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Research outputs 2014 to 2021

2020

Controlled study

Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela Feb 2020

Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

New Findings:

What is the central question of the study? What are the effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function in a non-fatigued state and during fatiguing exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? In a non-fatigued state, caffeine decreased the duration of the silent period evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Caffeine-induced reduction of inhibitory mechanisms in the central nervous system before exercise was associated with an increased performance. Individuals who benefit from caffeine ingestion may experience lower perception of effort during exercise and an accelerated recovery of M-wave amplitude postfatigue. This study elucidates the mechanisms of action of …


Randomised Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Study Examining The Role Of Anamorelin In Mesothelioma (The Anthem Study): Rationale And Protocol, Siao Nge Hoon, Katrina Fyfe, Carolyn J. Peddle-Mcintyre, Samantha Bowyer, Felicity Hawkins, Emily Jeffery, Hui Jun Chih, Jenette Creaney, Anna Nowak, Fraser Brims Jan 2020

Randomised Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Study Examining The Role Of Anamorelin In Mesothelioma (The Anthem Study): Rationale And Protocol, Siao Nge Hoon, Katrina Fyfe, Carolyn J. Peddle-Mcintyre, Samantha Bowyer, Felicity Hawkins, Emily Jeffery, Hui Jun Chih, Jenette Creaney, Anna Nowak, Fraser Brims

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Introduction Cachexia is common in malignant mesothelioma (MM); half of patients have malnutrition and low skeletal muscle mass. Malnourished patients have worse quality of life (QoL). Weight loss is strongly associated with poor survival. Anamorelin is an oral ghrelin receptor agonist that improves appetite, body weight and QoL in advanced cancer. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of anamorelin in improving appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and patient-reported outcomes in patients with MM with cachexia. Methods and analysis A single-centre, phase II, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over pilot study with 28-day treatment periods and 3-day washout. Forty patients …


Should The Pbl Tutor Be Present? A Cross-Sectional Study Of Group Effectiveness In Synchronous And Asynchronous Settings, Samuel Edelbring, Siw Alehagen, Evalotte Mörelius, Annakarin Johansson, Patrik Rytterström Jan 2020

Should The Pbl Tutor Be Present? A Cross-Sectional Study Of Group Effectiveness In Synchronous And Asynchronous Settings, Samuel Edelbring, Siw Alehagen, Evalotte Mörelius, Annakarin Johansson, Patrik Rytterström

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: The tutorial group and its dynamics are a cornerstone of problem-based learning (PBL). The tutor's support varies according to the setting, and it is pertinent to explore group effectiveness in relation to different settings, for example online or campus-based. The PBL groups' effectiveness can partly be assessed in terms of cognitive and motivational aspects, using a self-report tool to measure PBL group effectiveness, the Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument (TGEI). This study's aim was to explore tutor participation in variations of online and campus-based tutorial groups in relation to group effectiveness. A secondary aim was to validate a tool for …


The Effect Of Sleep Restriction, With Or Without High-Intensity Interval Exercise, On Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis In Healthy Young Men, Nicholas J. Saner, Matthew J. -C. Lee, Nathan W. Pitchford, Jujiao Kuang, Gregory D. Roach, Andrew Garnham, Tanner Stokes, Stuart M. Phillips, David J. Bishop, Jonathan D. Bartlett Jan 2020

The Effect Of Sleep Restriction, With Or Without High-Intensity Interval Exercise, On Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis In Healthy Young Men, Nicholas J. Saner, Matthew J. -C. Lee, Nathan W. Pitchford, Jujiao Kuang, Gregory D. Roach, Andrew Garnham, Tanner Stokes, Stuart M. Phillips, David J. Bishop, Jonathan D. Bartlett

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Key points: Sleep restriction has previously been associated with the loss of muscle mass in both human and animal models. The rate of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) is a key variable in regulating skeletal muscle mass and can be increased by performing high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), although the effect of sleep restriction on MyoPS is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that participants undergoing a sleep restriction protocol (five nights, with 4 h in bed each night) had lower rates of skeletal muscle MyoPS; however, rates of MyoPS were maintained at control levels by performing HIIE during this period. …


Effectiveness Of A Structured, Framework-Based Approach To Implementation: The Researching Effective Approaches To Cleaning In Hospitals (Reach) Trial, Lisa Hall, Nicole M. White, Michelle Allen, Alison Farrington, Brett G. Mitchell, Katie Page, Kate Halton, Thomas V. Riley, Christian A. Gericke, Nicholas Graves, Anne Gardner Jan 2020

Effectiveness Of A Structured, Framework-Based Approach To Implementation: The Researching Effective Approaches To Cleaning In Hospitals (Reach) Trial, Lisa Hall, Nicole M. White, Michelle Allen, Alison Farrington, Brett G. Mitchell, Katie Page, Kate Halton, Thomas V. Riley, Christian A. Gericke, Nicholas Graves, Anne Gardner

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: Implementing sustainable practice change in hospital cleaning has proven to be an ongoing challenge in reducing healthcare associated infections. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable framework-based approach to implement and quantitatively evaluate the implementation of evidence-based practice change in hospital cleaning. DESIGN/METHODS: The Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) trial was a pragmatic, stepped-wedge randomised trial of an environmental cleaning bundle implemented in 11 Australian hospitals from 2016 to 2017. Using a structured multi-step approach, we adapted the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework to support rigorous and …


Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault Jan 2020

Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Even though the acute effects of pre-exercise static stretching and dynamic muscle activity on muscular and functional performance have been largely investigated, their effects on the corticospinal pathway are still unclear. For that reason, this study examined the acute effects of 5×20 s of static stretching, dynamic muscle activity and a control condition on spinal excitability, corticospinal excitability and plantar flexor neuromuscular properties. Fifteen volunteers were randomly tested on separate days. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to investigate corticospinal excitability by recording the amplitude of the motorevoked potential (MEP) and the duration of the cortical silent period (cSP). Peripheral nerve …


Elecsys Csf Biomarker Immunoassays Demonstrate Concordance With Amyloid-Pet Imaging, James A. Doecke, Larry Ward, Samantha C. Burnham, Victor L. Villemagne, Qiao-Xin Li, Steven Collins, Christopher J. Fowler, Ekaterina Manuilova, Monika Widmann, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Aibl Research Group Jan 2020

Elecsys Csf Biomarker Immunoassays Demonstrate Concordance With Amyloid-Pet Imaging, James A. Doecke, Larry Ward, Samantha C. Burnham, Victor L. Villemagne, Qiao-Xin Li, Steven Collins, Christopher J. Fowler, Ekaterina Manuilova, Monika Widmann, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Aibl Research Group

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: β-amyloid (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is currently the only Food and Drug Administration-approved method to support clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, numerous research studies support the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, as a cost-efficient, quick and equally valid method to define AD pathology. Methods: Using automated Elecsys® assays (Roche Diagnostics) for Aβ (1-42) (Aβ42), Aβ (1-40) (Aβ40), total tau (tTau) and phosphorylated tau (181P) (pTau), we examined CSF samples from 202 participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing cohort, to demonstrate the concordance with pathological AD via PET imaging. …


Clarifying Workforce Flexibility From A Division Of Labor Perspective: A Mixed Methods Study Of An Emergency Department Team, Sarah Wise, Christine Duffield, Margaret Fry, Michael Roche Jan 2020

Clarifying Workforce Flexibility From A Division Of Labor Perspective: A Mixed Methods Study Of An Emergency Department Team, Sarah Wise, Christine Duffield, Margaret Fry, Michael Roche

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: The need for greater flexibility is often used to justify reforms that redistribute tasks through the workforce. However, "flexibility" is never defined or empirically examined. This study explores the nature of flexibility in a team of emergency doctors, nurse practitioners (NPs), and registered nurses (RNs), with the aim of clarifying the concept of workforce flexibility. Taking a holistic perspective on the team's division of labor, it measures task distribution to establish the extent of multiskilling and role overlap, and explores the behaviors and organizational conditions that drive flexibly.

Methods: The explanatory sequential mixed methods study was set in the …


Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic Jan 2020

Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Caffeine’s ergogenic effects on exercise performance are generally explained by its ability to bind to adenosine receptors. ADORA2A is the gene that encodes A2A subtypes of adenosine receptors. It has been suggested that ADORA2A gene polymorphisms may be responsible for the inter-individual variations in the effects of caffeine on exercise performance. In the only study that explored the influence of variation in ADORA2A—in this case, a common polymorphism (rs5751876)—on the ergogenic effects of caffeine on exercise performance, C allele carriers were identified as “non-responders” to caffeine. To explore if C allele carriers are true “non-responders” to the ergogenic effects of …


A Sensorimotor Control Framework For Understanding Emotional Communication And Regulation, Justin H.G. Williams, Charlotte F. Huggins, Barbra Zupan, Megan Willis, Tamsyn E. Van Rheenen, Wataru Sato, Romina Palermo, Catherine Ortner, Martin Krippl, Mariska Kret, Joanne M. Dickson, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Leroy Lowe Jan 2020

A Sensorimotor Control Framework For Understanding Emotional Communication And Regulation, Justin H.G. Williams, Charlotte F. Huggins, Barbra Zupan, Megan Willis, Tamsyn E. Van Rheenen, Wataru Sato, Romina Palermo, Catherine Ortner, Martin Krippl, Mariska Kret, Joanne M. Dickson, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Leroy Lowe

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Our research team was asked to consider the relationship of the neuroscience of sensorimotor control to the language of emotions and feelings. Actions are the principal means for the communication of emotions and feelings in both humans and other animals, and the allostatic mechanisms controlling action also apply to the regulation of emotional states by the self and others. We consider how motor control of hierarchically organised, feedback-based, goal-directed action has evolved in humans, within a context of consciousness, appraisal and cultural learning, to serve emotions and feelings. In our linguistic analysis, we found that many emotion and feelings words …


First Age- And Gender-Matched Case-Control Study In Australia Examining The Possible Association Between Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Busselton Health Study, Aus Molan, Kazunori Nosaka, Michael Hunter, Jinxia Zhang, Xiaoni Meng, Manshu Song, Wei Wang Jan 2020

First Age- And Gender-Matched Case-Control Study In Australia Examining The Possible Association Between Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Busselton Health Study, Aus Molan, Kazunori Nosaka, Michael Hunter, Jinxia Zhang, Xiaoni Meng, Manshu Song, Wei Wang

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

An emerging field of research is starting to examine the association of infectious pathogens with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An understudied parasite of interest is Toxoplasma gondii. Globally, very few studies have been conducted to investigate this association. Additionally, very little data exists on the prevalence of T. gondii in the general Australian population. Our group sought to determine the prevalence, association, and risk factors between T. gondii infection and T2DM from a representative Australian human population. Through a cross-sectional, age-A nd gender-matched case-control study, 150 subjects with T2DM together with 150 control subjects from the Busselton Health Study …


Definitions, Sources And Self-Reported Consumption Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables In Two Regions Of Australia, Katherine Kent, Stephanie Godrich, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine Jan 2020

Definitions, Sources And Self-Reported Consumption Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables In Two Regions Of Australia, Katherine Kent, Stephanie Godrich, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Regional food systems are complex networks, with numerous retail sources that underpin a local economy. However, evidence is limited regarding how consumers define, identify, and source regionally grown fresh fruits and vegetables (RGFFV). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tasmania (TAS) and South Western Australia (SWA) to compare how RGFFV are defined, identified and sourced by consumers, including self-reported consumption of selected RGFFV. Survey data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and t-tests. Results (TAS n = 120, SWA n = 123) identified that consumers had mixed perceptions of how RGFFV are defined, including produce sold at farmers markets, or …


A Rapid Absorbance-Based Growth Assay To Screen The Toxicity Of Oligomer Aβ42 And Protect Against Cell Death In Yeast, Prashant Bharadwaj, Ralph Martins Jan 2020

A Rapid Absorbance-Based Growth Assay To Screen The Toxicity Of Oligomer Aβ42 And Protect Against Cell Death In Yeast, Prashant Bharadwaj, Ralph Martins

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Multiple lines of evidence show that soluble oligomer forms of amyloid β protein (Aβ42) are the most neurotoxic species in the brain and correlates with the degree of neuronal loss and cognitive deficit in Alzheimer's disease. Although many studies have used mammalian cells to investigate oligomer Aβ42 toxicity, the use of more simple eukaryotic cellular systems offers advantages for large-scale screening studies. We have previously established and validated budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be a simple and a robust model to study the toxicity of Aβ. Using colony counting based methods, oligomeric Aβ42 was shown to induce dose-dependent cell death …