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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Early Development Of C3ar1-Targeting Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma Multiforme, Cameron Fraser Oct 2023

Early Development Of C3ar1-Targeting Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma Multiforme, Cameron Fraser

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive type of glioma, demonstrating extremely low long-term survival despite modern therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells have shown extreme levels of success in the treatment of B cell lymphomas through persistent anti-tumor activity. Prior research has demonstrated the therapeutic potential in targeting the C3a-C3aR1 pathway as it acts in an autocrine loop, maintaining the proliferation and survival of cancer stem cells within the tumor. Here, we reorient the treatment to target C3aR1 for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. In order to achieve this, Jurkat immortalized T cells will express various chimeric antigen receptor designs …


Kir-Based Inhibitory Cars Overcome Car-Nk Cell Trogocytosis-Mediated Fratricide And Tumor Escape, Ye Nmn Li May 2023

Kir-Based Inhibitory Cars Overcome Car-Nk Cell Trogocytosis-Mediated Fratricide And Tumor Escape, Ye Nmn Li

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Trogocytosis is an active process that transfers surface material from targeted to effector cells. Using multiple in vivo tumor models and clinical data, we report that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) activation in natural killer (NK) cells promoted the transfer of the CAR-cognate-antigen from tumor to NK cells, resulting in (1) lower tumor antigen density, thus impairing the ability of CAR-NK cells to engage with their targets, (2) induced self-recognition and continuous CAR-mediated engagement, resulting in fratricide of trogocytic antigen expressing NK cells (NKTROG+) and NK cell hyporesponsiveness. This phenomenon could be offset by a dual-CAR system incorporating both …


A Novel Immunostimulatory Platform For Amplifying The Abscopal Response Rates Of Radiation Therapy, Patrick A. Paez Jan 2021

A Novel Immunostimulatory Platform For Amplifying The Abscopal Response Rates Of Radiation Therapy, Patrick A. Paez

Theses and Dissertations

Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the primary treatment modalities for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). At the time of diagnosis two-thirds of HNSCC patients have local-advanced disease and 50-60% of these patients will experience a local-regional or metastatic relapse within three years. Improving the immunogenic response of RT may help address this clinical problem. However, current RT regimens have failed to reliably generate robust antitumor immunity as evidenced by the rarity of clinical abscopal responses. Recently we engineered a chimeric fusion molecule called Flagrp170, a novel immunostimulatory agent highly capable of promoting antigen presentation and T-cell activation. …


Muc4 Based Immunotherapy For Pancreatic Cancer, Kasturi Banerjee May 2018

Muc4 Based Immunotherapy For Pancreatic Cancer, Kasturi Banerjee

Theses & Dissertations

Pancreatic Cancer (PC) is a lethal disease claiming approximately 45000 lives in the US in 2018, and it establishes an elaborate immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that aids in disease pathogenesis. Immunotherapy has emerged as a strategy to target tumor cells by reprogramming patient’s immune system. Challenges present in PC immunotherapy are: i) identifying a tumor-associated antigen that could be targeted, ii) identifying adjuvants that could efficiently deliver antigens, iii) eliciting robust anti-tumor responses and iv) overcoming peripheral tolerance and immunosuppression elicited by the tumor.

Firstly, we detected circulating autoantibodies to MUC4 present in PC patients and observed that IgM autoantibodies to …


Improving Nk Cell Therapy For Osteosarcoma, Jennifer Foltz Aug 2017

Improving Nk Cell Therapy For Osteosarcoma, Jennifer Foltz

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor. Despite new treatment options, 5-year survival for metastatic OS has remained at only 30% for the last 30 years. Adoptive transfer of Natural Killer (NK) cells holds promise for a new, non-toxic therapy for OS. NK cells are part of the innate immune system and readily kill metastatic and chemotherapy-resistant OS in vitro and in murine models. However, there is little data regarding their efficacy in animal models with an intact immune system. In addition, the OS tumor microenvironment is highly suppressive, producing TGFβ which impedes NK cell killing of solid …


Developing Novel Approaches To Improve Response To T Cell Based Cancer Immunotherapy, Rina M. Mbofung May 2017

Developing Novel Approaches To Improve Response To T Cell Based Cancer Immunotherapy, Rina M. Mbofung

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Recently, T cell based immunotherapies have moved to the forefront of cancer immunotherapy with the success of Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) and Immune checkpoint blockade.ACT, where patients are treated with tumour infiltrating T cells (TILs), conferred a clinical response rate of ~50%. Treatment with anti-CTLA4 and anti –PD1 therapy, conferred response rates of up to 50%, greatly improving the overall survival of patients with advanced melanoma amongst other cancer types. Despite the encouraging outcomes, there are relatively low response rates coupled with the delay of weeks to months before tumour shrinkage can be appreciated. Thus, understanding what tumour intrinsic …


Immunotherapy Of Cancer: Reprogramming Tumor/Immune Cellular Crosstalk To Improve Anti-Tumor Efficacy, Kyle K. Payne Jan 2015

Immunotherapy Of Cancer: Reprogramming Tumor/Immune Cellular Crosstalk To Improve Anti-Tumor Efficacy, Kyle K. Payne

Theses and Dissertations

Immunotherapy of cancer has been shown to be promising in prolonging patient survival. However, complete elimination of cancer and life-long relapse-free survival remain to be major challenge for anti-cancer therapeutics. We have previously reported that ex vivo reprogramming of tumor-sensitized immune cells by bryostatin 1/ionomycin (B/I) and the gamma-chain (γ-c) cytokines IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 resulted in the generation of memory T cells as well as CD25+ NKT cells and CD25+ NK cells. Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) utilizing these reprogrammed immune cells protected FVBN202 mice from tumor challenge, and overcame the suppressive functions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We then …