Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medicine and Health Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 30

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Identifying Key Elements To Assess Patient’S Acceptability Of Neurorehabilitation In Stroke Survivors–A Delphi Method, Manonita Ghosh, Kaoru Nosaka, Lisa Whitehead, Kazunori Nosaka Jan 2022

Identifying Key Elements To Assess Patient’S Acceptability Of Neurorehabilitation In Stroke Survivors–A Delphi Method, Manonita Ghosh, Kaoru Nosaka, Lisa Whitehead, Kazunori Nosaka

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose:

Assessing patient acceptability of treatment is a clinical concern. No guidance exists to determine the best way to measure acceptability in stroke neurorehabilitation. This study identifies key elements to measure patient’s acceptance of stroke neurorehabilitation by establishing expert consensus.

Materials and methods:

A four-phase Delphi method with a three-round electronic-based survey was conducted. Experts were considered as stroke survivors or their caregivers and professionals in stroke neurorehabilitation. A twenty-five-item list was sourced from a literature review and discussion with a consumer panel (n = 22). In Round-1 (n = 118) and Round-2 (n = 80), experts …


How Community Participation In Water And Sanitation Interventions Impacts Human Health, Wash Infrastructure And Service Longevity In Low-Income And Middle-Income Countries: A Realist Review, Sarah Nelson, Dorothy Drabarek, Aaron Jenkins, Joel Negin, Seye Abimbola Dec 2021

How Community Participation In Water And Sanitation Interventions Impacts Human Health, Wash Infrastructure And Service Longevity In Low-Income And Middle-Income Countries: A Realist Review, Sarah Nelson, Dorothy Drabarek, Aaron Jenkins, Joel Negin, Seye Abimbola

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Objective:

To understand how, and under what circumstances community participation in water and sanitation interventions impacts the availability of safe water and sanitation, a change in health status or behaviour and the longevity of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) resources and services.

Design:

Realist review.

Data sources:

PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were used to identify papers from low-income and middle-income countries from 2010 to 2020.

Eligibility criteria for selecting studies:

Criteria were developed for papers to be included. The contribution of each paper was assessed based on its relevance and rigour (eg, can it contribute to context, …


Genotype-Specific Lesion Growth Rates In Stargardt Disease, Rachael C. Heath Jeffery, Jennifer A. Thompson, Johnny Lo, Tina M. Lamey, Terri L. Mclaren, Ian L. Mcallister, Ian J. Constable, John N. De Roach, Fred K. Chen Dec 2021

Genotype-Specific Lesion Growth Rates In Stargardt Disease, Rachael C. Heath Jeffery, Jennifer A. Thompson, Johnny Lo, Tina M. Lamey, Terri L. Mclaren, Ian L. Mcallister, Ian J. Constable, John N. De Roach, Fred K. Chen

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Reported growth rates (GR) of atrophic lesions in Stargardt disease (STGD1) vary widely. In the present study, we report the longitudinal natural history of patients with confirmed bial-lelic ABCA4 mutations from five genotype groups: c.6079C > T, c.[2588G > C;5603A > T], c.3113C > T, c.5882G > A and c.5603A > T. Fundus autofluorescence (AF) 30◦ × 30◦ images were manually seg-mented for boundaries of definitely decreased autofluorescence (DDAF). The primary outcome was the effective radius GR across five genotype groups. The age of DDAF formation in each eye was calculated using the x-intercept of the DDAF effective radius against age. Discordance between age at DDAF …


Extraction And Quantitative Determination Of Bile Acids In Feces, Armaghan Shafaei, Joanna Rees, Claus T. Christophersen, Amanda Devine, David Broadhurst, Mary C. Boyce Mar 2021

Extraction And Quantitative Determination Of Bile Acids In Feces, Armaghan Shafaei, Joanna Rees, Claus T. Christophersen, Amanda Devine, David Broadhurst, Mary C. Boyce

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

© 2021 Elsevier B.V. With rapid advances in gut microbiome research, fecal bile acids are increasingly being monitored as potential biomarkers of diet related disease susceptibility. As such, rapid, robust and reliable methods for their analysis are of increasing importance. Herein is described a simple extraction method for the analysis of bile acids in feces suitable for subsequent quantification by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. A C18 column separated the analytes with excellent peak shape and retention time repeatability maintained across 800 injections. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy was greater than 80%. Recoveries ranged from 83.58 to …


Searching For A Technology-Driven Acute Rheumatic Fever Test: The Start Study Protocol, Anna P. Ralph, Rachel Webb, Nicole J. Moreland, Reuben Mcgregor, Anthony Bosco, David Broadhurst, Timo Lassmann, Timothy C. Barnett, Rym Benothman, Jennifer Yan, Bo Remenyi, Julie Bennett, Nigel Wilson, Mark Mayo, Glenn Pearson, Tobias Kollmann, Jonathan R. Carapetis Jan 2021

Searching For A Technology-Driven Acute Rheumatic Fever Test: The Start Study Protocol, Anna P. Ralph, Rachel Webb, Nicole J. Moreland, Reuben Mcgregor, Anthony Bosco, David Broadhurst, Timo Lassmann, Timothy C. Barnett, Rym Benothman, Jennifer Yan, Bo Remenyi, Julie Bennett, Nigel Wilson, Mark Mayo, Glenn Pearson, Tobias Kollmann, Jonathan R. Carapetis

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Introduction: The absence of a diagnostic test for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a major impediment in managing this serious childhood condition. ARF is an autoimmune condition triggered by infection with group A Streptococcus. It is the precursor to rheumatic heart disease (RHD), a leading cause of health inequity and premature mortality for Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand and internationally. Methods and analysis: Searching for a Technology-Driven Acute Rheumatic Fever Test' (START) is a biomarker discovery study that aims to detect and test a biomarker signature that distinguishes ARF cases from non-ARF, and use systems biology and serology to …


Association Between Fruit And Vegetable Intakes And Mental Health In The Australian Diabetes Obesity And Lifestyle Cohort, Joanna Rees, Simone Radavelli-Bagatini, Johnny Lo, Jonathan M. Hodgson, Claus T. Christophersen, Robin M. Daly, Dianna J. Magliano, Jonathan E. Shaw, Marc Sim, Catherine P. Bondonno, Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Joanne M. Dickson, Joshua R. Lewis, Amanda Devine Jan 2021

Association Between Fruit And Vegetable Intakes And Mental Health In The Australian Diabetes Obesity And Lifestyle Cohort, Joanna Rees, Simone Radavelli-Bagatini, Johnny Lo, Jonathan M. Hodgson, Claus T. Christophersen, Robin M. Daly, Dianna J. Magliano, Jonathan E. Shaw, Marc Sim, Catherine P. Bondonno, Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Joanne M. Dickson, Joshua R. Lewis, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Increasing prevalence of mental health disorders within the Australian population is a serious public health issue. Adequate intake of fruits and vegetables (FV), dietary fibre (DF) and resistant starch (RS) is associated with better mental and physical health. Few longitudinal studies exist exploring the temporal relationship. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we examined baseline FV intakes of 5845 Australian adults from the AusDiab study and estimated food group-derived DF and RS using data from the literature. Perceived mental health was assessed at baseline and 5 year follow up using SF-36 mental component summary scores (MCS). We conducted baseline cross-sectional …


Data Supporting Development And Validation Of Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method For The Quantitative Determination Of Bile Acids In Feces, Armaghan Shafaei, Joanna Rees, Claus T. Christophersen, Amanda Devine, David Broadhurst, Mary C. Boyce Jan 2021

Data Supporting Development And Validation Of Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method For The Quantitative Determination Of Bile Acids In Feces, Armaghan Shafaei, Joanna Rees, Claus T. Christophersen, Amanda Devine, David Broadhurst, Mary C. Boyce

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Measuring bile acids in feces has an important role in disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and can be considered a measure of health status. Therefore, the primary aim was to develop a sensitive, robust, and high throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with minimal sample preparation for quantitative determination of bile acids in human feces applicable to large cohorts. Due to the chemical diversity of bile acids, their wide concentration range in feces, and the complexity of feces itself, developing a sensitive and selective analytical method for bile acids is challenging. A simple extraction method using methanol suitable for subsequent …


Therapeutic Potential Of Mitophagy-Inducing Microflora Metabolite, Urolithin A For Alzheimer’S Disease, Dona Pamoda W. Jayatunga, Eugene Hone, Harjot Khaira, Taciana Lunelli, Harjinder Singh, Gilles J. Guillemin, Binosha Fernando, Manohar L. Garg, Giuseppe Verdile, Ralph N. Martins Jan 2021

Therapeutic Potential Of Mitophagy-Inducing Microflora Metabolite, Urolithin A For Alzheimer’S Disease, Dona Pamoda W. Jayatunga, Eugene Hone, Harjot Khaira, Taciana Lunelli, Harjinder Singh, Gilles J. Guillemin, Binosha Fernando, Manohar L. Garg, Giuseppe Verdile, Ralph N. Martins

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Mitochondrial dysfunction including deficits of mitophagy is seen in aging and neuro-degenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Apart from traditionally targeting amyloid beta (Aβ), the main culprit in AD brains, other approaches include investigating impaired mitochondrial pathways for potential therapeutic benefits against AD. Thus, a future therapy for AD may focus on novel candidates that enhance optimal mitochondrial integrity and turnover. Bi-oactive food components, known as nutraceuticals, may serve as such agents to combat AD. Uro-lithin A is an intestinal microbe-derived metabolite of a class of polyphenols, ellagitannins (ETs). Urolithin A is known to exert many health benefits. Its antioxidant, …


A Novel Augmented Deep Transfer Learning For Classification Of Covid-19 And Other Thoracic Diseases From X-Rays, Fouzia Atlaf, Syed M. S. Islam, Naeem K. Janjua Jan 2021

A Novel Augmented Deep Transfer Learning For Classification Of Covid-19 And Other Thoracic Diseases From X-Rays, Fouzia Atlaf, Syed M. S. Islam, Naeem K. Janjua

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Deep learning has provided numerous breakthroughs in natural imaging tasks. However, its successful application to medical images is severely handicapped with the limited amount of annotated training data. Transfer learning is commonly adopted for the medical imaging tasks. However, a large covariant shift between the source domain of natural images and target domain of medical images results in poor transfer learning. Moreover, scarcity of annotated data for the medical imaging tasks causes further problems for effective transfer learning. To address these problems, we develop an augmented ensemble transfer learning technique that leads to significant performance gain over the conventional transfer …


Atrophy Expansion Rates In Stargardt Disease Using Ultra-Widefield Fundus Autofluorescence, Rachael C. Heath-Jeffery, Jennifer A. Thompson, Johnny Lo, Tina M. Lamey, Terri L. Mclaren, Ian L. Mcallister, David A. Mackey, Ian J. Constable, John N. De Roach, Fred K. Chen Jan 2021

Atrophy Expansion Rates In Stargardt Disease Using Ultra-Widefield Fundus Autofluorescence, Rachael C. Heath-Jeffery, Jennifer A. Thompson, Johnny Lo, Tina M. Lamey, Terri L. Mclaren, Ian L. Mcallister, David A. Mackey, Ian J. Constable, John N. De Roach, Fred K. Chen

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose To investigate atrophy expansion rate (ER) using ultra-widefield (UWF) fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in Stargardt disease (STGD1). Design Retrospective, longitudinal study. Participants Patients with biallelic ABCA4 mutations who were evaluated with UWF FAF and Heidelberg 30° × 30° and 55° × 55° FAF imaging. Methods Patients with atrophy secondary to STGD1 were classified into genotype groups: group A, biallelic severe or null-like variants with early-onset disease; group B, 1 intermediate variant in trans with severe or null-like variant; and group C, 1 mild variant in trans with severe or null-like variant or late-onset disease. The boundaries of definitely decreased autofluorescence …


Gut Microbiota Interplay With Covid-19 Reveals Links To Host Lipid Metabolism Among Middle Eastern Populations, Mohammad Tahseen Al Bataineh, Andreas Henschel, Mira Mousa, Marianne Daou, Fathimathuz Waasia, Hussein Kannout, Mariam Khalili, Mohd Azzam Kayasseh, Abdulmajeed Alkhajeh, Maimunah Uddin, Nawal Alkaabi, Guan K. Tay, Samuel F. Feng, Ahmed F. Yousef, Habiba S. Alsafar, Uae Covid-19 Collaborative Partnership Jan 2021

Gut Microbiota Interplay With Covid-19 Reveals Links To Host Lipid Metabolism Among Middle Eastern Populations, Mohammad Tahseen Al Bataineh, Andreas Henschel, Mira Mousa, Marianne Daou, Fathimathuz Waasia, Hussein Kannout, Mariam Khalili, Mohd Azzam Kayasseh, Abdulmajeed Alkhajeh, Maimunah Uddin, Nawal Alkaabi, Guan K. Tay, Samuel F. Feng, Ahmed F. Yousef, Habiba S. Alsafar, Uae Covid-19 Collaborative Partnership

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The interplay between the compositional changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) susceptibility and severity, and host functions is complex and yet to be fully understood. This study performed 16S rRNA gene-based microbial profiling of 143 subjects. We observed structural and compositional alterations in the gut microbiota of the SARS-CoV-2-infected group in comparison to non-infected controls. The gut microbiota composition of the SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals showed an increase in anti-inflammatory bacteria such as Faecalibacterium (p-value = 1.72 × 10–6) and Bacteroides (p-value = 5.67 × 10–8). We also revealed a higher relative abundance of the highly …


Deep Learning For 3d Ear Detection: A Complete Pipeline From Data Generation To Segmentation, Md Mursalin, Syed Mohammed Shamsul Islam Jan 2021

Deep Learning For 3d Ear Detection: A Complete Pipeline From Data Generation To Segmentation, Md Mursalin, Syed Mohammed Shamsul Islam

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The human ear has distinguishing features that can be used for identification. Automated ear detection from 3D profile face images plays a vital role in ear-based human recognition. This work proposes a complete pipeline including synthetic data generation and ground-truth data labeling for ear detection in 3D point clouds. The ear detection problem is formulated as a semantic part segmentation problem that detects the ear directly in 3D point clouds of profile face data. We introduce EarNet, a modified version of the PointNet++ architecture, and apply rotation augmentation to handle different pose variations in the real data. We demonstrate that …


Fecal Sample Collection Methods And Time Of Day Impact Microbiome Composition And Short Chain Fatty Acid Concentrations, Jacquelyn Jones, Stacey N. Reinke, Alishum Ali, Debra J. Palmer, Claus T. Christophersen Jan 2021

Fecal Sample Collection Methods And Time Of Day Impact Microbiome Composition And Short Chain Fatty Acid Concentrations, Jacquelyn Jones, Stacey N. Reinke, Alishum Ali, Debra J. Palmer, Claus T. Christophersen

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Associations between the human gut microbiome and health outcomes continues to be of great interest, although fecal sample collection methods which impact microbiome studies are sometimes neglected. Here, we expand on previous work in sample optimization, to promote high quality microbiome data. To compare fecal sample collection methods, amplicons from the bacterial 16S rRNA gene (V4) and fungal (ITS2) region, as well as short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were determined in fecal material over three timepoints. We demonstrated that spot sampling of stool results in variable detection of some microbial members, and inconsistent levels of SCFA; therefore, sample homogenization …


Genetic Analysis Of Endometriosis And Depression Identifies Shared Loci And Implicates Causal Links With Gastric Mucosa Abnormality, Emmanuel Adewuyi, Divya Mehta, Yadav Sapkota, Asa Auta, Kosuke Yoshihara, Mette Nyegaard, Lyn R. Griffiths, Grant W. Montgomery, Daniel I. Chasman, Dale R. Nyholt Sep 2020

Genetic Analysis Of Endometriosis And Depression Identifies Shared Loci And Implicates Causal Links With Gastric Mucosa Abnormality, Emmanuel Adewuyi, Divya Mehta, Yadav Sapkota, Asa Auta, Kosuke Yoshihara, Mette Nyegaard, Lyn R. Griffiths, Grant W. Montgomery, Daniel I. Chasman, Dale R. Nyholt

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Evidence from observational studies indicates that endometriosis and depression often co-occur. However, conflicting evidence exists, and the etiology as well as biological mechanisms underlying their comorbidity remain unknown. Utilizing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, we comprehensively assessed the relationship between endometriosis and depression. Single nucleotide polymorphism effect concordance analysis (SECA) found a significant genetic overlap between endometriosis and depression (PFsig-permuted = 9.99 × 10−4). Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) analysis estimated a positive and highly significant genetic correlation between the two traits (rG = 0.27, P = 8.85 × 10−27). A meta-analysis of endometriosis and depression GWAS (sample size = …


Investigating The Influence Of Environmental Factors On The Incidence Of Renal Disease With Compositional Data Analysis Using Balances, Jennifer M. Mckinley, Ute Mueller, Peter M. Atkinson, Ulrich Ofterdinger, Chloe Jackson, Siobhan F. Cox, Rory Doherty, Damian Fogarty, J. J. Egozcue, V. Pawlowsky-Glahn Jun 2020

Investigating The Influence Of Environmental Factors On The Incidence Of Renal Disease With Compositional Data Analysis Using Balances, Jennifer M. Mckinley, Ute Mueller, Peter M. Atkinson, Ulrich Ofterdinger, Chloe Jackson, Siobhan F. Cox, Rory Doherty, Damian Fogarty, J. J. Egozcue, V. Pawlowsky-Glahn

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

This research uses an urban soil geochemistry database of elemental concentration to examine the potential relationship between Standardised Incidence Rates (SIRs) of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) of uncertain aetiology (CKDu), and cumulative low level geogenic and diffuse anthropogenic contamination of soils with PTEs. A compositional data analysis approach was applied to determine the elemental balance(s) of the geochemical data showing the greatest association with CKDu. The research concludes that both anthropogenic and geogenic factors may be contributing influences to explain high incidences of CKDu, up to 12 times greater in some Super Output Areas (SOAs) than would be expected for …


Contemporary Epidemiology Of Rising Atrial Septal Defect Trends Across Usa 1991–2016: A Combined Ecological Geospatiotemporal And Causal Inferential Study, Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Kenneth Hulse Jan 2020

Contemporary Epidemiology Of Rising Atrial Septal Defect Trends Across Usa 1991–2016: A Combined Ecological Geospatiotemporal And Causal Inferential Study, Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Kenneth Hulse

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

© 2020, The Author(s). Background: Cardiovascular anomalies are the largest group of congenital anomalies and the major cause of death in young children, with various data linking rising atrial septal defect incidence (ASDI) with prenatal cannabis exposure. Objectives / Hypotheses. Is cannabis associated with ASDI in USA? Is this relationship causal? Methods: Geospatiotemporal cohort study, 1991–2016. Census populations of adults, babies, congenital anomalies, income and ethnicity. Drug exposure data on cigarettes, alcohol abuse, past month cannabis use, analgesia abuse and cocaine taken from National Survey of Drug Use and Health (78.9% response rate). Cannabinoid concentrations from Drug Enforcement Agency. Inverse …


Population Data Centre Profile - The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch, Steve Hodges, Tom Eitelhuber, Alexandra Merchant, Janine Alan Jan 2020

Population Data Centre Profile - The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch, Steve Hodges, Tom Eitelhuber, Alexandra Merchant, Janine Alan

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Established in 1995, the Western Australian Data Linkage Branch (DLB) is Australia’s longest running data linkage agency. The Western Australian Data Linkage System (WADLS) employs an enduring linkage model spanning over 60 data collections supported by internally developed and supported software and IT infrastructure. DLB has delivered, and continues to deliver, a range of significant data linkage innovations, many of which have been adopted elsewhere. A current restructure within the Western Australian Department of Health (which we will refer to as the Department of Health) will provide an improved funding model geared toward addressing issues with staff retention, capacity and …


Interpreting Health Events In Big Data Using Qualitative Traditions, Roschelle L. Fritz, Gordana Dermody Jan 2020

Interpreting Health Events In Big Data Using Qualitative Traditions, Roschelle L. Fritz, Gordana Dermody

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

© The Author(s) 2020. The training of artificial intelligence requires integrating real-world context and mathematical computations. To achieve efficacious smart health artificial intelligence, contextual clinical knowledge serving as ground truth is required. Qualitative methods are well-suited to lend consistent and valid ground truth. In this methods article, we illustrate the use of qualitative descriptive methods for providing ground truth when training an intelligent agent to detect Restless Leg Syndrome. We show how one interdisciplinary, inter-methodological research team used both sensor-based data and the participant’s description of their experience with an episode of Restless Leg Syndrome for training the intelligent agent. …


Improving Firefighter Tenability During Entrapment And Burnover: An Analysis Of Vehicle Protection Systems, Greg Penney, Daryoush Habibi, Marcus Cattani Jan 2020

Improving Firefighter Tenability During Entrapment And Burnover: An Analysis Of Vehicle Protection Systems, Greg Penney, Daryoush Habibi, Marcus Cattani

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

When attempting to suppress severe wildfire the possibility for firefighting crews to be overrun by wildfire, known as entrapment and burnover, remains a catastrophic and all too common occurrence. While improvements have been made to vehicle protection systems to increase the safety of firefighters caught in burnover, the potential effectiveness of these systems remains limited. This study involved systematic analysis of 62 historical entrapment and burnover reports from the USA, Australian and New Zealand from 1978 to 2020 (Phase 1), and 135 simulated wildfires encompassing the 99th percentile of Australian fire weather conditions, fuel structures and terrain (Phase 2). Analysis …


Automated Smart Home Assessment To Support Pain Management: Multiple Methods Analysis, Roschelle L. Fritz, Marian Wilson, Gordana Dermody, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe, Diane J. Cook Jan 2020

Automated Smart Home Assessment To Support Pain Management: Multiple Methods Analysis, Roschelle L. Fritz, Marian Wilson, Gordana Dermody, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe, Diane J. Cook

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

©Roschelle L Fritz, Marian Wilson, Gordana Dermody, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe, Diane J Cook. Objective: This study aimed to determine if a smart home can detect pain-related behaviors to perform automated assessment and support intervention for persons with chronic pain.Background: Poorly managed pain can lead to substance use disorders, depression, suicide, worsening health, and increased use of health services. Most pain assessments occur in clinical settings away from patients’ natural environments. Advances in smart home technology may allow observation of pain in the home setting. Smart homes recognizing human behaviors may be useful for quantifying functional pain interference, thereby creating new ways …


Proof-Of-Familiarity: A Privacy-Preserved Blockchain Scheme For Collaborative Medical Decision-Making, Jinhong Yang, Md Mehedi Hassan Hasan Onik, Nam-Yong Lee, Mohiuddin Ahmed, Chul-Soo Kim Jan 2019

Proof-Of-Familiarity: A Privacy-Preserved Blockchain Scheme For Collaborative Medical Decision-Making, Jinhong Yang, Md Mehedi Hassan Hasan Onik, Nam-Yong Lee, Mohiuddin Ahmed, Chul-Soo Kim

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The current healthcare sector is facing difficulty in satisfying the growing issues, expenses, and heavy regulation of quality treatment. Surely, electronic medical records (EMRs) and protected health information (PHI) are highly sensitive, personally identifiable information (PII). However, the sharing of EMRs, enhances overall treatment quality. A distributed ledger (blockchain) technology, embedded with privacy and security by architecture, provides a transparent application developing platform. Privacy, security, and lack of confidence among stakeholders are the main downsides of extensive medical collaboration. This study, therefore, utilizes the transparency, security, and efficiency of blockchain technology to establish a collaborative medical decision-making scheme. This study …


Doppler Radar-Based Non-Contact Health Monitoring For Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis: A Comprehensive Review, Vinh Phuc Tran, Adel Ali Al-Jumaily, Syed Mohammed Shamsul Islam Jan 2019

Doppler Radar-Based Non-Contact Health Monitoring For Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis: A Comprehensive Review, Vinh Phuc Tran, Adel Ali Al-Jumaily, Syed Mohammed Shamsul Islam

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Today’s rapid growth of elderly populations and aging problems coupled with the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other health related issues have affected many aspects of society. This has led to high demands for a more robust healthcare monitoring, diagnosing and treatments facilities. In particular to Sleep Medicine, sleep has a key role to play in both physical and mental health. The quality and duration of sleep have a direct and significant impact on people’s learning, memory, metabolism, weight, safety, mood, cardio-vascular health, diseases, and immune system function. The gold-standard for OSA diagnosis is the overnight sleep monitoring …


High Prevalence Of Toxigenic Clostridium Difficile In Public Space Lawns In Western Australia, Peter Moono, Su Chen Lim, Thomas V. Riley Feb 2017

High Prevalence Of Toxigenic Clostridium Difficile In Public Space Lawns In Western Australia, Peter Moono, Su Chen Lim, Thomas V. Riley

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Clostridium difficile is a well-established hospital pathogen. Recently, it has been detected increasingly in patients without hospital contact. Given this rise in community associated infections with C. difficile, we hypothesized that the environment could play an important role in transmission of spores outside the hospital. Lawn samples (311) collected in public spaces in the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia, from February to June 2016 were cultured for C. difficile. C. difficile was isolated from the samples by direct and enrichment culture, and characterized by standard molecular methods using toxin gene PCR and ribotyping. The overall prevalence of …


Real-Time Netnography: Rejecting The Passive Shift, Leesa Costello, Marie-Louise Mcdermott Apr 2016

Real-Time Netnography: Rejecting The Passive Shift, Leesa Costello, Marie-Louise Mcdermott

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Although netnography emerged in the 1990s, it is a term unfamiliar to many ethnographers and is still touted as a new methodology. Once explained, ethnographers often understand it in terms of online ethnography. While this is helpful, netnography, however, offers a set of steps and analytic approaches that can be applied across a spectrum of involvement online. Its focus is on gaining entree to an online community, distinguishing between participant observation and nonparticipant observation.


Climate Change And Malaria Control: The Importance Of Mitigation And A Call To Action, Emmanuel O. Adewuyi, Kazeem Adefemi Jan 2016

Climate Change And Malaria Control: The Importance Of Mitigation And A Call To Action, Emmanuel O. Adewuyi, Kazeem Adefemi

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Malaria has remained an important target for global disease control efforts for decades. The streams of funds and, consequently, availability of effective interventions for the disease have resulted in considerable reduction in its burden, globally. Despite the relative success of such global efforts, malaria remains a significant threat in over a hundred countries, worldwide, leading to about one million deaths and hundreds of millions of hospital visits, annually. Many researchers and health commentators have argued that global warming, a consequence of climate change, could be linked – directly or indirectly – to the persistence as well as the re-emergence of …


Building Online Community On Snac: A Netnographic Study Of The Early Years Sector, Ruth Wallace, Leesa Costello, Amanda Devine Jan 2016

Building Online Community On Snac: A Netnographic Study Of The Early Years Sector, Ruth Wallace, Leesa Costello, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

‘‘Build it and they will come,’’ an adage critiqued as a common misconception of participatory engagement with online communities. Previous research indicated that a netnographic approach based upon researcher– participant engagement would provide the best opportunity to build and sustain a successful support community [...].


Fine Particulate Air Pollution And Hospital Emergency Room Visits For Respiratory Disease In Urban Areas In Beijing, China, In 2013, Qin Xu, Xia Li, Shuo Wang, Chao Wang, Fangfang Huang, Qi Gao, Lijuan Wu, Lixin Tao, Jin Guo, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo Jan 2016

Fine Particulate Air Pollution And Hospital Emergency Room Visits For Respiratory Disease In Urban Areas In Beijing, China, In 2013, Qin Xu, Xia Li, Shuo Wang, Chao Wang, Fangfang Huang, Qi Gao, Lijuan Wu, Lixin Tao, Jin Guo, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background

Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing. Methods Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, …


Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities In Medical Devices: A Complex Environment And Multifaceted Problem, Patricia A.H. Williams, Andrew J. Woodward Jan 2015

Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities In Medical Devices: A Complex Environment And Multifaceted Problem, Patricia A.H. Williams, Andrew J. Woodward

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This …


Effects Of Ambient Coarse, Fine, And Ultrafine Particles And Their Biological Constituents On Systemic Biomarkers: A Controlled Human Exposure Study, Ling Liu, Bruce Urch, Raymond Poon, Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz, Mary Speck, Diane R. Gold, Amanda J. Wheeler, James A. Scott, Jeffrey R. Brook, Peter S. Thorne, Frances S. Silverman Jan 2015

Effects Of Ambient Coarse, Fine, And Ultrafine Particles And Their Biological Constituents On Systemic Biomarkers: A Controlled Human Exposure Study, Ling Liu, Bruce Urch, Raymond Poon, Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz, Mary Speck, Diane R. Gold, Amanda J. Wheeler, James A. Scott, Jeffrey R. Brook, Peter S. Thorne, Frances S. Silverman

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: Ambient coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles have been associated with mortality and morbidity. Few studies have compared how various particle size fractions affect systemic biomarkers. Objectives: We examined changes of blood and urinary biomarkers following exposures to three particle sizes. Methods: Fifty healthy nonsmoking volunteers, mean age of 28 years, were exposed to coarse (2.5–10 μm; mean, 213 μg/m3) and fine (0.15–2.5 μm; mean, 238 μg/m3) concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), and filtered ambient and/or medical air. Twenty-five participants were exposed to ultrafine CAP (< 0.3 μm; mean, 136 μg/m3) and filtered medical air. Exposures lasted 130 min, separated by ≥ 2 weeks. Blood/urine samples were collected preexposure and 1 hr and 21 hr postexposure to determine blood interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (inflammation), endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; vascular mediators), and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation); as well as urinary VEGF, 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine (DNA oxidation), and malondialdehyde. Mixed-model regressions assessed pre- and postexposure differences. results: One hour postexposure, for every 100-μg/m3 increase, coarse CAP was associated with increased blood VEGF (2.41 pg/mL; 95% CI: 0.41, 4.40) in models adjusted for O3, fine CAP with increased urinary malondialdehyde in single- (0.31 nmol/mg creatinine; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.60) and two-pollutant models, and ultrafine CAP with increased urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in single- (0.69 ng/mg creatinine; 95% CI: 0.09, 1.29) and two-pollutant models, lasting < 21 hr. Endotoxin was significantly associated with biomarker changes similar to those found with CAPs. conclusions: Ambient particles with various sizes/constituents may influence systemic biomarkers differently. Endotoxin in ambient particles may contribute to vascular mediator changes and oxidative stress.


The Hare And The Hortoise [Sic]: The Potential Versus The Reality Of Etp Implementation, Kyaw Kyaw Htat, Patricia A. H Williams, Vincent Mccauley Jan 2015

The Hare And The Hortoise [Sic]: The Potential Versus The Reality Of Etp Implementation, Kyaw Kyaw Htat, Patricia A. H Williams, Vincent Mccauley

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

In a health system increasingly driven by cost constraints, there is a focus on improved electronic transfer of information to support healthcare delivery. One area of healthcare that has moved more quickly than others to achieve this is prescribing in the primary care environment. Whilst the move to electronic transfer of prescriptions has reduced transcription errors, the regulatory environment persists with handwritten signatures. This constraint, whilst addressed slowly with technology solutions, needs support from legislative change. The ultimate step is to have a secure mobile model, which would support the move to a fully-electronic, paperless transaction model.