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Articles 1 - 30 of 2645

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Western Australian Adolescent Emotional Wellbeing During The Covid-19 Pandemic In 2020, H. M. Thomas, K. C. Runions, L. Lester, K. Lombardi, M. Epstein, J. Mandzufas, T. Barrow, S. Ang, A. Leahy, M. Mullane, A. Whelan, J. Coffin, F. Mitrou, S. R. Zubrick, A. C. Bowen, P. W. Gething, D. Cross Dec 2022

Western Australian Adolescent Emotional Wellbeing During The Covid-19 Pandemic In 2020, H. M. Thomas, K. C. Runions, L. Lester, K. Lombardi, M. Epstein, J. Mandzufas, T. Barrow, S. Ang, A. Leahy, M. Mullane, A. Whelan, J. Coffin, F. Mitrou, S. R. Zubrick, A. C. Bowen, P. W. Gething, D. Cross

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background:

The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have been vast and are not limited to physical health. Many adolescents have experienced disruptions to daily life, including changes in their school routine and family’s financial or emotional security, potentially impacting their emotional wellbeing. In low COVID-19 prevalence settings, the impact of isolation has been mitigated for most young people through continued face-to-face schooling, yet there may still be significant impacts on their wellbeing that could be attributed to the pandemic.

Methods:

We report on data from 32,849 surveys from Year 7–12 students in 40 schools over two 2020 ...


Does A High Dietary Intake Of Resistant Starch Affect Glycaemic Control And Alter The Gut Microbiome In Women With Gestational Diabetes? A Randomised Control Trial Protocol, Cathy Latino, Emily J. Gianatti, Shailender Mehta, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine, Claus Christophersen Dec 2022

Does A High Dietary Intake Of Resistant Starch Affect Glycaemic Control And Alter The Gut Microbiome In Women With Gestational Diabetes? A Randomised Control Trial Protocol, Cathy Latino, Emily J. Gianatti, Shailender Mehta, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine, Claus Christophersen

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background:

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is prevalent with lasting health implications for the mother and offspring. Medical nutrition therapy is the foundation of GDM management yet achieving optimal glycaemic control often requires treatment with medications, like insulin. New dietary strategies to improve GDM management and outcomes are required. Gut dysbiosis is a feature of GDM pregnancies, therefore, dietary manipulation of the gut microbiota may offer a new avenue for management. Resistant starch is a fermentable dietary fibre known to alter the gut microbiota and enhance production of short-chain fatty acids. Evidence suggests that short-chain fatty acids improve glycaemia via multiple ...


Medicines And Vaccines Supply Chains Challenges In Nigeria: A Scoping Review, Victory O. Olutuase, Chinwe J. Iwu-Jaja, Cynthia P. Akuoko, Emmanuel O. Adewuyi, Vishnu Khanal Dec 2022

Medicines And Vaccines Supply Chains Challenges In Nigeria: A Scoping Review, Victory O. Olutuase, Chinwe J. Iwu-Jaja, Cynthia P. Akuoko, Emmanuel O. Adewuyi, Vishnu Khanal

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background:

Medicines and vaccines supply chains represent critical systems for realising one of the major targets of the United Nations’ third Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)- access to safe, effective, quality, and affordable essential medicines and vaccines, for all. However, evidence suggests the system is confronted with several challenges in many low-medium income countries, including Nigeria. This scoping review aims to summarize the available evidence on the challenges of medicines and vaccines supply chain system in Nigeria.

Results:

We searched relevant databases including Scopus and Web of Science for studies published between January 2005 and August 2020 on the challenges associated ...


Geotemporospatial And Causal Inference Epidemiological Analysis Of Us Survey And Overview Of Cannabis, Cannabidiol And Cannabinoid Genotoxicity In Relation To Congenital Anomalies 2001–2015, Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Kenneth Hulse Dec 2022

Geotemporospatial And Causal Inference Epidemiological Analysis Of Us Survey And Overview Of Cannabis, Cannabidiol And Cannabinoid Genotoxicity In Relation To Congenital Anomalies 2001–2015, Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Kenneth Hulse

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background:

Cannabinoids including cannabidiol have recognized genotoxic activities but their significance has not been studied broadly epidemiologically across the teratological spectrum. We examined these issues including contextual space-time relationships and formal causal inferential analysis in USA.

Methods:

State congenital anomaly (CA) rate (CAR) data was taken from the annual reports of the National Birth Defects Prevention Network 2001–2005 to 2011–2015. Substance abuse rates were from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health a nationally representative longitudinal survey of the non-institutionalized US population with 74.1% response rate. Drugs examined were cigarettes, monthly and binge alcohol, monthly cannabis ...


Effectiveness Of Mobile Apps To Improve Urinary Incontinence: A Systematic Review Of Randomised Controlled Trials, Renee Widdison, Amineh Rashidi, Lisa Whitehead Dec 2022

Effectiveness Of Mobile Apps To Improve Urinary Incontinence: A Systematic Review Of Randomised Controlled Trials, Renee Widdison, Amineh Rashidi, Lisa Whitehead

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Introduction: Pelvic floor exercises are effective in the treatment of urinary incontinence (UI) and are routinely prescribed, along with bladder training, by primary healthcare providers as first line conservative management. Mobile phone applications are increasingly popular within the healthcare setting and can provide opportunities for patients to complete treatments at home. To date, there has not been a systematic review examining outcomes from randomised controlled trials on the effectiveness of mobile applications to improve UI. Methods: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of mobile applications to improve UI was carried out according to the PRISMA reporting ...


Nursing Practicum Equity For A Changing Nurse Student Demographic: A Qualitative Study, Lesley Andrew, Julie Dare, Ken Robinson, Leesa Costello Dec 2022

Nursing Practicum Equity For A Changing Nurse Student Demographic: A Qualitative Study, Lesley Andrew, Julie Dare, Ken Robinson, Leesa Costello

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background: The nursing practicum (clinical practice) is an essential but often highly stressful aspect of the nursing degree. A review of the published literature reveals a strong focus on the stressors that originate within the practicum environment, rather than the student’s life outside the university and practice setting. This article reports on an Australian study, completed before the COVID-19 pandemic, of the university experiences of undergraduate women nurse students with family responsibilities. The findings reveal the importance of factors outside the university on the women students’ practicum experience and their ability to engage and achieve. Methods: The study was ...


Physical And Technical Demands Of Australian Football: An Analysis Of Maximum Ball In Play Periods, Christopher Wing, Nicolas H. Hart, Fadi Ma’Ayah, Kazunori Nosaka Dec 2022

Physical And Technical Demands Of Australian Football: An Analysis Of Maximum Ball In Play Periods, Christopher Wing, Nicolas H. Hart, Fadi Ma’Ayah, Kazunori Nosaka

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background: This study compares ball in play (BiP) analyses and both whole game (WG) and quarter averaged data for physical and technical demands of sub-elite Australian football (AF) players competing in the West Australian Football League across playing positions. Methods: Microsensor data were collected from 33 male AF players in one club over 19 games of the 2019 season. BiP time periods and technical performance data (e.g., kicks) were acquired from the Champion Data timeline of statistics, and time matched to the microsensor data. Linear mixed modelling was utilised to establish differences between maximum BiP periods and averaged data ...


Analysis Of Plasma Proteins Using 2d Gels And Novel Fluorescent Probes: In Search Of Blood Based Biomarkers For Alzheimer’S Disease, Scott B. Laffoon, James D. Doecke, Anne M. Roberts, Jennifer A. Vance, Benjamin D. Reeves, Kelly K. Pertile, Rebecca L. Rumble, Chris J. Fowler, Brett Trounson, David Ames, Ralph Martins, Ashley I. Bush, Colin L. Masters, Paul A. Grieco, Edward A. Dratz, Blaine R. Roberts Dec 2022

Analysis Of Plasma Proteins Using 2d Gels And Novel Fluorescent Probes: In Search Of Blood Based Biomarkers For Alzheimer’S Disease, Scott B. Laffoon, James D. Doecke, Anne M. Roberts, Jennifer A. Vance, Benjamin D. Reeves, Kelly K. Pertile, Rebecca L. Rumble, Chris J. Fowler, Brett Trounson, David Ames, Ralph Martins, Ashley I. Bush, Colin L. Masters, Paul A. Grieco, Edward A. Dratz, Blaine R. Roberts

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background: The Australian Imaging and Biomarker Lifestyle (AIBL) study of aging is designed to aid the discovery of biomarkers. The current study aimed to discover differentially expressed plasma proteins that could yield a blood-based screening tool for Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: The concentration of proteins in plasma covers a vast range of 12 orders of magnitude. Therefore, to search for medium to low abundant biomarkers and elucidate mechanisms of AD, we immuno-depleted the most abundant plasma proteins and pre-fractionated the remaining proteins by HPLC, prior to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The relative levels of approximately 3400 protein species resolved on the ...


Association Of Visceral Adiposity Index With Incident Nephropathy And Retinopathy: A Cohort Study In The Diabetic Population, Zhiyuan Wu, Siqi Yu, Xiaoping Kang, Yue Liu, Zongkai Xu, Zhiwei Li, Jinqi Wang, Xinlei Miao, Xiangtong Liu, Xia Li, Jingbo Zhang, Wei Wang, Lixin Tao, Xiuhua Guo Dec 2022

Association Of Visceral Adiposity Index With Incident Nephropathy And Retinopathy: A Cohort Study In The Diabetic Population, Zhiyuan Wu, Siqi Yu, Xiaoping Kang, Yue Liu, Zongkai Xu, Zhiwei Li, Jinqi Wang, Xinlei Miao, Xiangtong Liu, Xia Li, Jingbo Zhang, Wei Wang, Lixin Tao, Xiuhua Guo

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background: The association between visceral adiposity index (VAI) and diabetic complications has been reported in cross-sectional studies, while the effect of VAI on complication development remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the longitudinal association of VAI and Chinese VAI (CVAI) with the incidence of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy using a Chinese cohort. Methods: A total of 8 948 participants with type 2 diabetes from Beijing Health Management Cohort were enrolled during 2013–2014, and followed until December 31, 2019. Nephropathy was confirmed by urine albumin/creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate; retinopathy was diagnosed using fundus photograph. Results ...


Physical And Technical Demands Of Offence, Defence, And Contested Phases Of Play In Australian Football, Christopher Wing, Nicolas H. Hart, Fadi Ma’Ayah, Kazunori Nosaka Dec 2022

Physical And Technical Demands Of Offence, Defence, And Contested Phases Of Play In Australian Football, Christopher Wing, Nicolas H. Hart, Fadi Ma’Ayah, Kazunori Nosaka

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background: This study compared the physical demands and effect of field location for different phases of play (offence, defence and contested), and examined the physical and technical demands of successful and unsuccessful phases of play during Australian Football matches. Methods: Global positioning system (GPS) and technical performance data were collected from 32 male Australian Football players in one club over 19 games in the 2019 season. The GPS data was aligned with phases of play acquired using Champion Data. Linear mixed models were used to detect differences between phases of play and field location which were further contextualized using Cohen ...


Epidemiological Association Of Cannabinoid- And Drug- Exposures And Sociodemographic Factors With Limb Reduction Defects Across Usa 1989–2016: A Geotemporospatial Study, Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Kenneth Hulse Jun 2022

Epidemiological Association Of Cannabinoid- And Drug- Exposures And Sociodemographic Factors With Limb Reduction Defects Across Usa 1989–2016: A Geotemporospatial Study, Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Kenneth Hulse

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background: Reports of major limb defects after prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) in animals and of human populations in Hawaii, Europe and Australia raise the question of whether the increasing use of cannabis in USA might be spatiotemporally associated with limb reduction rates (LRR) across USA. Methods: Congenital anomaly data was from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network, drug use data was taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), cannabinoid concentration was estimated from Federal seizure data and ethnicity and income data were from the US Census bureau. Geotemporospatial analysis was conducted in R. Results: 436 LRR ...


Resistance Training Effectiveness On Body Composition And Body Weight Outcomes In Individuals With Overweight And Obesity Across The Lifespan: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Pedro Lopez, Dennis R. Taaffe, Daniel A. Galvão, Robert U. Newton, Elisa R. Nonemacher, Victória M. Wendt, Renata N. Bassanesi, Douglas J. P. Turella, Anderson Rech May 2022

Resistance Training Effectiveness On Body Composition And Body Weight Outcomes In Individuals With Overweight And Obesity Across The Lifespan: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Pedro Lopez, Dennis R. Taaffe, Daniel A. Galvão, Robert U. Newton, Elisa R. Nonemacher, Victória M. Wendt, Renata N. Bassanesi, Douglas J. P. Turella, Anderson Rech

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

To systematically review and analyze the effects of resistance-based exercise programs on body composition, regional adiposity, and body weight in individuals with overweight/obesity across the lifespan. Using PRISMA guidelines, randomized controlled trials were searched in nine electronic databases up to December 2020. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects model. One-hundred sixteen articles describing 114 trials (n = 4184 participants) were included. Interventions involving resistance training and caloric restriction were the most effective for reducing body fat percentage (ES = −3.8%, 95% CI: −4.7 to −2.9%, p < 0.001) and whole-body fat mass (ES = −5.3 kg, 95% CI: −7.2 to −3.5 kg, p < 0.001) compared with groups without intervention. Significant results were also observed following combined resistance and aerobic exercise (ES = −2.3% and −1.4 kg, p < 0.001) and resistance training alone (ES = −1.6% and −1.0 kg, p < 0.001) compared with no training controls. Resistance training alone was the most effective for increasing lean mass compared with no training controls (ES = 0.8 kg, 95% CI: 0.6 to 1.0 kg, p < 0.001), whereas lean mass was maintained following interventions involving resistance training and caloric restriction (ES = ~ − 0.3 kg, p = 0.550–0.727). Results were consistently observed across age and sex groups (p = 0.001–0.011). Reductions in regional adiposity and body weight measures were also observed following combined resistance and aerobic exercise and programs including caloric restriction (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that resistance-based exercise programs are effective and should be considered within any multicomponent therapy program when caloric restriction is utilized in individuals with overweight or obesity.


Bullied Because Of Their Teeth: Evidence From A Longitudinal Study On The Impact Of Oral Health On Bullying Victimization Among Australian Indigenous Children, Md Irteja Islam, Verity Chadwick, Tuguy Esgin, Alexandra Martiniuk May 2022

Bullied Because Of Their Teeth: Evidence From A Longitudinal Study On The Impact Of Oral Health On Bullying Victimization Among Australian Indigenous Children, Md Irteja Islam, Verity Chadwick, Tuguy Esgin, Alexandra Martiniuk

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Making life better for Indigenous peoples is a global priority. Although bullying and oral health have always been a topic of concern, there is limited information regarding the impact of this problem on the general population, with no evidence in this regard among the Australian Indigenous population. Thus, we aimed to quantify the relationship between bullying victimization and oral health problems by remoteness among 766 Australian Indigenous children aged between 10–15-years using data from the LSIC study. Bivariate and multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression analyses were employed. Findings indicated children self-reported bullying more than parents reported their children were being ...


Anti-Retinal Igg Antibodies In Patients With Early And Advanced Type 2 Macular Telangiectasia, Samuel Mclenachan, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Rachael C. Heath Jeffery, Shang Chih Chen, Dan Zhang, Geoffrey Chan, Rosa Dolz-Marco, Tommaso Bacci, Johnny Lo, Steven Wiffen, Lawrence A. Yannuzzi, Fred K. Chen May 2022

Anti-Retinal Igg Antibodies In Patients With Early And Advanced Type 2 Macular Telangiectasia, Samuel Mclenachan, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Rachael C. Heath Jeffery, Shang Chih Chen, Dan Zhang, Geoffrey Chan, Rosa Dolz-Marco, Tommaso Bacci, Johnny Lo, Steven Wiffen, Lawrence A. Yannuzzi, Fred K. Chen

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (MacTel-2) is a progressive adult-onset macular disease associated with bilateral perifoveal vascular changes, Muller cell degeneration and increased blood-retinal barrier permeability. The pathophysiological mechanisms of MacTel-2 remain unclear, however it was previously reported that anti-retinal antibodies in MacTel-2 patients are a significant feature of the disease. In this study, we aimed to compare the prevalence of anti-retinal antibodies in patients MacTel-2, healthy controls and patients with other retinal diseases. MacTel-2 patients diagnosed with multimodal imaging were enrolled and their disease severities were graded using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. For comparison, patients with age-related macular degeneration ...


A Most Unusual Tail: Scoliosis In A Wild Australian Skink, And Reported Incidences And Suggested Causes Of Similar Malformations Amongst Squamates, Philip W. Bateman, Robyn Benken, Ryan Glowacki, Robert A. Davis May 2022

A Most Unusual Tail: Scoliosis In A Wild Australian Skink, And Reported Incidences And Suggested Causes Of Similar Malformations Amongst Squamates, Philip W. Bateman, Robyn Benken, Ryan Glowacki, Robert A. Davis

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Malformations of vertebrae potentially occur across many taxa, particularly in Testudines, which are susceptible to kyphosis (dorsoventral curvature of the spine). Such malformations may stem from either genetic or environmental origins, and their prevalence and associated impacts on survival remain poorly understood. However, scoliosis (sideways curvature of the spine) is rarely reported and especially so in wild lizards. We report here on the first known case of scoliosis in a wild Australian lizard, the skink Ctenotus fallens, from Perth, Western Australia. This occurrence is the first of 805 individuals captured in a natural population monitored annually for the past 11 ...


Novel Deep Learning Approach To Model And Predict The Spread Of Covid-19, Devante Ayris, Maleeha Imtiaz, Kye Horbury, Blake Williams, Mitchell Blackney, Celine Shi Hui See, Syed Afaq Ali Shah May 2022

Novel Deep Learning Approach To Model And Predict The Spread Of Covid-19, Devante Ayris, Maleeha Imtiaz, Kye Horbury, Blake Williams, Mitchell Blackney, Celine Shi Hui See, Syed Afaq Ali Shah

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

SARS-CoV2, which causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is continuing to spread globally, producing new variants and has become a pandemic. People have lost their lives not only due to the virus but also because of the lack of counter measures in place. Given the increasing caseload and uncertainty of spread, there is an urgent need to develop robust artificial intelligence techniques to predict the spread of COVID-19. In this paper, we propose a deep learning technique, called Deep Sequential Prediction Model (DSPM) and machine learning based Non-parametric Regression Model (NRM) to predict the spread of COVID-19. Our proposed models are trained ...


Review Of Diabetes Among Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People, Katherine Ride, Samantha Burrow Apr 2022

Review Of Diabetes Among Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People, Katherine Ride, Samantha Burrow

Journal of the Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet

Diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease condition globally. Type 2 diabetes in particular, has reached epidemic proportions, with the greatest burden falling on socially disadvantaged groups and Indigenous peoples.

This review focuses primarily on type 2 diabetes among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, which is responsible for the majority of cases of diabetes in this population. It provides general information on the social and cultural context of diabetes, and the behavioural and biomedical factors that contribute to diabetes among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

This review provides detailed information on:

  • the extent of diabetes among Aboriginal and ...


Parental Sleep When Their Child Is Sick: A Phased Principle-Based Concept Analysis, Stephanie Smith, Mary Tallon, James Smith, Charlotte Angelhoff, Evalotte Mörelius Apr 2022

Parental Sleep When Their Child Is Sick: A Phased Principle-Based Concept Analysis, Stephanie Smith, Mary Tallon, James Smith, Charlotte Angelhoff, Evalotte Mörelius

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Sleep is a common challenge for parents with sick children and can impact parents' health, wellbeing, and caregiving responsibilities. Despite the vast research around parental sleep when their child is sick, the concept is not clearly defined. A phased principle-based concept analysis that includes triangulation of methods and quality criteria assessment was used to explore how the concept is described, used, and measured in the current literature. The aim was to analyse and clarify the conceptual, operational, and theoretical basis of parental sleep when their child is sick to produce an evidence-based definition and to identify knowledge gaps. A systematic ...


Heat And Sun Related Medical Concerns In Australian Led Outdoor Activities: A Three-Year Prospective Study, Lauren V. Fortington, Natassia Goode, Caroline F. Finch, Paul M. Salmon Apr 2022

Heat And Sun Related Medical Concerns In Australian Led Outdoor Activities: A Three-Year Prospective Study, Lauren V. Fortington, Natassia Goode, Caroline F. Finch, Paul M. Salmon

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Active participation in the outdoors is beneficial for health and wellbeing. However, the impact of extreme weather, particularly heat, on safe participation is causing concern for organisations who lead these activities. Local mitigation strategies and acute management of heat- and sun-related illness (HSRI) are generally well understood by researchers and medical practitioners, however, cases continue to occur so further understanding of why this happens is required. This study aimed to identify the number, nature and contributory factors of HSRI in Australian led outdoor activities in order to seek opportunities for their prevention. This study presents a descriptive analysis of contributory ...


Moving On After Critical Incidents In Health Care: A Qualitative Study Of The Perspectives And Experiences Of Second Victims, Melanie Buhlmann, Beverley Ewens, Amineh Rashidi Apr 2022

Moving On After Critical Incidents In Health Care: A Qualitative Study Of The Perspectives And Experiences Of Second Victims, Melanie Buhlmann, Beverley Ewens, Amineh Rashidi

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Aims To gain a deeper understanding of nurses and midwives' experiences following involvement in a critical incident in a non-critical care area and to explore how they have 'moved-on' from the event. Design An interpretive descriptive design guided inductive inquiry to interpret the meaning of moving-on. Methods Purposive sampling recruited 10 nurses and midwives. Data collection comprised semi-structured interviews, memos and field notes. Data were concurrently collected and analysed during 2016–2017 with NVivo 11. The thematic analysis enabled a coherent analytical framework evolving emerging themes and transformation of the data into credible interpretive description findings, adhering to the COREQ ...


Comprehensive Analysis Of Epigenetic Clocks Reveals Associations Between Disproportionate Biological Ageing And Hippocampal Volume, Lidija Milicic, Michael Vacher, Tenielle Porter, Vincent Doré, Samantha C. Burnham, Pierrick Bourgeat, Rosita Shishegar, James Doecke, Nicola J. Armstrong, Rick Tankard, Paul Maruff, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Victor L. Villemagne, Simon M. Laws, Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Australian Imaging Biomarkers And Lifestyle (Aibl) Study Apr 2022

Comprehensive Analysis Of Epigenetic Clocks Reveals Associations Between Disproportionate Biological Ageing And Hippocampal Volume, Lidija Milicic, Michael Vacher, Tenielle Porter, Vincent Doré, Samantha C. Burnham, Pierrick Bourgeat, Rosita Shishegar, James Doecke, Nicola J. Armstrong, Rick Tankard, Paul Maruff, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Victor L. Villemagne, Simon M. Laws, Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Australian Imaging Biomarkers And Lifestyle (Aibl) Study

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

The concept of age acceleration, the difference between biological age and chronological age, is of growing interest, particularly with respect to age-related disorders, such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Whilst studies have reported associations with AD risk and related phenotypes, there remains a lack of consensus on these associations. Here we aimed to comprehensively investigate the relationship between five recognised measures of age acceleration, based on DNA methylation patterns (DNAm age), and cross-sectional and longitudinal cognition and AD-related neuroimaging phenotypes (volumetric MRI and Amyloid-β PET) in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) and the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative ...


Physical Activity Estimated By Osteogenic Potential And Energy Expenditure Has Differing Associations With Bone Mass In Young Adults: The Raine Study, Carrie Anne Ng, David Scott, Marc Sim, Kun Zhu, Aris Siafarikas, Nicolas H. Hart, Jocelyn Tan, Paola Chivers Apr 2022

Physical Activity Estimated By Osteogenic Potential And Energy Expenditure Has Differing Associations With Bone Mass In Young Adults: The Raine Study, Carrie Anne Ng, David Scott, Marc Sim, Kun Zhu, Aris Siafarikas, Nicolas H. Hart, Jocelyn Tan, Paola Chivers

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Summary: Ground impacts during physical activity may be important for peak bone mass. We found differences in how energy expenditure and impact scores estimated from a physical activity questionnaire related to bone health in young adults. Using both estimate types can improve our understanding of the skeletal benefits of physical activity. Purpose: It is unclear whether mechanical loading during physical activity, estimated from physical activity questionnaires which assess metabolic equivalents of task (METs), is associated with skeletal health. This longitudinal study investigated how physical activity loading scores, assessed at ages 17 and 20 years, (a) compares with physical activity measured ...


The Current State Of Subjective Training Load Monitoring: Follow-Up And Future Directions, Joseph O. C. Coyne, Aaron J. Coutts, Robert U. Newton, Gregory G. Haff Apr 2022

The Current State Of Subjective Training Load Monitoring: Follow-Up And Future Directions, Joseph O. C. Coyne, Aaron J. Coutts, Robert U. Newton, Gregory G. Haff

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

This article addresses several key issues that have been raised related to subjective training load (TL) monitoring. These key issues include how TL is calculated if subjective TL can be used to model sports performance and where subjective TL monitoring fits into an overall decision-making framework for practitioners. Regarding how TL is calculated, there is conjecture over the most appropriate (1) acute and chronic period lengths, (2) smoothing methods for TL data and (3) change in TL measures (e.g., training stress balance (TSB), differential load, acute-to-chronic workload ratio). Variable selection procedures with measures of model-fit, like the Akaike Information ...


Modulating Tumour Hypoxia In Prostate Cancer Through Exercise: The Impact Of Redox Signalling On Radiosensitivity, Malcolm Brown, Amélie Rébillard, Nicolas H. Hart, Dominic O’Connor, Gillian Prue, Joe M. O’Sullivan, Suneil Jain Apr 2022

Modulating Tumour Hypoxia In Prostate Cancer Through Exercise: The Impact Of Redox Signalling On Radiosensitivity, Malcolm Brown, Amélie Rébillard, Nicolas H. Hart, Dominic O’Connor, Gillian Prue, Joe M. O’Sullivan, Suneil Jain

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Prostate cancer is a complex disease affecting millions of men globally. Radiotherapy (RT) is a common treatment modality although treatment efficacy is dependent upon several features within the tumour microenvironment (TME), especially hypoxia. A hypoxic TME heightens radioresistance and thus disease recurrence and treatment failure continues to pose important challenges. However, the TME evolves under the influence of factors in systemic circulation and cellular crosstalk, underscoring its potential to be acutely and therapeutically modified. Early preclinical evidence suggests exercise may affect tumour growth and some of the benefits drawn, could act to radiosensitise tumours to treatment. Intracellular perturbations in skeletal ...


Comparison Of Flavonoid Intake Assessment Methods Using Usda And Phenol Explorer Databases: Subcohort Diet, Cancer And Health-Next Generations—Max Study, Fabian Lanuza, Nicola P. Bondonno, Raul Zamora-Ros, Agnetha Linn Rostgaard-Hansen, Anne Tjønneland, Rikard Landberg, Jytte Halkjær, Cristina Andres-Lacueva Apr 2022

Comparison Of Flavonoid Intake Assessment Methods Using Usda And Phenol Explorer Databases: Subcohort Diet, Cancer And Health-Next Generations—Max Study, Fabian Lanuza, Nicola P. Bondonno, Raul Zamora-Ros, Agnetha Linn Rostgaard-Hansen, Anne Tjønneland, Rikard Landberg, Jytte Halkjær, Cristina Andres-Lacueva

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Flavonoids are bioactive plant compounds that are widely present in the human diet. Estimating flavonoid intake with a high degree of certainty is challenging due to the inherent limitations of dietary questionnaires and food composition databases. This study aimed to evaluate the degree of reliability among flavonoid intakes estimated using four different approaches based on the two most comprehensive flavonoid databases, namely, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol Explorer (PE). In 678 individuals from the MAX study, a subcohort of the Diet, Cancer and Health-Next Generations cohort, dietary data were collected using three 24-h diet recalls over 1 ...


Why Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Australians Fall And Fracture: The Codesigned Study Of Indigenous Muscle And Bone Ageing (Simba) Protocol, Ayse Zengin, Cat Shore-Lorenti, Marc Sim, Louise Maple-Brown, Sharon Lee Brennan-Olsen, Joshua R. Lewis, Jennifer Ockwell, Troy Walker, David Scott, Peter Ebeling Apr 2022

Why Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Australians Fall And Fracture: The Codesigned Study Of Indigenous Muscle And Bone Ageing (Simba) Protocol, Ayse Zengin, Cat Shore-Lorenti, Marc Sim, Louise Maple-Brown, Sharon Lee Brennan-Olsen, Joshua R. Lewis, Jennifer Ockwell, Troy Walker, David Scott, Peter Ebeling

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

OBJECTIVES: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have a substantially greater fracture risk, where men are 50% and women are 26% more likely to experience a hip fracture compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Fall-related injuries in this population have also increased by 10%/year compared with 4.3%/year in non-Indigenous Australians. This study aims to determine why falls and fracture risk are higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. SETTING: All clinical assessments will be performed at one centre in Melbourne, Australia. At baseline, participants will have clinical assessments, including questionnaires, anthropometry, bone structure, body composition and physical performance ...


Differential Effects Of Speech And Language Therapy And Rtms In Chronic Versus Subacute Post-Stroke Aphasia: Results Of The Northstar-Ca Trial, Anna Zumbansen, Heike Kneifel, Latifa Lazzouni, Anja Ophey, Sandra E. Black, Joyce L. Chen, Dylan Edwards, Thomas Funck, Alexander Erich Hartmann, Wolf Dieter Heiss, Franziska Hildesheim, Sylvain Lanthier, Paul Lespérance, George Mochizuki, Caroline Paquette, Elizabet Rochon, Ilona Rubi-Fessen, Jennie Valles, Susan Wortman-Jutt, Alexander Thiel Apr 2022

Differential Effects Of Speech And Language Therapy And Rtms In Chronic Versus Subacute Post-Stroke Aphasia: Results Of The Northstar-Ca Trial, Anna Zumbansen, Heike Kneifel, Latifa Lazzouni, Anja Ophey, Sandra E. Black, Joyce L. Chen, Dylan Edwards, Thomas Funck, Alexander Erich Hartmann, Wolf Dieter Heiss, Franziska Hildesheim, Sylvain Lanthier, Paul Lespérance, George Mochizuki, Caroline Paquette, Elizabet Rochon, Ilona Rubi-Fessen, Jennie Valles, Susan Wortman-Jutt, Alexander Thiel

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background & objective: Contralesional 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right pars triangularis combined with speech-language therapy (SLT) has shown positive results on the recovery of naming in subacute (5–45 days) post-stroke aphasia. NORTHSTAR-CA is an extension of the previously reported NORTHSTAR trial to chronic aphasia (>6 months post-stroke) designed to compare the effectiveness of the same rTMS protocol in both phases. Methods: Sixty-seven patients with left middle cerebral artery infarcts (28 chronic, 39 subacute) were recruited (01-2014 to 07-2019) and randomized to receive rTMS (N = 34) or sham stimulation (N = 33) with SLT for 10 days. Primary ...


A Pilot Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (Smart) Protocol For Developing An Adaptive Coaching Intervention Around A Mobile Application For Athletes To Improve Carbohydrate Periodization Behavior, Xiaoxi Yan, David M. Dunne, Samuel G. Impey, Brian Cunniffe, Carmen E. Lefevre, Rodrigo Mazorra, James P. Morton, David Tod, Graeme L. Close, Rebecca Murphy, Bibhas Chakraborty Apr 2022

A Pilot Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (Smart) Protocol For Developing An Adaptive Coaching Intervention Around A Mobile Application For Athletes To Improve Carbohydrate Periodization Behavior, Xiaoxi Yan, David M. Dunne, Samuel G. Impey, Brian Cunniffe, Carmen E. Lefevre, Rodrigo Mazorra, James P. Morton, David Tod, Graeme L. Close, Rebecca Murphy, Bibhas Chakraborty

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background: It has recently been identified that manipulating carbohydrate availability around exercise activity can enhance training-induced metabolic adaptations. Despite this approach being accepted in the athletic populations, athletes do not systematically follow the guidelines. Digital environments appear to allow nutritionists to deliver this intervention at scale, reducing expensive human coaching time. Yet, digitally delivered dietary behavior change interventions for athletes and the coaching strategy to support them are still novel concepts within sports nutrition. Methods/design: We aim to recruit 900 athletes across the UK. 500 athletes will be recruited to test the feasibility of a novel menu planner mobile ...


Prognostic And Predictive Value Of Β-Blockers In The Eortc 1325/Keynote-054 Phase Iii Trial Of Pembrolizumab Versus Placebo In Resected High-Risk Stage Iii Melanoma, Oliver J. Kennedy, Michal Kicinski, Sara Valpione, Sara Gandini, Stefan Suciu, Christian U. Blank, Georgina V. Long, Victoria G. Atkinson, Stéphane Dalle, Andrew M. Haydon, Andrey Meshcheryakov, Adnan Khattak, Matteo S. Carlino, Shahneen Sandhu, James Larkin, Susana Puig, Paolo A. Ascierto, Piotr Rutkowski, Dirk Schadendorf, Rutger Koornstra, Leonel Hernandez-Aya, Anna M. Di Giacomo, Alfonsus J.M. Van Den Eertwegh, Jean Jacques Grob, Ralf Gutzmer, Rahima Jamal, Alexander C.J. Van Akkooi, Caroline Robert, Alexander M. M. Eggermont, Paul Lorigan, Mario Mandala Apr 2022

Prognostic And Predictive Value Of Β-Blockers In The Eortc 1325/Keynote-054 Phase Iii Trial Of Pembrolizumab Versus Placebo In Resected High-Risk Stage Iii Melanoma, Oliver J. Kennedy, Michal Kicinski, Sara Valpione, Sara Gandini, Stefan Suciu, Christian U. Blank, Georgina V. Long, Victoria G. Atkinson, Stéphane Dalle, Andrew M. Haydon, Andrey Meshcheryakov, Adnan Khattak, Matteo S. Carlino, Shahneen Sandhu, James Larkin, Susana Puig, Paolo A. Ascierto, Piotr Rutkowski, Dirk Schadendorf, Rutger Koornstra, Leonel Hernandez-Aya, Anna M. Di Giacomo, Alfonsus J.M. Van Den Eertwegh, Jean Jacques Grob, Ralf Gutzmer, Rahima Jamal, Alexander C.J. Van Akkooi, Caroline Robert, Alexander M. M. Eggermont, Paul Lorigan, Mario Mandala

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background:

β-adrenergic receptors are upregulated in melanoma cells and contribute to an immunosuppressive, pro-tumorigenic microenvironment. This study investigated the prognostic and predictive value of β-adrenoreceptor blockade by β-blockers in the EORTC1325/KEYNOTE-054 randomised controlled trial.

Methods:

Patients with resected stage IIIA, IIIB or IIIC melanoma and regional lymphadenectomy received 200 mg of adjuvant pembrolizumab (n = 514) or placebo (n = 505) every three weeks for one year or until recurrence or unacceptable toxicity. At a median follow-up of 3 years, pembrolizumab prolonged recurrence-free survival (RFS) compared to placebo (hazard ratio (HR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47–0.68 ...


Causal Associations Between Covid-19 And Atrial Fibrillation: A Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study, Xiaoyu Zhang, Biyan Wang, Tao Geng, Di Liu, Qiuyue Tian, Xiaoni Meng, Qiaoyun Zhang, Mengyang Jiang, Yiqiang Zhang, Manshu Song, Wei Wang, Youxin Wang, Baoguo Wang Apr 2022

Causal Associations Between Covid-19 And Atrial Fibrillation: A Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study, Xiaoyu Zhang, Biyan Wang, Tao Geng, Di Liu, Qiuyue Tian, Xiaoni Meng, Qiaoyun Zhang, Mengyang Jiang, Yiqiang Zhang, Manshu Song, Wei Wang, Youxin Wang, Baoguo Wang

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background and aims: Observational studies showed that coronavirus disease (2019) (COVID-19) attacks universally and its most menacing progression uniquely endangers the elderly with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The causal association between COVID-19 infection or its severity and susceptibility of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unknown. Methods and results: The bidirectional causal relationship between COVID-19 (including COVID-19, hospitalized COVID-19 compared with not hospitalized COVID-19, hospitalized COVID-19 compared with the general population, and severe COVID-19) and AF are determined by using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Genetically predicted severe COVID-19 was not significantly associated with the risk of AF [odds ratio (OR), 1.037 ...