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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Neuromuscular Training Improves Lower Extremity Biomechanics Associated With Knee Injury During Landing In 11-13 Year Old Female Netball Athletes: A Randomized Control Study, Amanda J. Hopper, Erin Haff, Christopher Joyce, Rhodri S. Lloyd, G. Gregory Haff Nov 2017

Neuromuscular Training Improves Lower Extremity Biomechanics Associated With Knee Injury During Landing In 11-13 Year Old Female Netball Athletes: A Randomized Control Study, Amanda J. Hopper, Erin Haff, Christopher Joyce, Rhodri S. Lloyd, G. Gregory Haff

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training (NMT) program on lower-extremity biomechanics in youth female netball athletes. The hypothesis was that significant improvements would be found in landing biomechanics of the lower-extremities, commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, following NMT. Twenty-three athletes (age = 12.2 ± 0.9 years; height = 1.63 ± 0.08 m; mass = 51.8 ± 8.5 kg) completed two testing sessions separated by 7-weeks and were randomly assigned to either a experimental or control group. Thirteen athletes underwent 6-weeks of NMT, while the remaining 10 served as controls …


Effects Of A Six-Week Strength Training Programme On Change Of Direction Performance In Youth Team Sport Athletes, Frank A. Bourgeois, Paul Gamble, Nic D. Gill, Mike R. Mcguigan Oct 2017

Effects Of A Six-Week Strength Training Programme On Change Of Direction Performance In Youth Team Sport Athletes, Frank A. Bourgeois, Paul Gamble, Nic D. Gill, Mike R. Mcguigan

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

This study investigated the effects of eccentric phase-emphasis strength training (EPE) on unilateral strength and performance in 180- and 45-degree change of direction (COD) tasks in rugby union players. A 12-week cross-over design was used to compare the efficacy of resistance training executed with 3 s eccentric duration (EPE, n = 12) against conventional strength training, with no constraints on tempo (CON, n = 6). Players in each condition were categorised as ‘fast’ (FAST) or ‘slow’ (SLOW) using median trial times from baseline testing. Players recorded greater isometric strength improvements following EPE (ES = − 0.54 to 1.80). Whilst these …


Affordance Boundaries Are Defined By Dynamic Capabilities Of Parkour Athletes In Dropping From Various Heights, James L. Croft, John E.A. Bertram Sep 2017

Affordance Boundaries Are Defined By Dynamic Capabilities Of Parkour Athletes In Dropping From Various Heights, James L. Croft, John E.A. Bertram

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Available behaviors are determined by the fit between features of the individual and reciprocal features of the environment. Beyond some critical boundary certain behaviors become impossible causing sudden transitions from one movement pattern to another. Parkour athletes have developed multiple movement patterns to deal with their momentum during landing. We were interested in whether drop distance would cause a sudden transition between a two-footed (precision) landing and a load-distributing roll and whether the transition height could be predicted by dynamic and geometric characteristics of individual subjects. Kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured as Parkour athletes stepped off a box …


Light Exercise Heart Rate On-Kinetics: A Comparison Of Data Fitted With Sigmoidal And Exponential Functions And The Impact Of Fitness And Exercise Intensity, Karl M. Trounson, Spencer Robert, Aaron Balloch Jun 2017

Light Exercise Heart Rate On-Kinetics: A Comparison Of Data Fitted With Sigmoidal And Exponential Functions And The Impact Of Fitness And Exercise Intensity, Karl M. Trounson, Spencer Robert, Aaron Balloch

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

This study examined the suitability of sigmoidal (SIG) and exponential (EXP) functions for modeling HR kinetics at the onset of a 5‐min low‐intensity cycling ergometer exercise test (5MT). The effects of training status, absolute and relative workloads, and high versus low workloads on the accuracy and reliability of these functions were also examined. Untrained participants (UTabs; n = 13) performed 5MTs at 100W. One group of trained participants (n = 10) also performed 5MTs at 100W (ETabs). Another group of trained participants (n = 9) performed 5MTs at 45% and 60% max (ET45 …


Could Titin Have A Role In Strain-Induced Injuries?, Craig Perrin, Kazunori Nosaka, James Steele Jun 2017

Could Titin Have A Role In Strain-Induced Injuries?, Craig Perrin, Kazunori Nosaka, James Steele

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

It has been known for some time that strain injuries occur through the excessive lengthening of a muscle. However, the precise mechanism for strain injury remains elusive and has been the subject of recent debate in the Journal of Sport and Health Science, but it seems sensible to consider mechanisms at the level of the muscle fiber. It was previously believed that damage was the result of non-uniform stretching of sarcomeres on the descending limb of the length–tension curve, with the weakest sarcomeres undergoing the greatest deformation and ultimately damaging the myofibril. This non-uniform lengthening was also believed to …


Acute Elevations In Serum Hormones Are Attenuated After Chronic Training With Traditional Isoinertial But Not Accentuated Eccentric Loads In Strength-Trained Men, Simon Walker, Keijo Häkkinen, Greg Haff, Anthony J. Blazevich, Robert Newton Apr 2017

Acute Elevations In Serum Hormones Are Attenuated After Chronic Training With Traditional Isoinertial But Not Accentuated Eccentric Loads In Strength-Trained Men, Simon Walker, Keijo Häkkinen, Greg Haff, Anthony J. Blazevich, Robert Newton

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

It has been proposed that the maintenance of acute hormonal responses reveal an efficacy of a training stimulus to evoke ongoing increases in strength and muscle mass. We previously observed that maximum strength continued to improve throughout a 10‐week period in an accentuated eccentric loading group (AEL) but not a traditional isoinertial loading (ISO) group. Therefore, this study investigated whether the magnitude of acute hormonal responses was greater (i.e., maintained) in AEL compared to ISO at the end of the training period. Subjects in AEL (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) and ISO performed experimental loading tests (three sets …


Superior Effects Of Eccentric To Concentric Knee Extensor Resistance Training On Physical Fitness, Insulin Sensitivity And Lipid Profiles Of Elderly Men, Trevor Chung-Ching Chen, Wei-Chin Tseng, Guan-Ling Huang, Hsin-Lian Chen, Kuo-Wei Tseng, Kazunori Nosaka Apr 2017

Superior Effects Of Eccentric To Concentric Knee Extensor Resistance Training On Physical Fitness, Insulin Sensitivity And Lipid Profiles Of Elderly Men, Trevor Chung-Ching Chen, Wei-Chin Tseng, Guan-Ling Huang, Hsin-Lian Chen, Kuo-Wei Tseng, Kazunori Nosaka

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

It has been reported that eccentric training of knee extensors is effective for improving blood insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles to a greater extent than concentric training in young women. However, it is not known whether this is also the case for elderly individuals. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that eccentric training of the knee extensors would improve physical function and health parameters (e.g., blood lipid profiles) of older adults better than concentric training. Healthy elderly men (60–76 years) were assigned to either eccentric training or concentric training group (n=13/group), and performed 30–60 eccentric or concentric …


Prevention Of Downhill Walking-Induced Muscle Damage By Non-Damaging Downhill Walking, Sumiaki Maeo, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Kazunori Nosaka Mar 2017

Prevention Of Downhill Walking-Induced Muscle Damage By Non-Damaging Downhill Walking, Sumiaki Maeo, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Kazunori Nosaka

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose:

Mountain trekking involves level, uphill, and downhill walking (DW). Prolonged DW induces damage to leg muscles, reducing force generating ability and muscle coordination. These increase risks for more serious injuries and accidents in mountain trekking, thus a strategy to minimize muscle damage is warranted. It has been shown that low-intensity eccentric contractions confer protective effect on muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric contractions. This study tested the hypothesis that 5-min non-damaging DW would attenuate muscle damage induced by 40-min DW, but 5-min level walking (LW) would not.

Methods:

Untrained young men were allocated (n = 12/group) to either a …


The Manipulation Of Pace Within Endurance Sport, Sabrina Skorski, Chris Abbiss Feb 2017

The Manipulation Of Pace Within Endurance Sport, Sabrina Skorski, Chris Abbiss

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

In any athletic event, the ability to appropriately distribute energy is essential to prevent premature fatigue prior to the completion of the event. In sport science literature this is termed “pacing.” Within the past decade, research aiming to better understand the underlying mechanisms influencing the selection of an athlete’s pacing during exercise has dramatically increased. It is suggested that pacing is a combination of anticipation, knowledge of the end-point, prior experience and sensory feedback. In order to better understand the role each of these factors have in the regulation of pace, studies have often manipulated various conditions known to influence …


Effects Of Different Exercise Modalities On Fatigue In Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Year-Long Randomised Controlled Trial, Dennis Taaffe, Robert Newton, Nigel Spry, David Joseph, Suzanne K. Chambers, Robert Gardiner, Brad Wall, Prue Cormie, Kate Bolam, Daniel A. Galvao Jan 2017

Effects Of Different Exercise Modalities On Fatigue In Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Year-Long Randomised Controlled Trial, Dennis Taaffe, Robert Newton, Nigel Spry, David Joseph, Suzanne K. Chambers, Robert Gardiner, Brad Wall, Prue Cormie, Kate Bolam, Daniel A. Galvao

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background

Physical exercise mitigates fatigue during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, the effects of different exercise prescriptions are unknown.

Objectives

To determine the long-term effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT.

Design, setting, and participants

Between 2009 and 2012, 163 prostate cancer patients aged 43–90 y on ADT were randomised to exercise targeting the musculoskeletal system (impact loading + resistance training; ILRT; n = 58), the cardiovascular and muscular systems (aerobic + resistance training; ART; n = 54), or to usual care/delayed exercise (DEL; n = 51) for 12 mo across university-affiliated exercise clinics …


Effects Of A 4-Week High-Intensity Interval Training On Pacing During 5-Km Running Trial, R. Silva, M. Damasceno, R. Cruz, M. D. Silva-Cavalcante, A. E. Lima-Silva, D. J. Bishop, R. Beretuzzi Jan 2017

Effects Of A 4-Week High-Intensity Interval Training On Pacing During 5-Km Running Trial, R. Silva, M. Damasceno, R. Cruz, M. D. Silva-Cavalcante, A. E. Lima-Silva, D. J. Bishop, R. Beretuzzi

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n = 8) or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n = 8). The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and peak treadmill speed (PTS). A …


Study Protocol Of The Intense Physical Activity And Cognition Study: The Effect Of High-Intensity Exercise Training On Cognitive Function In Older Adults, Belinda M. Brown, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Natalie Castalanelli, Nicole Gordon, Shaun Markovic, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Michael Weinborn, Simon Laws, James Doecke, Kaikai Shen, Ralph Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer Jan 2017

Study Protocol Of The Intense Physical Activity And Cognition Study: The Effect Of High-Intensity Exercise Training On Cognitive Function In Older Adults, Belinda M. Brown, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Natalie Castalanelli, Nicole Gordon, Shaun Markovic, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Michael Weinborn, Simon Laws, James Doecke, Kaikai Shen, Ralph Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Introduction:

Inconsistent results from previous studies of exercise and cognitive function suggest that rigorously designed randomized controlled trials are urgently needed. Here, we describe the design of the Intense Physical Activity and Cognition (IPAC) study, which will assess the impact of a 6-month high-intensity exercise intervention on cognitive function and biomarkers of dementia risk, compared with a 6-month moderate-intensity exercise intervention and control group (no study-related exercise).

Methods:

One-hundred and five cognitively healthy men and women aged between 60 and 80 years are randomized into a high-intensity exercise, moderate-intensity exercise, or control group. Individuals randomized to an exercise …


Exercise Medicine For Advanced Prostate Cancer, Nicolas H. Hart, Daniel A. Galvao, Robert Newton Jan 2017

Exercise Medicine For Advanced Prostate Cancer, Nicolas H. Hart, Daniel A. Galvao, Robert Newton

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose of review:

Exercise is a provocative medicine, known for its preventive, complimentary and rehabilitative role in the management of cancer. Impressively, exercise is also emerging as a synergistic and targeted medicine to enhance symptom control, modulate tumour biology and delay disease progression, with the potential to increase overall survival. Given the complex clinical presentation of advanced prostate cancer patients and their omnipresent comorbidities, this review describes the current and potential role of exercise medicine in advanced prostate cancer.

Recent findings:

Exercise has been shown to be safe, feasible and effective for advanced prostate cancer patients, inclusive of patients with …


Do Muscle Strength Imbalances And Low Flexibility Levels Lead To Low Back Pain? A Brief Review, Cassio Victora Ruas, Adriane Vieira Jan 2017

Do Muscle Strength Imbalances And Low Flexibility Levels Lead To Low Back Pain? A Brief Review, Cassio Victora Ruas, Adriane Vieira

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been related to hips, trunk and spine strength imbalances and/or low flexibility levels. However, it is not clear if the assessment and normalization of these variables are effective for prevention of low back pain (LBP) episodes and rehabilitation of patients with CLBP. This brief review explored studies that have associated hip, trunk and spine strength imbalances and/or low flexibility levels to LBP episodes or CLBP condition. Fourteen studies were selected by accessing PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Collectively, the selected studies demonstrate that trunk eccentric/concentric and flexion/extension strength imbalances may be associated with CLBP …


Are Rolling Averages A Good Way To Assess Training Load For Injury Prevention?, Paolo Mensaspa Jan 2017

Are Rolling Averages A Good Way To Assess Training Load For Injury Prevention?, Paolo Mensaspa

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

I read the letter ‘Time to bin the term ‘overuse’ injury: is ‘training load error’ a more accurate term?’ with great interest.1 I agree with the authors that changes in training load (TL) could increase injury risk and I share their concern relating to periods of low/no loads. However, the terminology suggested by Drew and Purdam ‘errors in training load prescription’ may not be ideal. In fact, despite the potentially flawless TL prescription, some spikes in load may be due to variables that are out of control, such as variability in the demands of competitions,2 and cannot be avoided. Moreover, …


Considerations On The Assessment And Use Of Cycling Performance Metrics And Their Integration In The Athlete's Biological Passport, Paolo Mensaspa, Chris Abbiss Jan 2017

Considerations On The Assessment And Use Of Cycling Performance Metrics And Their Integration In The Athlete's Biological Passport, Paolo Mensaspa, Chris Abbiss

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Over the past few decades the possibility to capture real-time data from road cyclists has drastically improved. Given the increasing pressure for improved transparency and openness, there has been an increase in publication of cyclists' physiological and performance data. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of such performance biometrics may be used to strengthen the sensitivity and applicability of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and aid in the fight against doping. This is an interesting concept which has merit, although there are several important factors that need to be considered. These factors include accuracy of the data collected …


Exercise Preserves Physical Function In Prostate Cancer Patients With Bone Metastases, Daniel A. Galvao, Dennis R. Taaffe, Nigel Spry, Prue Cormie, David Joseph, Suzanne K. Chambers, Raphael Chee, Carolyn J. Peddle-Mcintyre, Nicolas H. Hart, Freerk T. Baumann, James Denham, Michael Baker, Robert U. Newton Jan 2017

Exercise Preserves Physical Function In Prostate Cancer Patients With Bone Metastases, Daniel A. Galvao, Dennis R. Taaffe, Nigel Spry, Prue Cormie, David Joseph, Suzanne K. Chambers, Raphael Chee, Carolyn J. Peddle-Mcintyre, Nicolas H. Hart, Freerk T. Baumann, James Denham, Michael Baker, Robert U. Newton

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The presence of bone metastases has excluded participation of cancer patients in exercise interventions and is a relative contraindication to supervised exercise in the community setting due to concerns of fragility fracture. We examined the efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases.Between 2012 and 2015, 57 prostate cancer patients (70.0 ± 8.4 years; BMI 28.7 ± 4.0 kg/m) with bone metastases (pelvis 75.4%, femur 40.4%, rib/thoracic spine 66.7%, lumbar spine 43.9%, humerus 24.6%, other sites 70.2%) were randomised to multi-modal supervised aerobic, resistance and flexibility exercises undertaken thrice weekly (EX, n …


An Investigation Of The Mechanics And Sticking Region Of A One-Repetition Maximum Close-Grip Bench Press Versus The Traditional Bench Press, Robert G. Lockie, Samuel J. Callaghan, Matthew R. Moreno, Fabrice G. Risso, Tricia M. Liu, Alyssa A. Stage, Samantha A. Birmingham-Babauta, John J. Stokes, Dominic V. Giuliano, Adrina Lazar, Deshaun L. Davis, Ashley J. Orjajo Jan 2017

An Investigation Of The Mechanics And Sticking Region Of A One-Repetition Maximum Close-Grip Bench Press Versus The Traditional Bench Press, Robert G. Lockie, Samuel J. Callaghan, Matthew R. Moreno, Fabrice G. Risso, Tricia M. Liu, Alyssa A. Stage, Samantha A. Birmingham-Babauta, John J. Stokes, Dominic V. Giuliano, Adrina Lazar, Deshaun L. Davis, Ashley J. Orjajo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The close-grip bench press (CGBP) is a variation of the traditional bench press (TBP) that uses a narrower grip (~95% of biacromial distance (BAD)) and has potential application for athletes performing explosive arm actions from positions where the hands are held close to the torso. Limited research has investigated CGBP mechanics compared to the TBP. Twenty-seven resistance-trained individuals completed a one-repetition maximum TBP and CGBP. The TBP was performed with the preferred grip; the CGBP with a grip width of 95% BAD. A linear position transducer measured lift distance and duration; peak and mean power, velocity, and force; distance and …


Current Research And Statistical Practices In Sport Science And A Need For Change, Jake R. Bernards, Kimitake Sato, G. Gregory Haff, Caleb D. Bazyler Jan 2017

Current Research And Statistical Practices In Sport Science And A Need For Change, Jake R. Bernards, Kimitake Sato, G. Gregory Haff, Caleb D. Bazyler

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Current research ideologies in sport science allow for the possibility of investigators producing statistically significant results to help fit the outcome into a predetermined theory. Additionally, under the current Neyman-Pearson statistical structure, some argue that null hypothesis significant testing (NHST) under the frequentist approach is flawed, regardless. For example, a p-value is unable to measure the probability that the studied hypothesis is true, unable to measure the size of an effect or the importance of a result, and unable to provide a good measure of evidence regarding a model or hypothesis. Many of these downfalls are key questions researchers strive …


Effect Of Four Weeks Detraining On Strength, Power, And Sensorimotor Ability Of Adolescent Surfers, Tai T. Tran, Lina Lundgren, Josh Secomb, Oliver R. Farley, Greg Haff, Sophia Nimphius, Robert Newton, Lee Brown, Jeremy Sheppard Jan 2017

Effect Of Four Weeks Detraining On Strength, Power, And Sensorimotor Ability Of Adolescent Surfers, Tai T. Tran, Lina Lundgren, Josh Secomb, Oliver R. Farley, Greg Haff, Sophia Nimphius, Robert Newton, Lee Brown, Jeremy Sheppard

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background:

Surfing is a high skill sport that requires a considerable amount of time in a variety of ocean conditions to help develop the fundamental techniques.

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of four weeks of detraining on strength, power, and sensorimotor ability in adolescent surfers.

Methods:

Nineteen adolescent surfers (13.8 A 1.7 y, 53.6 A 10.8 kg and 165.1 A 8.9 cm) participated in four weeks of detraining (surfing participation maintained but resistance training ceased) following seven weeks of periodized resistance training. Maximal isometric strength, power, and sensorimotor ability pre-test results were determined from …


Effects Of Cluster Sets And Rest-Redistribution On Mechanical Responses To Back Squats In Trained Men, James J. Tufano, Jenny A. Colon, Sophia Nimphius, Lee E. Brown, Alex Petkovic, Justin Frick, Greg Haff Jan 2017

Effects Of Cluster Sets And Rest-Redistribution On Mechanical Responses To Back Squats In Trained Men, James J. Tufano, Jenny A. Colon, Sophia Nimphius, Lee E. Brown, Alex Petkovic, Justin Frick, Greg Haff

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Eight resistance-trained men completed three protocols separated by 48-96 hours. Each protocol included 36 repetitions with the same rest duration, but the frequency and length of rest periods differed. The cluster sets of four (CS4) protocol included 30 s of rest after the 4th, 8th, 16th, 20th, 28th, and 32nd repetition in addition to 120 s of rest after the 12th and 24th repetition. For the other two protocols, the total 420 s rest time of CS4 was redistributed to include nine sets of four repetitions (RR4) with 52.5 s of rest after every four repetitions, or 36 sets of …