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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Circulating Tumor Dna To Monitor Treatment Response And Detect Acquired Resistance In Patients With Metastatic Melanoma, Elin S. Gray, Helen Rizos, Anna L. Reid, Suzanah Boyd, Michelle Pereira, Johnny Lo, Varsha Tembe, James Freeman, Jenny Lee, Richard Scolyer, Kelvin Siew, Chris Lomma, Adam Cooper, Muhammad Khattak, Tarek Meniawy, Georgina Long, Matteo Carlino, Michael Millward, Mel R. Ziman Jan 2015

Circulating Tumor Dna To Monitor Treatment Response And Detect Acquired Resistance In Patients With Metastatic Melanoma, Elin S. Gray, Helen Rizos, Anna L. Reid, Suzanah Boyd, Michelle Pereira, Johnny Lo, Varsha Tembe, James Freeman, Jenny Lee, Richard Scolyer, Kelvin Siew, Chris Lomma, Adam Cooper, Muhammad Khattak, Tarek Meniawy, Georgina Long, Matteo Carlino, Michael Millward, Mel R. Ziman

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Repeat tumor biopsies to study genomic changes during therapy are difficult, invasive and data are confounded by tumoral heterogeneity. The analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can provide a non-invasive approach to assess prognosis and the genetic evolution of tumors in response to therapy. Mutation-specific droplet digital PCR was used to measure plasma concentrations of oncogenic BRAF and NRAS variants in 48 patients with advanced metastatic melanoma prior to treatment with targeted therapies (vemurafenib, dabrafenib or dabrafenib/trametinib combination) or immunotherapies (ipilimumab, nivolumab or pembrolizumab). Baseline ctDNA levels were evaluated relative to treatment response and progression-free survival (PFS). Tumor-associated ctDNA was …


The Effect Of Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation On Brain Structure And Cognition In Huntington's Disease: An Exploratory Study, Travis M. Cruickshank, Jennifer A. Thompson, Juan F. Dominguez D, Alvaro P. Reyes, Mike Bynevelt, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Roger A. Barker, Mel R. Ziman Jan 2015

The Effect Of Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation On Brain Structure And Cognition In Huntington's Disease: An Exploratory Study, Travis M. Cruickshank, Jennifer A. Thompson, Juan F. Dominguez D, Alvaro P. Reyes, Mike Bynevelt, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Roger A. Barker, Mel R. Ziman

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: There is a wealth of evidence detailing gray matter degeneration and loss of cognitive function over time in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). Efforts to attenuate disease-related brain and cognitive changes have been unsuccessful to date. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation, comprising motor and cognitive intervention, has been shown to positively impact on functional capacity, depression, quality of life and some aspects of cognition in individuals with HD. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate, for the first time, whether multidisciplinary rehabilitation can slow further deterioration of disease-related brain changes and related cognitive deficits in individuals with manifest HD. Methods: Fifteen participants who …


Evaluation Of A Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Megan E. Rollo, Susan Ash, Philipa Lyons-Wall, Anthony W. Russell Jan 2015

Evaluation Of A Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Megan E. Rollo, Susan Ash, Philipa Lyons-Wall, Anthony W. Russell

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 …


Risk Factors Of Myopic Shift Among Primary School Children In Beijing, China: A Prospective Study, L.-J. Wu, Y.-X. Yang, Q.-S. You, J.-L. Duan, Y.-X. Luo, L.-J. Liu, X. Li, Q. Gao, H.-P. Zhu, Y. He, L. Xu, M.-S. Song, J.B. Jonas, X.-H. Guo, Wei Wang Jan 2015

Risk Factors Of Myopic Shift Among Primary School Children In Beijing, China: A Prospective Study, L.-J. Wu, Y.-X. Yang, Q.-S. You, J.-L. Duan, Y.-X. Luo, L.-J. Liu, X. Li, Q. Gao, H.-P. Zhu, Y. He, L. Xu, M.-S. Song, J.B. Jonas, X.-H. Guo, Wei Wang

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Objective: To evaluate factors associated with myopic shift among primary school children. Methods: In a one-year prospective school-based study, 5052 children from ten schools were enrolled using a multi-stage random cluster approach. The baseline examination included non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry and questionnaire interview. Measurements were repeated at the follow-up. Results: Among 5052 students at baseline investigated, 4292 students (85.0%) returned for the follow-up examination. The mean refractive error (-1.13±1.57 diopters) had changed -0.52±0.73 diopters from the baseline to the follow-up examination. 2170 (51.0%) had a rate of significant myopic shift (significant myopic shift is defined as the change of spherical equivalent of …


Effects Of Ambient Coarse, Fine, And Ultrafine Particles And Their Biological Constituents On Systemic Biomarkers: A Controlled Human Exposure Study, Ling Liu, Bruce Urch, Raymond Poon, Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz, Mary Speck, Diane R. Gold, Amanda J. Wheeler, James A. Scott, Jeffrey R. Brook, Peter S. Thorne, Frances S. Silverman Jan 2015

Effects Of Ambient Coarse, Fine, And Ultrafine Particles And Their Biological Constituents On Systemic Biomarkers: A Controlled Human Exposure Study, Ling Liu, Bruce Urch, Raymond Poon, Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz, Mary Speck, Diane R. Gold, Amanda J. Wheeler, James A. Scott, Jeffrey R. Brook, Peter S. Thorne, Frances S. Silverman

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: Ambient coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles have been associated with mortality and morbidity. Few studies have compared how various particle size fractions affect systemic biomarkers. Objectives: We examined changes of blood and urinary biomarkers following exposures to three particle sizes. Methods: Fifty healthy nonsmoking volunteers, mean age of 28 years, were exposed to coarse (2.5–10 μm; mean, 213 μg/m3) and fine (0.15–2.5 μm; mean, 238 μg/m3) concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), and filtered ambient and/or medical air. Twenty-five participants were exposed to ultrafine CAP (< 0.3 μm; mean, 136 μg/m3) and filtered medical air. Exposures lasted 130 min, separated by ≥ 2 weeks. Blood/urine samples were collected preexposure and 1 hr and 21 hr postexposure to determine blood interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (inflammation), endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; vascular mediators), and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation); as well as urinary VEGF, 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine (DNA oxidation), and malondialdehyde. Mixed-model regressions assessed pre- and postexposure differences. results: One hour postexposure, for every 100-μg/m3 increase, coarse CAP was associated with increased blood VEGF (2.41 pg/mL; 95% CI: 0.41, 4.40) in models adjusted for O3, fine CAP with increased urinary malondialdehyde in single- (0.31 nmol/mg creatinine; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.60) and two-pollutant models, and ultrafine CAP with increased urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in single- (0.69 ng/mg creatinine; 95% CI: 0.09, 1.29) and two-pollutant models, lasting < 21 hr. Endotoxin was significantly associated with biomarker changes similar to those found with CAPs. conclusions: Ambient particles with various sizes/constituents may influence systemic biomarkers differently. Endotoxin in ambient particles may contribute to vascular mediator changes and oxidative stress.


Support After Brain Tumor Means Different Things: Family Caregivers' Experiences Of Support And Relationship Changes, T. Ownsworth, E. Goadby, Suzanne K. Chambers Jan 2015

Support After Brain Tumor Means Different Things: Family Caregivers' Experiences Of Support And Relationship Changes, T. Ownsworth, E. Goadby, Suzanne K. Chambers

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Shorter hospital stays and greater emphasis on outpatient care means that family members have the primary responsibility for supporting a person with brain tumor to manage the physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional effects of the illness and its treatment. Given the integral role of family caregivers, it is essential to understand their experience of the impact of brain tumor and their own support needs. Accordingly, this qualitative study aimed to investigate family caregivers' experiences of support and relationship changes in the context of brain tumor. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 family caregivers (8 spouse/partner, 3 parents) of people with …


Effective, Clinically Feasible And Sustainable: Key Design Features Of Psycho-Educational And Supportive Care Interventions To Promote Individualised Self-Management In Cancer Care, P. Schofield, Suzanne Chambers Jan 2015

Effective, Clinically Feasible And Sustainable: Key Design Features Of Psycho-Educational And Supportive Care Interventions To Promote Individualised Self-Management In Cancer Care, P. Schofield, Suzanne Chambers

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

As the global burden of cancer increases healthcare services will face increasing challenges in meet the complex needs of these patients, their families and the communities in which they live. This raises the question of how to meet patient need where direct clinical contact may be constrained or not readily available. Patients and families require resources and skills to manage their illness outside of the hospital setting within their own communities. Aim. To propose a framework for the development and delivery of psycho-educational and supportive care interventions drawing on theoretical principles of behaviour change and evidence-based interventions, and based on …


The Interdependence Of Long And Short-Term Components In Unmasked Repetition Priming: An Indication Of Shared Resources, Matt R. Merema, Craig P. Speelman Jan 2015

The Interdependence Of Long And Short-Term Components In Unmasked Repetition Priming: An Indication Of Shared Resources, Matt R. Merema, Craig P. Speelman

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

It has been suggested that unmasked repetition priming is composed of distinct long-and short-term priming components. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between these components by examining the relationship between them. A total of 60 people (45 females, 15 males) participated in a computer-based lexical decision task designed to measure levels of short-term priming across different levels of long-term priming. The results revealed an interdependent relationship between the two components, whereby an increase in long-term priming prompted a decrease in short-term priming. Both long-term and short-term priming were accurately captured by a single power function over seven minutes …


Amyloid-Related Memory Decline In Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease In Dependent On Apoe Ε4 And Is Detectable Over 18-Months, Christine Thai, Yen Ying Lim, Victor L. Villemagne, Simon Laws, David Ames, Kathryn A. Ellis, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Ralph Martins, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Paul Maruff, Australian Imaging, Biomarkers And Lifestyle (Aibl) Research Group Jan 2015

Amyloid-Related Memory Decline In Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease In Dependent On Apoe Ε4 And Is Detectable Over 18-Months, Christine Thai, Yen Ying Lim, Victor L. Villemagne, Simon Laws, David Ames, Kathryn A. Ellis, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Ralph Martins, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Paul Maruff, Australian Imaging, Biomarkers And Lifestyle (Aibl) Research Group

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

High levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain and carriage of the APOE ε4 allele have each been linked to cognitive impairment in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral Aβ level, APOE ε4 carrier status, and cognitive decline over 18 monthes, in 317 cognitively healthy (CN) older adults (47% males, 52.4% females) aged between 60 and 89 years (Mean = 69.9, SC = 6.8). Cognition was assessed using the Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) and the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Planned comparisons indicated that CN older adults …


Follow-Up Plasma Apolipoprotein E Levels In The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers And Lifestyle Flagship Study Of Ageing (Aibl) Cohort, Veer B. Gupta, V.B, Andrea C. Wilson, Samantha Burnham, Eugene Hone, Steve Pedrini, Simon M. Laws, Wei L.F. Lim, Alan Rembach, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, David Ames, Lynne Cobiac, S L. Macaulay, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Ashley I. Bush, Ralph Martins, Aibl Research Group Jan 2015

Follow-Up Plasma Apolipoprotein E Levels In The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers And Lifestyle Flagship Study Of Ageing (Aibl) Cohort, Veer B. Gupta, V.B, Andrea C. Wilson, Samantha Burnham, Eugene Hone, Steve Pedrini, Simon M. Laws, Wei L.F. Lim, Alan Rembach, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, David Ames, Lynne Cobiac, S L. Macaulay, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Ashley I. Bush, Ralph Martins, Aibl Research Group

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing socioeconomic problem worldwide. Early diagnosis and prevention of this devastating disease have become a research priority. Consequently, the identification of clinically significant and sensitive blood biomarkers for its early detection is very important. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a well-known and established genetic risk factor for late-onset AD; however, the impact of the protein level on AD risk is unclear. We assessed the utility of plasma ApoE protein as a potential biomarker of AD in the large, well-characterised Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) cohort. Methods: Total plasma ApoE levels were …