (SWA) to compare how RGFFV are defined, identified and sourced by consumers, including self-reported consumption of selected RGFFV. Survey data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and t-tests. Results (TAS n = 120, SWA n = 123) identified that consumers had mixed perceptions of how RGFFV are defined, including produce sold at farmers markets, or …


Australian Consumer Perceptions Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables: Importance, Enablers, And Barriers, Stephanie Godrich, Katherine Kent, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Johnny Lo, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Amanda Devine Jan 2020

Australian Consumer Perceptions Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables: Importance, Enablers, And Barriers, Stephanie Godrich, Katherine Kent, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Johnny Lo, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Fresh fruits and vegetables are a cornerstone of a balanced diet; their consumption has health, environmental, ethical, and economic implications. This pilot study aimed to: (i) measure fruit and vegetable consumption; (ii) understand consumer perceptions of the perceived importance of regionally grown fresh fruit and vegetables (RGFFV); and (iii) identify the barriers and enablers of access and consumption of RGFFV. The study took place in Tasmania (TAS) and South Western Australia (SWA). A 54-item survey included questions relating to purchasing and consumption patterns; barriers and enablers related to access and consumption of RGFFV; and sociodemographic information. Survey data were analyzed …


Reducing Aerodynamic Drag By Adopting A Novel Road-Cycling Sprint Position, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspa, Chris R. Abbiss Jul 2019

Reducing Aerodynamic Drag By Adopting A Novel Road-Cycling Sprint Position, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspa, Chris R. Abbiss

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose: To assess the influence of seated, standing, and forward-standing cycling sprint positions on aerodynamic drag (CdA) and the reproducibility of a field test of CdA calculated in these different positions. Methods: A total of 11 recreational male road cyclists rode 250 m in 2 directions at around 25, 32, and 40 km·h. Results: A main effect of position showed that the average CdA of the 2 d was lower for the forward-standing position (0.295 [0.059]) compared with both the seated (0.363 [0.071], P = .018) and standing positions (0.372 [0.077], P = .037). Seated and standing positions did …


Local Challenges And Successes Associated With Transitioning To Sustainable Food System Practices For A West Australian Context: Multi-Sector Stakeholder Perceptions, Ros Sambell, Lesley Andrew, Stephanie Godrich, Justin Wolfgang, Dieter Vandenbroeck, Katie Stubley, Nick Rose, Lenore Newman, Pierre Horwitz, Amanda Devine Jun 2019

Local Challenges And Successes Associated With Transitioning To Sustainable Food System Practices For A West Australian Context: Multi-Sector Stakeholder Perceptions, Ros Sambell, Lesley Andrew, Stephanie Godrich, Justin Wolfgang, Dieter Vandenbroeck, Katie Stubley, Nick Rose, Lenore Newman, Pierre Horwitz, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Large-scale food system practices have diminished soil and water quality and negatively impacted climate change. Yet, numerous opportunities exist to harness food system practices that will ensure better outcomes for human health and ecosystems. The objective of this study was to consider food Production, Processing, Access and Consumption domains, and for each determine the challenges and successes associated with progressing towards a sustainable food system. A workshop engaging 122 participants including producers, consultants, consumers, educators, funders, scientists, media, government and industry representatives, was conducted in Perth, Western Australia. A thematic analysis of statements (Successes (n = 170) or Challenges (n …


Online Video Instruction On Hand Expression Of Colostrum In Pregnancy Is An Effective Educational Tool, Therese A. O'Sullivan, Joy Cooke, Chris Mccafferty, Roslyn Giglia Apr 2019

Online Video Instruction On Hand Expression Of Colostrum In Pregnancy Is An Effective Educational Tool, Therese A. O'Sullivan, Joy Cooke, Chris Mccafferty, Roslyn Giglia

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The use of antenatal colostrum expression in the weeks prior to birth may help improve long-term breastfeeding, but few large-scale studies exist. Typically, antenatal colostrum expression instruction relies on face-to-face education, making large interventions costly. We aimed to determine whether an expert online instructional video can improve knowledge and confidence around antenatal colostrum expressing. Pregnant women were asked to complete a questionnaire pre- and post-watching the instructional video online. Ninety five pregnant women completed both pre- and post-questionnaires. Total antenatal colostrum expression knowledge scores improved after watching the video, from a mean of 3.05 ± 1.70 correct out of a …


The Food Literacy Action Logic Model: A Tertiary Education Sector Innovative Strategy To Support The Charitable Food Sectors Need For Food Literacy Training, Tanya Lawlis, Rosalind Sambell, Amanda Douglas-Watson, Sarah Belton, Amanda Devine Apr 2019

The Food Literacy Action Logic Model: A Tertiary Education Sector Innovative Strategy To Support The Charitable Food Sectors Need For Food Literacy Training, Tanya Lawlis, Rosalind Sambell, Amanda Douglas-Watson, Sarah Belton, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Food literacy is seen as a key component in improving the increasing levels of food insecurity. While responsibility for providing training falls on the charitable service organizations, they may not have the capacity to adequately reach those in need. This paper proposes a tertiary education - (university or higher education) led model to support the food literacy training needs of the food charity sector. A cross-sectional study comprised of online surveys and discussions investigated food services offered by Western Australia (WA) and Australian Capital Territory (ACT) agencies, food literacy training needs for staff, volunteers and clients, and challenges to delivering …


Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook Apr 2019

Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

OBJECTIVE: Exercise-training programmes have reduced lower limb injuries in trials, but their population-level effectiveness has not been reported in implementation trials. This study aimed to demonstrate that routinely collected hospital data can be used to evaluate population-level programme effectiveness.

METHOD: A controlled ecological design was used to evaluate the effect of FootyFirst, an exercise-training programme, on the number of hospital-treated lower limb injuries sustained by males aged 16-50 years while participating in community-level Australian Football. FootyFirst was implemented with 'support' (FootyFirst+S) or 'without support' (FootyFirst+NS) in different geographic regions of Victoria, Australia: 22 clubs in region 1: FootyFirst+S in 2012/2013; …


Elbow Angle Modulates Corticospinal Excitability To The Resting Biceps Brachii At Both Spinal And Supraspinal Levels, Siobhan C. Dongés, Janet L. Taylor, James L. Nuzzo Jan 2019

Elbow Angle Modulates Corticospinal Excitability To The Resting Biceps Brachii At Both Spinal And Supraspinal Levels, Siobhan C. Dongés, Janet L. Taylor, James L. Nuzzo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

NEW FINDINGS:

What is the central question of this study?

Corticospinal excitability to biceps brachii is known to modulate according to upper-limb posture. Here, cervicomedullary stimulation was used to investigate potential spinal contributions to elbow angle-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability at rest.

What is the main finding and its importance?

At more extended elbow angles, biceps responses to cervicomedullary stimulation were decreased, whereas cortically evoked responses (normalized to cervicomedullary-evoked responses) were increased. Results suggest decreased spinal excitability but increased cortical excitability as the elbow is placed in a more extended position, an effect that is unlikely to be attributable to …


Associations Between Habitual Flavonoid Intake And Hospital Admissions For Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study, Frederik Dalgaard, Nicola P. Bondonno, Kevin Murray, Catherine P. Bondonno, Joshua R. Lewis, Kevin D. Croft, Cecilie Kyrø, Gunnar Gislason, Augustin Scalbert, Aedin Cassidy, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Jonathan M. Hodgson Jan 2019

Associations Between Habitual Flavonoid Intake And Hospital Admissions For Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study, Frederik Dalgaard, Nicola P. Bondonno, Kevin Murray, Catherine P. Bondonno, Joshua R. Lewis, Kevin D. Croft, Cecilie Kyrø, Gunnar Gislason, Augustin Scalbert, Aedin Cassidy, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Jonathan M. Hodgson

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: Flavonoids, compounds found in plant-based foods and beverages, might ameliorate vascular damage and atherosclerosis. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association between flavonoid intake and hospital admissions due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study were cross-linked with Danish nationwide registries. Eligible participants were aged 50–65 years, had no previous history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. We examined associations between flavonoid intake (calculated from food-frequency questionnaires with use of the Phenol-Explorer database) and hospital admissions for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, …


Does Caffeine Ingestion Before A Short-Term Sprint Interval Training Promote Body Fat Loss?, G. A. Ferreira, L. C. Felippe, R. Bertuzzi, David J. Bishop, I. S. Ramos, F. R. De-Oliveira, A. E. Lima-Silva Jan 2019

Does Caffeine Ingestion Before A Short-Term Sprint Interval Training Promote Body Fat Loss?, G. A. Ferreira, L. C. Felippe, R. Bertuzzi, David J. Bishop, I. S. Ramos, F. R. De-Oliveira, A. E. Lima-Silva

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

We investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion combined with a 2-wk sprint interval training (SIT) on training-induced reductions in body adiposity. Twenty physically-active men ingested either 5 mg/kg of cellulose as a placebo (PLA, n=10) or 5 mg/kg of caffeine (CAF, n=10) 60 min before each SIT session (13×30 s sprint/15 s of rest). Body mass and skinfold thickness were measured pre- and post-training. Energy expenditure was measured at rest, during exercise, and 45 min after exercise in the first SIT session. Body fat was similar between PLA and CAF groups at pre-training (P>0.05). However, there was a significant …


The Chest Australia Trial: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of An Intervention To Increase Consultation Rates In Smokers At Risk Of Lung Cancer, Jon D. Emery, Sonya R. Murray, Fiona M. Walter, Andrew Martin, Stephen Goodall, Danielle Mazza, Emily Habgood, Yvonne Kutzer, David John Barnes, Peter Murchie Jan 2019

The Chest Australia Trial: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of An Intervention To Increase Consultation Rates In Smokers At Risk Of Lung Cancer, Jon D. Emery, Sonya R. Murray, Fiona M. Walter, Andrew Martin, Stephen Goodall, Danielle Mazza, Emily Habgood, Yvonne Kutzer, David John Barnes, Peter Murchie

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: International research has focused on screening and mass media campaigns to promote earlier patient presentation and detect lung cancer earlier. This trial tested the effect of a behavioural intervention in people at increased risk of lung cancer on help-seeking for respiratory symptoms.

Methods: Parallel, individually randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were long-term smokers with at least 20 pack-years, aged 55 and above. The CHEST intervention entailed a consultation to discuss and implement a self-help manual, followed by self-monitoring reminders to encourage help-seeking for respiratory symptoms. The control group received a brief discussion about lung health. Both groups had baseline …


The Incidence, Prevalence, Nature, Severity And Mechanisms Of Injury In Elite Female Cricketers: A Prospective Cohort Study, Nirmala Kanthi Panagodage Perera, Alex Kountouris, Joanne L. Kemp, Corey Joseph, Caroline F. Finch Jan 2019

The Incidence, Prevalence, Nature, Severity And Mechanisms Of Injury In Elite Female Cricketers: A Prospective Cohort Study, Nirmala Kanthi Panagodage Perera, Alex Kountouris, Joanne L. Kemp, Corey Joseph, Caroline F. Finch

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Objectives

Incidence, prevalence, nature, severity and mechanisms of injury in elite female cricketers over two seasons from March 2014 to March 2016, inclusive.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Methods

Injury data collected via Cricket Australia’s Athlete Management System on all elite female players over two seasons were analysed. Profiles of the nature, anatomical location and mechanism of injuries were presented according to dominant player position. Injury incidence rates were calculated based on match playing hours.

Results

There were 600 medical-attention injuries; with 77.7% players reporting ≥1 injury. There were 79.5% acute injuries compared to gradual onset injuries. Of the all medical-attention …


Validity Of The Velocomp Powerpod Compared With The Verve Cycling Infocrank Power Meter, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss Jan 2019

Validity Of The Velocomp Powerpod Compared With The Verve Cycling Infocrank Power Meter, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose: To determine the validity of the Velocomp PowerPod power meter in comparison with the Verve Cycling InfoCrank power meter. Methods: This research involved 2 separate studies. In study 1, 12 recreational male road cyclists completed 7 maximal cycling efforts of a known duration (2 times 5 s and 15, 30, 60, 240, and 600 s). In study 2, 4 elite male road cyclists completed 13 outdoor cycling sessions. In both studies, power output of cyclists was continuously measured using both the PowerPod and InfoCrank power meters. Maximal mean power output was calculated for durations of 1, 5, …


What Predicts Regression From Pre-Diabetes To Normal Glucose Regulation Following A Primary Care Nurse-Delivered Dietary Intervention? A Study Protocol For A Prospective Cohort Study, Kirsten Coppell, Trish Freer, Sally Abel, Lisa Whitehead, David Tipene-Leach, Andrew R. Gray, Tony Merriman, Trudy Sullivan, Jeremy Krebs, Leigh Perreault Jan 2019

What Predicts Regression From Pre-Diabetes To Normal Glucose Regulation Following A Primary Care Nurse-Delivered Dietary Intervention? A Study Protocol For A Prospective Cohort Study, Kirsten Coppell, Trish Freer, Sally Abel, Lisa Whitehead, David Tipene-Leach, Andrew R. Gray, Tony Merriman, Trudy Sullivan, Jeremy Krebs, Leigh Perreault

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Introduction Pre-diabetes is a high-risk state for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. Regression to normoglycaemia, even if transient, significantly reduces the risk of developing T2DM. The primary aim of this mixed-methods study is to determine if there are clinically relevant differences among those with pre-diabetes and excess weight who regress to normoglycaemia, those who have persistent pre-diabetes and those who progress to T2DM following participation in a 6-month primary care nurse-delivered pre-diabetes dietary intervention. Incidence of T2DM at 2 years will be examined.

Methods and analysis Four hundred participants with pre-diabetes (New Zealand definition …


Sport Medicine In The Prevention And Management Of Cancer, Hao Luo, Daniel A. Galvão, Robert U. Newton, Ciaran M. Fairman, Dennis R. Taaffe Jan 2019

Sport Medicine In The Prevention And Management Of Cancer, Hao Luo, Daniel A. Galvão, Robert U. Newton, Ciaran M. Fairman, Dennis R. Taaffe

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Physical inactivity is a major concern in cancer patients despite the established preventative and therapeutic effects of regular physical exercise for this patient group. Sport not only plays an important role in supporting the development and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle but also is increasingly used as a health promotion activity in various populations. Nevertheless, the potential of sport as an effective strategy in the prevention and management of cancer has gained little attention. Based on the scant evidence to date, participation of cancer patients in supervised, well-tailored sport programs appears to be safe and feasible and is associated …


Steroid Therapy And Outcome Of Parapneumonic Pleural Effusions (Stoppe): Study Protocol For A Multicenter, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial, Deirdre B. Fitzgerald, Grant W. Waterer, Catherine A. Read, Edward T. Fysh, Ranjan Shrestha, Christopher Stanley, Sanjeevan Muruganandan, Norris S. H. Lan, Natalia D. Popowicz, Carolyn J. Peddle-Mcintyre, Najib M. Rahman, Seng Khee Gan, Kevin Murray, Yun Chor Gary Lee Jan 2019

Steroid Therapy And Outcome Of Parapneumonic Pleural Effusions (Stoppe): Study Protocol For A Multicenter, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial, Deirdre B. Fitzgerald, Grant W. Waterer, Catherine A. Read, Edward T. Fysh, Ranjan Shrestha, Christopher Stanley, Sanjeevan Muruganandan, Norris S. H. Lan, Natalia D. Popowicz, Carolyn J. Peddle-Mcintyre, Najib M. Rahman, Seng Khee Gan, Kevin Murray, Yun Chor Gary Lee

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major global disease. Parapneumonic effusions often complicate CAP and range from uninfected (simple) to infected (complicated) parapneumonic effusions and empyema (pus). CAP patients who have a pleural effusion at presentation are more likely to require hospitalization, have a longer length of stay and higher mortality than those without an effusion. Conventional management of pleural infection, with antibiotics and chest tube drainage, fails in about 30% of cases. Several randomized controlled trials (RCT) have evaluated the use of corticosteroids in CAP and demonstrated some potential benefits. Importantly, steroid use in pneumonia has an acceptable safety …


Effect Of Ice Slushy Ingestion And Cold Water Immersion On Thermoregulatory Behavior, Hui C. Choo, Jeremiah J. Peiffer, João P. Lopes-Silva, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Tatsuro Amano, Narihiko Kondo, Chris R. Abbiss Jan 2019

Effect Of Ice Slushy Ingestion And Cold Water Immersion On Thermoregulatory Behavior, Hui C. Choo, Jeremiah J. Peiffer, João P. Lopes-Silva, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Tatsuro Amano, Narihiko Kondo, Chris R. Abbiss

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of ice slushy ingestion (ICE) and cold water immersion (CWI) on thermoregulatory and sweat responses during constant (study 1) and self-paced (study 2) exercise. In study 1, 11 men cycled at 40–50% of peak aerobic power for 60 min (33.2 ± 0.3C, 45.9 ± 0.5% relative humidity, RH). In study 2, 11 men cycled for 60 min at perceived exertion (RPE) equivalent to 15 (33.9 ± 0.2C and 42.5 ± 3.9%RH). In both studies, each trial was preceded by 30 min of CWI (~22C), ICE or no cooling (CON). Rectal temperature (T …


The Association Between Subclass-Specific Igg Fc N-Glycosylation Profiles And Hypertension In The Uygur, Kazak, Kirgiz, And Tajik Populations, J. N. Liu, Mamatyusupu Dolikun, Jerko Štambuk, Irena Trbojević-Akmačić, J. Zhang, Hao Wang, D. Q. Zheng, X. Y. Zhang, H. L. Peng, Z. Y. Zhao, D. Liu, Yang Sun, Q. Sun, Q. H. Li, J. X. Zhang, Ming Sun, W. J. Cao, Ana Momčilović, Genadij Razdorov, L. J. Wu, Alyce Russell, Y. X. Wang, Song Manshu, Gordan Lauc, Wei Wang Sep 2018

The Association Between Subclass-Specific Igg Fc N-Glycosylation Profiles And Hypertension In The Uygur, Kazak, Kirgiz, And Tajik Populations, J. N. Liu, Mamatyusupu Dolikun, Jerko Štambuk, Irena Trbojević-Akmačić, J. Zhang, Hao Wang, D. Q. Zheng, X. Y. Zhang, H. L. Peng, Z. Y. Zhao, D. Liu, Yang Sun, Q. Sun, Q. H. Li, J. X. Zhang, Ming Sun, W. J. Cao, Ana Momčilović, Genadij Razdorov, L. J. Wu, Alyce Russell, Y. X. Wang, Song Manshu, Gordan Lauc, Wei Wang

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Hypertension results from the interaction of genetic and acquired factors. IgG occurs in the form of different subclasses, of which the effector functions show significant variation. The detailed differences between the glycosylation profiles of the individual IgG subclasses may be lost in a profiling method for total IgG N-glycosylation. In this study, subclass-specific IgG Fc glycosylation profile was investigated in the four northwestern Chinese minority populations, namely, Uygur (UIG), Kazak (KZK), Kirgiz (KGZ), and Tajik (TJK), composed of 274 hypertensive patients and 356 healthy controls. The results showed that ten directly measured IgG N-glycan traits (i.e., IgG1G0F, IgG2G0F, IgG2G1FN, IgG2G1FS, …


What Are The Characteristics Of Vitamin D Metabolism In Opioid Dependence? An Exploratory Longitudinal Study In Australian Primary Care, Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Hulse Jan 2018

What Are The Characteristics Of Vitamin D Metabolism In Opioid Dependence? An Exploratory Longitudinal Study In Australian Primary Care, Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Hulse

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

OBJECTIVE: Compare vitamin D levels in opioid dependence and control population and adjust for relevant confounding effects. Nuclear hormone receptors (including the vitamin D receptor) have been shown to be key transducers and regulators of intracellular metabolism and comprise an important site of pathophysiological immune and metabolic dysregulation potentially contributing towards pro-ageing changes observed in opioid-dependent patients (ODPs).

DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective comparing ODPs with general medical controls (GMCs).

SETTING: Primary care.

PARTICIPANTS: Prospective review comparing 1168 ODP (72.5% men) and 415 GMC (51.6% men, p

INTERVENTIONS: Nil. Observational study only.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Serum vitamin D levels and relevant …


Evaluation Of Individual And Combined Markers Of Urine Dipstick Parameters And Total Lymphocyte Count As A Substitute For Cd4 Count In Low-Resource Communities In Ghana, Enoch Odame Anto, Christian Obirikorang, Emmanuel Acheampong, Bright Amankwaa, Bright Oppong Afranie, Sampson Donkor, Isaac Hope, Juliana Jommo, Esther Osaah Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Individual And Combined Markers Of Urine Dipstick Parameters And Total Lymphocyte Count As A Substitute For Cd4 Count In Low-Resource Communities In Ghana, Enoch Odame Anto, Christian Obirikorang, Emmanuel Acheampong, Bright Amankwaa, Bright Oppong Afranie, Sampson Donkor, Isaac Hope, Juliana Jommo, Esther Osaah

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

We evaluated the individual and combined levels of urine dipstick and total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate markers for CD4 count in a low-resource community in Ghana. This cross-sectional study recruited 200 HIV-infected patients from the Saint Francis Xavier Hospital, Assin Fosu, Ghana. Complete blood count, CD4 count, and urine dipstick analysis were measured for participants. The threshold values were determined as/


Predictors Of Noncompliance To Antihypertensive Therapy Among Hypertensive Patients Ghana: Application Of Health Belief Model, Yaa Obirikorang, Christian Obirikorang, Emmanuel Acheampong, Enoch Odame Anto, Daniel Gyamfi, Selorm Philip Segbefia, Michael Opoku Boateng, Dari Pascal Dapilla, Peter Kojo Brenya, Bright Amankwaa, Evans Asamoah Adu, Emmanuel Nsenbah Batu, Adjei Gyimah Akwasi, Beatrice Amoah Jan 2018

Predictors Of Noncompliance To Antihypertensive Therapy Among Hypertensive Patients Ghana: Application Of Health Belief Model, Yaa Obirikorang, Christian Obirikorang, Emmanuel Acheampong, Enoch Odame Anto, Daniel Gyamfi, Selorm Philip Segbefia, Michael Opoku Boateng, Dari Pascal Dapilla, Peter Kojo Brenya, Bright Amankwaa, Evans Asamoah Adu, Emmanuel Nsenbah Batu, Adjei Gyimah Akwasi, Beatrice Amoah

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

This study determined noncompliance to antihypertensive therapy (AHT) and its associated factors in a Ghanaian population by using the health belief model (HBM). This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Kintampo Municipality in Ghana recruited a total of 678 hypertensive patients. The questionnaire constituted information regarding sociodemographics, a five-Likert type HBM questionnaire, and lifestyle-related factors. The rate of noncompliance to AHT in this study was 58.6%. The mean age (SD) of the participants was 43.5 (±5.2) years and median duration of hypertension was 2 years. Overall, the five HBM constructs explained 31.7% of the variance in noncompliance to AHT with a …


Support After Brain Tumor Means Different Things: Family Caregivers' Experiences Of Support And Relationship Changes, T. Ownsworth, E. Goadby, Suzanne K. Chambers Jan 2015

Support After Brain Tumor Means Different Things: Family Caregivers' Experiences Of Support And Relationship Changes, T. Ownsworth, E. Goadby, Suzanne K. Chambers

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Shorter hospital stays and greater emphasis on outpatient care means that family members have the primary responsibility for supporting a person with brain tumor to manage the physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional effects of the illness and its treatment. Given the integral role of family caregivers, it is essential to understand their experience of the impact of brain tumor and their own support needs. Accordingly, this qualitative study aimed to investigate family caregivers' experiences of support and relationship changes in the context of brain tumor. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 family caregivers (8 spouse/partner, 3 parents) of people with …