Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medicine and Health Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Mississippi

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1012

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Metabolite Profiling Of Functional Fungi Strains Of Hericium Erinaceus & Cordyceps Militaris: Using Phenotypes, Untargeted Metabolomics By Mass Spectrometry And Cell-Based Assays, Julie Daoust Apr 2024

Metabolite Profiling Of Functional Fungi Strains Of Hericium Erinaceus & Cordyceps Militaris: Using Phenotypes, Untargeted Metabolomics By Mass Spectrometry And Cell-Based Assays, Julie Daoust

Oxford ICSB

Mushrooms have a long tradition of use as medicinal and functional ingredients however the lack of development in testing methods currently limits our ability to characterize these products. Selecting the right strain or processing method is currently challenging given the lack of commercially available analytical methods to detect or quantify secondary metabolites with therapeutic endpoints. Very little is known about the variability of these metabolites between strains of the same species and between identical strains grown in different conditions therefore an untargeted analytical method was needed to adequately assess impact of strain genetics and growing methods for M2 Ingredients cultures …


Re-Discovery Of Fungi, Christopher Hobbs Apr 2024

Re-Discovery Of Fungi, Christopher Hobbs

Oxford ICSB

This will be a very concise overview of the laboratory and clinical work that has been published on the health and medical benefits of medicinal mushrooms and mycelium. Medicinal mushroom and mycelium-based products currently on the market will be critically reviewed, specifically focusing on identifying the 5 most important constituent groups intensive world-wide research has identified as providing the intended benefits of these products, and what leading companies as well as startups are doing to insure their products contain them in meaningful amounts.


Beyond Appearance: Nmr Metabolomics For Mushroom Quality Assurance And Authenticity, Arun Krishna Murthy, Amber Thelen Apr 2024

Beyond Appearance: Nmr Metabolomics For Mushroom Quality Assurance And Authenticity, Arun Krishna Murthy, Amber Thelen

Oxford ICSB

Driven by their prominent health benefits, mushrooms are extremely popular in food and nutraceutical sectors, incidentally attracting food fraud such as species mislabeling and substitution, adulteration, and contamination with synthetic and cheaper substitutes, severely affecting the supply chain and raising concerns among consumers about product safety and quality. Untargeted chemical profiling using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (U-NMR) spectroscopy, in conjunction with Multivariate Statistical Analysis (MSA) proves to be a superior and universally recognized analytical method in simultaneously addressing these concerns and inadequacies of conventional analytical methods. A comprehensive and robust 1H NMR spectral library is built using validated mushroom samples of …


Evaluation Of Botanical Extracts For Cytochrome P450 Inhibition Mediated Drug Interactions, Angela I. Calderón, Zarna Raichura, Kabre Heck, Jaewoo Choi, Mikah Brandes, Cody Neff, Claudia Maier, Amala Soumyanath, Robert Arnold Apr 2024

Evaluation Of Botanical Extracts For Cytochrome P450 Inhibition Mediated Drug Interactions, Angela I. Calderón, Zarna Raichura, Kabre Heck, Jaewoo Choi, Mikah Brandes, Cody Neff, Claudia Maier, Amala Soumyanath, Robert Arnold

Oxford ICSB

There has been remarkable growth in consumption of botanical dietary supplements (BDS), making it important to understand the safety profile of BDS with respect to the pharmacokinetic properties for any potential of botanical-drug interactions. One such botanical interactions which has gained significant attention involves inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes by co-administered drugs. Our study involved examining two widely used botanicals, ashwagandha and açaí for any potential inhibition of CYP450. Four different ashwagandha extracts were tested, resulting in inhibition of CYP2B6 with IC50 < 100 µg/ml of extract and showed potential of time-dependent inhibition for CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 with an IC50 ~ 200 µg/ml of extract. In the case of açaí, seven different extracts were tested and only CYP2C9 was inhibited. The acidic methanol extract of açaí formulation showed an IC50 of 0.3 µg/ml of extract indicating potent inhibition of CYP2C9, while the methanol (IC50 ~ 91.75 µg/ml) & ethanol extracts of Mountain Rose açaí powder showed weak inhibitory effect with an IC50 < 100 µg/ml of extract for CYP2C9. The results reflect that both botanical extracts showed potential of CYP450 inhibition, suggesting that compounds in BDS can prolong the half-lives of medications leading to extended action or toxicity. Next step involves, testing subfractions of these extracts to identify the compounds responsible for the observed inhibition.


Multifaced Factors To Cause Conflicting Outcomes In Drug-Herb Interactions Mainly Focusing On Reverse Pharmacokinetics, Young Hee Choi Apr 2024

Multifaced Factors To Cause Conflicting Outcomes In Drug-Herb Interactions Mainly Focusing On Reverse Pharmacokinetics, Young Hee Choi

Oxford ICSB

Metabolic enzyme and/or transporter-mediated pharmacokinetic (PK) changes in a drug caused by concomitant herbal products have been a primary issue of herb and drug interactions (HDIs), because PK changes of a drug may result in the alternation of efficacy and toxicity. Studies on HDIs have been carried out by predictive in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies, and clinical trials. Nevertheless, the discrepancies between predictive data and the clinical significance on HDIs still exist, and different reports of HDIs add to rather than clarify the confusion regarding the use of herbal products and drug combinations. Here, the underlying mechanisms causing …


Screening Of Medicinal Herbs To Predict The Potential Perpetrators Of Herb-Drug Interaction, Ikhlas A. Khan, Amar G. Chittiboyina, Shabana Khan, Bill Gurley, Islam Husain Apr 2024

Screening Of Medicinal Herbs To Predict The Potential Perpetrators Of Herb-Drug Interaction, Ikhlas A. Khan, Amar G. Chittiboyina, Shabana Khan, Bill Gurley, Islam Husain

Oxford ICSB

Over time, the popularity and consumption of herbal medicine and its products like nutraceuticals, botanical drugs, and dietary supplements have increased immensely. Parallelly, several health issues associated with the overconsumption of these products have also been raised, which has attracted enormous attention. Herb-drug interaction (HDI) is a health issue caused by herbs or phytochemicals that modulate the homeostasis of drug-metabolizing enzymes (CYPs) and transporters, thus altering the pharmacokinetic of clinical drugs. To date, only a few medicinal herbs, such as Hypericum perforatum, Hydrastis canadensis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Camellia sinensis etc., were recognized as HDI perpetrators. However, many need to be …


New Natural Product Certified Reference Material Resources Supported By The Nih Office Of Dietary Supplements, Adam Kuszak, Zoe Ruan, Linda Smith, Sarah Ajaz, Uma Srennivasan, Sabrina Giddings, Daniel Beach, Pearse Mccarron, Stephen Wise Apr 2024

New Natural Product Certified Reference Material Resources Supported By The Nih Office Of Dietary Supplements, Adam Kuszak, Zoe Ruan, Linda Smith, Sarah Ajaz, Uma Srennivasan, Sabrina Giddings, Daniel Beach, Pearse Mccarron, Stephen Wise

Oxford ICSB

The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) Analytical Methods and Reference Materials (AMRM) Program supports the development of tools that promote and facilitate rigorous and reliable characterization of dietary supplement (DS) identity, composition, and purity, as well as assessments of authenticity and contamination of botanical and other natural product raw materials and finished products. AMRM goals are accomplished through development and validation of quantitative and qualitative methods, production of certified reference materials (CRMs), and support of dietary supplement focused laboratory quality assurance programs. Recent advances in DS analytical resources supported by AMRM include an expanded availability of CRM calibration solutions …


The Botanical Safety Consortium: Collaborative Effort To Improve Botanical Safety Testing Methods, Connie Mitchell, Cynthia Rider, Julie Kzykwa Apr 2024

The Botanical Safety Consortium: Collaborative Effort To Improve Botanical Safety Testing Methods, Connie Mitchell, Cynthia Rider, Julie Kzykwa

Oxford ICSB

The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasing, making their safety a crucial issue for public health. This article discusses the role and goals of the Botanical Safety Consortium (BSC), a collaborative effort between the US FDA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute. Formed through a Memorandum of Understanding, the BSC aims to improve safety evaluation methods for botanicals. It operates as an international platform where experts from various sectors, including government, academia, industry, and non-profits, collaborate to advance and apply new approach methodologies (NAMs) for the safety assessment of botanical products. …


Mocra And The New Cosmetics Gmps, Brandi Reinbold Apr 2024

Mocra And The New Cosmetics Gmps, Brandi Reinbold

Oxford ICSB

The Modernization of Cosmetics Regulation Act (MoCRA) enacted by Congress December 29th, 2022, includes provisions for the FDA to publish proposed Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) regulations by the end of 2024 and a final rule by the end of 2025. In this talk we will explore what the language of MoCRA tells us about what GMPs are likely to be promulgated with a focus on GMPs related to ingredient and finished product identity and purity. MoCRA exempts small cosmetics manufacturers from GMP compliance requirements and directs FDA to “take it easy” on other not-quite-so-small manufacturers. Despite these exemptions, most cosmetics …


Session E Overview Of The U.S. Cosmetics Regulatory Framework, Jannavi Srinivasan Apr 2024

Session E Overview Of The U.S. Cosmetics Regulatory Framework, Jannavi Srinivasan

Oxford ICSB

Cosmetic products in the U.S. has been regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) according to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which has provided for FDA’s regulation of cosmetics since 1938. The Modernization of Cosmetics Regulation Act (MoCRA), enacted in December of 2022, significantly expanded and reformed regulations overseeing cosmetics in the U.S. Included in MoCRA among other provisions, are facility registration and product listing, reporting of serious adverse events, and a requirement that FDA propose a rule for good manufacturing practices. This presentation will provide an overview of cosmetics regulations including the major provisions of MoCRA …


Impact Of Mocra When Assessing Botanical Safety, Rick Kingston Apr 2024

Impact Of Mocra When Assessing Botanical Safety, Rick Kingston

Oxford ICSB

The Modernization of Cosmetics Regulation Act of 2022 (MoCRA) became effective December 29th, 2023. MoCRA is the most significant expansion of FDA’s authority to regulate cosmetics since the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act was enacted in 1938. MoCRA expands the FDA's rulemaking and enforcement authority over cosmetics and creates new compliance obligations for manufacturers. There are six key areas of the legislation including Facility Registration, Product & Ingredient Listing, Safety Substantiation, Cosmetics Labeling, and Adverse Event Reporting and Record Keeping. Each of these areas has significant implications for manufacturers and the ingredients commonly found in cosmetics. Given the …


Short & Long-Term Consequences Of Cannabis Intake & Differences Between Occasional & Chronic Frequent Cannabis Use, Marilyn Huestis Apr 2024

Short & Long-Term Consequences Of Cannabis Intake & Differences Between Occasional & Chronic Frequent Cannabis Use, Marilyn Huestis

Oxford ICSB

As the medicalization and legalization of the United States continues to increase it is important to understand the short- and long-term consequences of cannabis use. The endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter system is critical for the appropriate functioning of survival functions including hunger, body temperature control, memory and reproduction. When individuals use cannabis, they hijack the normal functioning of the system that attempts to maintain homeostasis. The most important short-term consequence of cannabis use is the morbidity and mortality of driving under the influence of cannabis. Also, legalization reduced the perception of risk of using cannabis that leads to higher adolescent and …


A New Way Forward For Cannabidiol (Cbd) And Other Hemp Products, Patrick Cournoyer Apr 2024

A New Way Forward For Cannabidiol (Cbd) And Other Hemp Products, Patrick Cournoyer

Oxford ICSB

The FDA announced that existing regulatory frameworks for foods and supplements are not appropriate for cannabidiol (CBD). Given the available evidence, it is not apparent how CBD products could meet safety standards for dietary supplements or food additives. A new regulatory pathway for CBD is needed that balances individuals’ desire for access to CBD products with the regulatory oversight needed to manage risks.


Opening Remarks For “Cannabis: Current Status And Future Outlook”, Cassandra Taylor Apr 2024

Opening Remarks For “Cannabis: Current Status And Future Outlook”, Cassandra Taylor

Oxford ICSB

No abstract provided.


Biological Activity Of Essential Oils – Focus On Antibiotic Resistance, Gyorgyi Horvath Apr 2024

Biological Activity Of Essential Oils – Focus On Antibiotic Resistance, Gyorgyi Horvath

Oxford ICSB

No abstract provided.


Natural Products Ireland: From Bioactives To The Bioeconomy - A Systems-Based Approach, Gaia Scalabrino Apr 2024

Natural Products Ireland: From Bioactives To The Bioeconomy - A Systems-Based Approach, Gaia Scalabrino

Oxford ICSB

Natural Products (NP) are on the rise across the world, driven by economic, environmental, health and societal needs. An increasing focus has been placed on the role of boglands within climate change as peatlands store 1/3 of the world’s soil carbon and provide water storage. With our project ‘Unlocking Nature’s Pharmacy’ we aim to increase public awareness and drive Ireland towards a bioeconomy where Natural Product Science (NPS) plays a key role. At the NatPro Centre, the Trinity Centre for Natural Products Research, we use systems-based approaches (SBA), for example looking at the bogs of Ireland, to identify innovative bio-based …


Cold-Water Extract Of Nerium Oleander Leaves Inhibits Cancer: From Bench To Bedside, Thomas Efferth, Luay J. Rashan, Nadire Özenver, Joelle C. Boulos, Mona Dawood, Wynand P. Roos, Katrin Katrin, Ioannis Ioannis, Ludger A. Wessjohann, Heinz-Herbert Fiebig Apr 2024

Cold-Water Extract Of Nerium Oleander Leaves Inhibits Cancer: From Bench To Bedside, Thomas Efferth, Luay J. Rashan, Nadire Özenver, Joelle C. Boulos, Mona Dawood, Wynand P. Roos, Katrin Katrin, Ioannis Ioannis, Ludger A. Wessjohann, Heinz-Herbert Fiebig

Oxford ICSB

Nerium oleander is a well-known medicinal plant used in the Mediterranean region and traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda) against a variety of diseases, including cancer. We investigated a cold-water extract of N. oleander leaves for their anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxicity testing in the Oncotest panel of tumor cell lines and concomitant COMPARE analysis showed a high degree of similarity to mitosis-inhibiting compounds. We verified this hypothesis by treating tumor cells transfected with a tubulin-GFP fusion cDNA construct and confocal microscopy as well as a biochemical tubulin polymerization assay. N. oleander showed a similar inhibition of tubulin …


African Plants In Jamaican Farms And Gardens, Thera Edwards Apr 2024

African Plants In Jamaican Farms And Gardens, Thera Edwards

Oxford ICSB

Plants of all growth forms and regeneration strategies were introduced to Jamaica by European slavers and by Enslaved Africans. Some species such as Tamarind used to purify drinking water on ships arrived through purposes of practicality while others that such as yam and plantain were transported as food supplies on the ships or by the Enslaved Africans as tubers for planting in their countries of destination. Tuber crops proved to be invaluable in hurricane prone islands such as Jamaica as the underground tuber was left undamaged by the high winds of the storms. Other crops such as Plantain while not …


Fda Investigational New Drug (Ind) Applications, Cassandra Taylor Apr 2024

Fda Investigational New Drug (Ind) Applications, Cassandra Taylor

Oxford ICSB

Current Federal law requires that a drug be the subject of an approved marketing application before it is transported or distributed across state lines. Because a sponsor will probably want to ship the investigational drug to clinical investigators in many states, it must seek an exemption from that legal requirement. The IND is the means through which the sponsor technically obtains this exemption from the FDA. During a new drug's early preclinical development, the sponsor's primary goal is to determine if the product is reasonably safe for initial use in humans, and if the compound exhibits pharmacological activity that justifies …


Introduction To The Premarket Review Of Human Food Ingredients In The United States And Concepts In The Safety Assessment Of Novel Plant-Derived Ingredients, Troy Hubbard Apr 2024

Introduction To The Premarket Review Of Human Food Ingredients In The United States And Concepts In The Safety Assessment Of Novel Plant-Derived Ingredients, Troy Hubbard

Oxford ICSB

Premarket regulation of ingredients added to food is a key pillar ensuring the safety of food as it allows the opportunity to address potential safety concerns prior to consumer exposure. In the United States, food and color additives are substances that are intentionally added to food and are subject to pre-market approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and require a listing in the Code of Federal Regulations, unless the intended use of the substance is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), among qualified experts. GRAS is not an inherent property of a substance, as is often misunderstood; rather, it …


Natural Products In Food And Agriculture, Stephen O. Duke Apr 2024

Natural Products In Food And Agriculture, Stephen O. Duke

Oxford ICSB

Before the National Center for Natural Products Research (NCNPR) existed, I was Director of a USDA weed management lab. Two of my interests were natural products as herbicides and the chemical ecology of weed/crop interactions (allelopathy). Dr. James McChesney and I had several conversations about his vision for the NCNPR on the University of Mississippi campus. I was very interested in becoming a part of this, as his plan was to have a USDA lab that would study natural products for use in food and agriculture as part of the center. The USDA Agricultural Research Service established the Natural Product …


Preventing Ingredient Adulteration To Maintain Botanical Integrity, Katie Banaszewski Apr 2024

Preventing Ingredient Adulteration To Maintain Botanical Integrity, Katie Banaszewski

Oxford ICSB

The growing popularity of botanical products combined with the challenges of the supply chain to meet the ingredient demand has created opportunities for dishonest companies to take advantage of their clients for financial gain. Suppliers and manufacturers must comply with cGMPs (current Good Manufacturing Practices), specifically when it comes to the basic requirements of properly identifying crude botanicals in whole, cut, or powdered form, as well as botanical extracts and essential oils. Despite this regulatory requirement, a large portion of botanical ingredients and products sold in the marketplace are adulterated. Popular ingredients in high demand are intentionally substituted, diluted, or …


African & Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopieae - Curating Data For Product Development, David Katerere Apr 2024

African & Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopieae - Curating Data For Product Development, David Katerere

Oxford ICSB

This presentation aims to provide a comprehensive examination of the Africa Herbal Pharmacopoeia (AHP) and the Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia (CHP), highlighting their respective similarities and differences in the realm of traditional herbal medicine and product development. Both pharmacopoeias are important initiatives in curating indigenous knowledge related to medicinal plants. They are valuable resources for researchers, healthcare practitioners, and industry. This presentation will outline the methodological and logistical approaches employed in putting together monographs and the challenges faced. Furthermore, the comparative analysis will explore the regional nuances that shape the content of each pharmacopoeia, considering factors such as local traditions, ecological …


Adulteration - Why Does It Still Proliferate?, John Travis Apr 2024

Adulteration - Why Does It Still Proliferate?, John Travis

Oxford ICSB

No abstract provided.


Chemistry, Biology, And Safety Of Volatile Organics From Aromatic And Medicinal Plants, Nicole Stevens Apr 2024

Chemistry, Biology, And Safety Of Volatile Organics From Aromatic And Medicinal Plants, Nicole Stevens

Oxford ICSB

Introduction Sleep is an important foundation of health, yet the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) notes that about 30% of adults to not get the recommended minimum of 7 hours’ sleep per night. Prescription treatments may help, but they carry risks such as side-effects, dependency, and medication interaction. Natural botanical extracts are a therapeutic possibility for improving sleep quality, but additional research is needed on their efficacy and safety. A system of natural products based on lavender was developed and tested in a human clinical study to evaluate effect on sleep, blood and safety markers, and gene expression modulation …


A Survey Of Melatonin In Dietary Supplement Products Sold In The U.S., Rahul Pawar Apr 2024

A Survey Of Melatonin In Dietary Supplement Products Sold In The U.S., Rahul Pawar

Oxford ICSB

In the United States, melatonin products are widely available to consumers as dietary supplements. During the past few decades, melatonin products have gained increased popularity primarily as a sleep aid, with a variety of product forms available for different age groups of consumers. Recent reports have highlighted a rise in melatonin ingestion among children reported to poison control centers across the U.S. The increased use of melatonin-containing dietary supplements and reported deviation from labeled quantities has emphasized the need for additional research to better understand products in the marketplace.
The objective of this work was to measure the melatonin content …


Challenges Of Building Specifications For Essential Oils: An Industry Perspective, Brett Smith Apr 2024

Challenges Of Building Specifications For Essential Oils: An Industry Perspective, Brett Smith

Oxford ICSB

The rise in essential oil popularity is creating unprecedented demand worldwide. With the increased demand, the worldwide supply chain is challenged with maintaining consistent quality standards. Some essential oil producers may be motivated to use new and innovative methods to alter their products to meet quality standards and extend their current oil supplies. Climate change is also affecting growing season conditions, leading to changes in essential oil composition compared to past harvests. These factors create challenges for industry in establishing updated quality and commerce specifications beyond traditional ISO, AFNOR, and pharmacopoeia standards for essential oils. To meet these supply chain …


Characterization Of Ashwagandha Using A Multi-Detector Approach, Vincent Sica Apr 2024

Characterization Of Ashwagandha Using A Multi-Detector Approach, Vincent Sica

Oxford ICSB

Botanicals are complex mixtures that present unique analytical challenges. A multi-detector chromatographic approach can provide accurate, constituent-based data to ensure proper identification and quantification of botanicals. These data are often used to help drive in silico safety assessments to identify suspected toxicants and assess the potential for deleterious effects using structure activity relationships. To showcase this approach, ashwagandha extracts were characterized to determine authenticity and to guide the necessary toxicological studies. To ensure the full constituency of the extracts are evaluated, a multi-detector system (UHPLC-PDA-CAD-HRMS) was employed and subjected to a comprehensive chemical constituent identification (CCID) process. All of the …


Understanding Plant To Extract Ratios Of Botanical Extracts And Their Implications In Product Labeling, Maria Monagas, Thomas Brendler, Josef Brinckmann, Steven Dentali, Stefan Gafner, Gabriel Giancaspro, Holly Johnson, James Kababick, Cuiying Ma, Hellen Oketch-Rabah, Pilar Pais, Nandu Sarma, Robin Marles Apr 2024

Understanding Plant To Extract Ratios Of Botanical Extracts And Their Implications In Product Labeling, Maria Monagas, Thomas Brendler, Josef Brinckmann, Steven Dentali, Stefan Gafner, Gabriel Giancaspro, Holly Johnson, James Kababick, Cuiying Ma, Hellen Oketch-Rabah, Pilar Pais, Nandu Sarma, Robin Marles

Oxford ICSB

Dietary supplement current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) in the U.S. requires the establishment of quality parameters for each component used in the manufacture of a dietary supplement to ensure that specifications for the identity, purity, strength, composition, and limits on contaminants are met using scientifically valid methods of analysis. However, specifications for botanical extracts (including fungal and algal extracts) routinely include additional data that are not amenable to verification through analytical methods. Such descriptive information may include Plant to Extract ratios, which are ratios of the quantity of botanical article used in the manufacture of the extract to the quantity …


The True History Of Aloes And Beyond, Ben-Erik Van Wyk Apr 2024

The True History Of Aloes And Beyond, Ben-Erik Van Wyk

Oxford ICSB

The recorded history of aloes dates back thousands of years, with early recordings in the Papyrus Ebers (ca. 1550 B.C.) and in Dioscorides’s Herbal (1st cent. A.D.). Aloe has been used as a two-in-one medicine, not only by early explorers but also as a material of strategic military importance, with the yellow juice effective against the stomach problems of an army on the march and the white juice (gel) used to treat the wounds of battle. Aloe vera is the correct name for the “true aloe”, as the specific epithet “vera” indicates. The origins of the plant are shrouded in …