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Community Health and Preventive Medicine

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Articles 1 - 30 of 5490

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Fall 2021 Oct 2921

Fall 2021

Scientia

A Decade of Progress and Success; Speech Language Pathology Program; COVID-19 Long-Hauler Study; Peer Mentors Initiative; Faculty Update; Expert Engagement: Three CSH initiatives further education and scholarship while supporting communities in need; Strategic Command: Business consultant and med tech expert Stephen Sichak helps others face pandemic challenges; Taking Care: A School of Nursing research team plumbs the pandemic experiences of nurses nationwide


Rising Costs Of Insulin And Effects Of Self-Management In Type 1 Diabetes, Justine Yadao Dec 2022

Rising Costs Of Insulin And Effects Of Self-Management In Type 1 Diabetes, Justine Yadao

Nursing | Senior Theses

Background

Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes is a chronic condition where the pancreas may not be able to produce little to no insulin. This type of diabetes can be attributed to some factors such as age, family history, environmental factors or types of viruses. It is seen more often in children or adolescence but can develop in adults, averaging approximately 5-10% of the population.

Insulin is a type of hormone produced in the pancreas naturally or can be manufactured in the laboratory. People with Type 1 Diabetes need insulin from an exogenous source to ...


The Emerging Epidemic Of Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity Amongst Young Children, Juliana Morales Dec 2022

The Emerging Epidemic Of Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity Amongst Young Children, Juliana Morales

Nursing | Senior Theses

Background:

In the past years childhood obesity has increased tremendously and currently ⅓ of children in the United States are obese today. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes are illnesses that can later on lead to more severe health complications when as a child enters adulthood. Children who are obese have a greater risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, and currently more than 80% of children who already are diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes are obese. In school and often by health care providers we are told daily physical activity and healthy diet are the best ways to maintain optimal health ...


An Evidence--Based Intervention: Use Of Visual Aids For Patient Education During Bedside Team Rounding, Kristin Clifford, Shay Gruber Jun 2022

An Evidence--Based Intervention: Use Of Visual Aids For Patient Education During Bedside Team Rounding, Kristin Clifford, Shay Gruber

Nursing DNP Projects

Abstract Purpose: To increase patient health literacy and satisfaction in hospitalized adult medical-surgical patients through an evidence-based provider intervention (advanced practice providers, APPs, or physicians, MDs) adding visual aids to current verbal patient education methods during daily bedside team rounding (BTR).

Strength of Evidence: A literature review resulted in 15 studies meeting inclusion criteria including two meta-analyses, three randomized control trials, two quasi-experimental studies, five systematic reviews, two descriptive studies, and one clinical practice guideline. Evidence revealed the addition of visual information to verbal and written education methods significantly improves patient knowledge, understanding, and recall of health information and increases ...


Utility Of The Motivation To Change Lifestyle And Health Behaviors For Dementia Risk Reduction Scale (Mclhb-Drr) Based On A North American Sample, Angelina E. Witbeck Jun 2022

Utility Of The Motivation To Change Lifestyle And Health Behaviors For Dementia Risk Reduction Scale (Mclhb-Drr) Based On A North American Sample, Angelina E. Witbeck

Dissertations

As the population ages, the prevalence rates of dementia continue to increase. Without a cure or promising treatment for dementia, the best course of lowering the prevalence rates of dementia is through preventative measures. Through an electronic survey, the study utilized the MCLHB-DRR scale to determine whether (1) gender, age, educational background, and socioeconomic status will impact the motivational factors to change lifestyle and health behaviors to reduce the risk of developing dementia and (2) direct experiences with individuals that have a dementia diagnosis are likely to impact one's motivational factors to change lifestyle and health behaviors to reduce ...


Gobernar Es Prever: Health Management Self-Efficacy Among A National Sample Of Latinx Adults, Giselle Gerardi Jun 2022

Gobernar Es Prever: Health Management Self-Efficacy Among A National Sample Of Latinx Adults, Giselle Gerardi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Minority populations, such as Latinx people, are more likely to develop chronic diseases and increased complications related to disease severity when compared to Non Latinx Whites (NLW). Furthermore, Latinx people are less likely to engage and maintain health promoting behaviors (HPB) to prevent disease development. HPB are effective in preventing or delaying chronic disease. Despite interventions and resources aimed at supporting Latinx populations, often, there are low participation and high attrition rates.

Methods: This research explores the relative impact of aspects of health, built environment and key demographic domains on HMSE of a national sample of Latinx adults through ...


Increasing Mental Health Literacy In The Black Church, Jonathan Allotey May 2022

Increasing Mental Health Literacy In The Black Church, Jonathan Allotey

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to increase mental health literacy, assess stigmatizing attitudes, and increase help seeking behavior in leadership within an African American church.

Background: The Black church has historically been a central institution for community support and leadership within these churches are often ill equipped to address the mental health needs of congregants. African Americans underutilize mental health services and are reported to have more chronic mental illnesses. Lack of mental health literacy may result in difficulty recognizing the risk factors, signs, symptoms, and treatments related to specific mental illnesses.

Evidence Based Intervention and Methods: Participating ...


Plant-Centered Diets Among Older Adults: The Need For Improved Nutritional Health Messaging, Margaret Rose May 2022

Plant-Centered Diets Among Older Adults: The Need For Improved Nutritional Health Messaging, Margaret Rose

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

By the year 2030, it is expected that 12% of the world’s population will be aged 65 years or older compared to 8.5% in 2015. This demographic shift will be accompanied by increased healthcare costs and greater demand on health care. One way aging adults may mitigate disease onset and progression is through increased consumption of plant-based foods. This issue brief examines the impact plant-based foods have on disease prevention and acceleration and calls for developing appropriate health messaging to encourage the acceptance and adoption of plant-centered diets among older adults.


Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: Correspondence, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho May 2022

Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: Correspondence, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Innovation In Health Science Education: An Experiential Learning Program, Lily Apedaile May 2022

Innovation In Health Science Education: An Experiential Learning Program, Lily Apedaile

International Journal of Health Sciences Education

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic disrupted health professions education on a number of different levels. Many health professions and pre-health professions students lost access to real-world clinical experience which has lead to disruptions in the healthcare workforce pipeline. At the University of Montana a diverse group of health professions educators designed an innovative experiential learning program, called Griz Health, that would allow UM students to engage in healthcare experiences while helping the campus with COVID-19 response. Because of the overwhelmingly positive response from students and community members that participated in this program, the Griz Health program was shifted from a volunteer response ...


Health Equity & Obesity Management: An Improvement Project In A Federally Qualified Healthcare Center In Central Harlem, Brianna Bouchez May 2022

Health Equity & Obesity Management: An Improvement Project In A Federally Qualified Healthcare Center In Central Harlem, Brianna Bouchez

Doctor of Nursing Practice Scholarly Projects

Description of the problem: Obesity is a growing healthcare problem worldwide with extraordinary costs to the individual's health and the healthcare system. Individuals most affected by obesity include socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals, often with limited resources to seek specialized care.

Available knowledge: Various weight-loss interventions exist but access and success rates vary. Weight loss is often modest and additional factors such as social determinants of health, health literacy, and patient motivation are all factors important to the success of an intervention.

Specific Aims: The purpose of this quality improvement project was to improve self-regulatory weight loss behaviors and increase weight ...


National Early Warning Score (News) For Covid-19 Infected Patients: A Clinical Guidance Tool, Robert Villegas May 2022

National Early Warning Score (News) For Covid-19 Infected Patients: A Clinical Guidance Tool, Robert Villegas

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Background: Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) presents with variable clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to life-threatening organ dysfunction. The National Early Warning Score, also known as NEWS, was initially developed to detect adult inpatient deterioration using existing physiological data and adverse clinical outcomes from 35,585 medical admissions. The NEWS guideline consists of six parameters: respiratory rate, pulse, oxygen saturation, temperature, systolic blood pressure, and level of consciousness.

Purpose: This project implemented NEWS guidelines to identify patients at high risk for deterioration with COVID-19.

Evidence-Based Interventions: The project included retrospective-prospective chart reviews for 100 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from October 2020 to December ...


Creating A Guideline For Sti Testing In The Pediatric Population, Alexandria Molaro, Alexandra Evans, Alex Niebrugge May 2022

Creating A Guideline For Sti Testing In The Pediatric Population, Alexandria Molaro, Alexandra Evans, Alex Niebrugge

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

Sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, education, screening, and management in pediatric primary care settings are of importance due to the increasing number of cases yearly. Almost half of the 26 million new STIs that occurred in 2018 were among young people 15-24. An opportunity existed in a rural pediatric primary clinic, for improved adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations to screen/test patients. An evidence-based project (EBP) was developed to address this concern. Project objectives included: developing STI screening guidelines for pre-teen to young adults, developing a screening algorithm, providing ...


Increasing Obesity Education In An Underserved Latino Population, Morgan Lippert, Kelsey Beard May 2022

Increasing Obesity Education In An Underserved Latino Population, Morgan Lippert, Kelsey Beard

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

Obesity is a rapidly growing health problem in the United States. Certain populations are at high risk for developing obesity including the Latino population and underserved communities. This Quality Improvement project aimed to develop a more patient centered approach for primary care providers use to deliver obesity education to an at-risk Latino population. The project was completed at a clinic in southern Illinois where the majority of the population is underserved and Spanish speaking. Obesity education tools in both Spanish and English were given to the patients in order to decrease the language barrier and improve patient education and understanding ...


Exploring The Spatial Distribution Of Air Pollutants And Covid-19 Death Rate: A Case Study For Los Angeles County, California, Akhil Mandalapu, Junfeng Jiao, Amin Azimian May 2022

Exploring The Spatial Distribution Of Air Pollutants And Covid-19 Death Rate: A Case Study For Los Angeles County, California, Akhil Mandalapu, Junfeng Jiao, Amin Azimian

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

Objective

Since March 2020, COVID-19 has rapidly spread across the world with over 240 million cases and over 5 million deaths as of November 2021. It has been unclear what role air pollutants may play in exacerbating respiratory illnesses such as COVID-19 due to their interaction with the respiratory system. The association with air pollutants and COVID-19 severity has been explored at the regional and metropolitan area, however it is unclear if such an association is consistent at the neighborhood level.

Methods

Weekly death rates from COVID-19 from March 2020 to November 2021 were compared using one-sided unpaired t-tests across ...


Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold May 2022

Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Initiating Coordination Of Care For Children In State Custody Or Shelter Care, Angela Doswell May 2022

Initiating Coordination Of Care For Children In State Custody Or Shelter Care, Angela Doswell

Research Days

Problem Statement/Question: Children in the foster care system experience barriers to continuity of care, both in the primary and subspecialty outpatient settings.

Background/Project Intent (Aim Statement): To decrease average percentage of scheduled but missed specialty appointments whose initial referrals were placed in the Foundations Foster Care Clinic (FCC) from 40% to 20% over a 10- month period from March-December 2020.

Methods (include PDSA cycles): Referrals to specialty clinics were placed during an initial or follow-up visit in the Foundations Foster Care Clinic (FCC). One PDSA cycle was performed and involved notification of the patient’s case worker when ...


Infrastructure And Policies Supporting Physical Activity Habits: A Comparison Between The United States And Europe, Anisha Laddha May 2022

Infrastructure And Policies Supporting Physical Activity Habits: A Comparison Between The United States And Europe, Anisha Laddha

Honors College Theses

Most adults in the United States are not getting enough physical activity, and this is causing high rates of adverse health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the population. The rising costs of cardiovascular disease are a national problem that must be tackled from multiple perspectives. This literature review explores policies and infrastructure implemented in European countries with better health outcomes and higher physical activity levels in the population compared to the United States. The infrastructure in places such as Germany and Denmark is constructed to encourage physical activity in the form of active transportation such as walking ...


The Racial Divide: A Follow Up Study On Racial Disparity Amongst Covid-19 Survivors In An Urban Community, Christopher Millet, Emily Racoosin, Spandana Narvaneni, George Horani, Sherif Roman, Alisa Farokhian, Arslan Chaudhry, Sohail Chaudhry, Yezin Shamoon, Humberto Jimenez, Patrick Michael, Jin Suh May 2022

The Racial Divide: A Follow Up Study On Racial Disparity Amongst Covid-19 Survivors In An Urban Community, Christopher Millet, Emily Racoosin, Spandana Narvaneni, George Horani, Sherif Roman, Alisa Farokhian, Arslan Chaudhry, Sohail Chaudhry, Yezin Shamoon, Humberto Jimenez, Patrick Michael, Jin Suh

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

Background Studies have shown that COVID-19 has had a disproportionate effect on minority groups in both the clinical and social settings in America. We conducted a follow up study on patients previously diagnosed with COVID-19 one year ago in an urban community in New Jersey. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the socioeconomic impact of COVID-19 as well as assess for receptiveness towards COVID-19 vaccination amongst various ethnic groups.

Methods This was a prospective cohort study consisting of patients who had recovered from COVID-19 one year prior. The patients included in the study had a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis ...


Positive And Negative Deviant Counties: Identification Of Factors Associated With Health Outcomes, Olivia Egen May 2022

Positive And Negative Deviant Counties: Identification Of Factors Associated With Health Outcomes, Olivia Egen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rural counties in the United States vary drastically on metrics related to socioeconomic status and dominant economic industry as well as health behaviors and outcomes. This study sought to understand the underlying structural reasons why some rural counties have better or worse than expected health outcomes using a positive deviance (PD) approach. The study aimed to: 1) create an area deprivation index and divide counties into quartiles using the index; 2) identify positive, negative, and non-deviant counties using health outcome metrics; 3) analyze differences between deviance on a variety of local public health system metrics; and 4) analyze differences between ...


The Effect Of A Health Educational Program On Sleep Related Health Outcomes, Swetha Sirigineedi May 2022

The Effect Of A Health Educational Program On Sleep Related Health Outcomes, Swetha Sirigineedi

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Sleep quality has effects on both physical and mental health. Because of this, sleep hygiene is an important health goal. Participation in health programs promoting healthy behaviors has helped people reach their health goals and elicited positive behavior change. Because of this, it was of interest to determine if participation in a virtual, multi-media health education program improved health and wellbeing outcomes of Arkansans. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of a 20-week behavior and health educational program on the ability of participants to achieve their health goals and improve their health behaviors related to ...


Caregiver-Child Conversations About Sex In African American Women, Hannah King May 2022

Caregiver-Child Conversations About Sex In African American Women, Hannah King

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using grounded theory methods, this study examines the experience of African American women during their caregiver-child conversations about sex and the impacts of the conversations on their sexual attitudes. The process of these conversations begins with an unplanned topic and progresses further to identify six essential themes of these conversations: gender differences, race and religion, protective/emphasis on protection, lack of knowledge, withholding knowledge, and sex negativity/shame. African American women’s description of the process included feelings of shame and negativity towards their sexuality. Caregivers promoted positive messages about sex by having open conversations that advocated for equality between ...


Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault At The University Of Arkansas, Barrett Weidman May 2022

Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault At The University Of Arkansas, Barrett Weidman

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This work was written to fulfill two main purposes. First, to help survivors of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA) process their experience by compiling the toxicological, pharmacological, and distribution of the three most used date-rape drugs. Second, to gauge the knowledge and interest of University of Arkansas students regarding drug impairments, sexual assault education, and bystander intervention training. A survey was conducted for the latter and revealed that 91.6% of students believe the University’s existing sexual assault prevention education and bystander intervention training have room for improvement. Also, 37.1% of students who have received this education report that ...


Addressing Maternal Health Disparities With Hospital Library Services: Information-Seeking Behavior Of Maternal Health Care Providers In Resolving Clinical Questions Related To Diverse Populations, Seema Bhakta May 2022

Addressing Maternal Health Disparities With Hospital Library Services: Information-Seeking Behavior Of Maternal Health Care Providers In Resolving Clinical Questions Related To Diverse Populations, Seema Bhakta

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

No abstract provided.


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Restorative Justice Rehabilitative Services Available In Northeast Tennessee For Mothers Diagnosed With Substance Use Disorder, Claire Roberson May 2022

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Restorative Justice Rehabilitative Services Available In Northeast Tennessee For Mothers Diagnosed With Substance Use Disorder, Claire Roberson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Substance Use Disorder (SUD) has plagued families of rural Appalachia for many years, perpetuating involvement in the criminal justice system as well as generational trauma for people diagnosed with SUD and their children. This points to the necessity of a trauma-informed, restorative-justice based framework for rehabilitative services to most effectively heal families, address trauma, and re-integrate people diagnosed with SUD into society. A restorative justice-based program would provide health care services for addiction and any comorbid mental health disorders as well as teach parents how to properly provide for themselves and their families, manage finances, obtain employment, and further education ...


An Exploration Of Low-Income Dental Services In The Tri-Cities, Macie Proffitt May 2022

An Exploration Of Low-Income Dental Services In The Tri-Cities, Macie Proffitt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Dental care has great importance in the overall health of every individual. Many do not realize the effect oral health plays in their overall health and many areas in the United States do not have access to the dental care needed to obtain proper healthcare standards. In many of these areas, such as the Appalachian region, dental services for low-income citizens are limited. Specifically, in the Northeast Tennessee region, these dental services are severely limited. Washington County and Hawkins County of Northeast Tennessee are specific underserved areas in the Appalachian region. The purpose of this project was to explore the ...


The Distribution Of Opioid Settlement Funds In Northeast Tennessee, Amani Patel May 2022

The Distribution Of Opioid Settlement Funds In Northeast Tennessee, Amani Patel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Opioid Use Disorder is defined by the NIH as “the chronic use of opioids that causes

clinically significant distress or impairment.”1 Due to a number of factors, the overuse of opioids has become an epidemic in the United States. In recent years there have been a number of lawsuits against pharmaceutical companies and other parties who have benefitted from the proliferation of this issue. In most cases, it is up to the states or local governments who receive these funds to determine their best use. The purpose of this Thesis is to analyze the resources recommended by Ballad Health ...


Bullied Because Of Their Teeth: Evidence From A Longitudinal Study On The Impact Of Oral Health On Bullying Victimization Among Australian Indigenous Children, Md Irteja Islam, Verity Chadwick, Tuguy Esgin, Alexandra Martiniuk May 2022

Bullied Because Of Their Teeth: Evidence From A Longitudinal Study On The Impact Of Oral Health On Bullying Victimization Among Australian Indigenous Children, Md Irteja Islam, Verity Chadwick, Tuguy Esgin, Alexandra Martiniuk

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Making life better for Indigenous peoples is a global priority. Although bullying and oral health have always been a topic of concern, there is limited information regarding the impact of this problem on the general population, with no evidence in this regard among the Australian Indigenous population. Thus, we aimed to quantify the relationship between bullying victimization and oral health problems by remoteness among 766 Australian Indigenous children aged between 10–15-years using data from the LSIC study. Bivariate and multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression analyses were employed. Findings indicated children self-reported bullying more than parents reported their children were being ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Healthcare Competency Training Delivery Methods, Vanessa Jennings May 2022

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Healthcare Competency Training Delivery Methods, Vanessa Jennings

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

Decades of research express the need to strengthen the trust between minority groups and the healthcare system through addressing and reducing cross-cultural miscommunication. Though Central Coast VNA and Hospice is a well-established organization, the rate at which underrepresented individuals (i.e., LatinX, Asian, African American, Pacific Islander) access their services is low. Issues contributing to the low number of underrepresented individuals include language barriers, a poorly structured system, and a lack of cultural competency training among the staff. The result is an underserved population, a failure to meet the agency’s mission, and a perpetuation of systemic racism. To address ...


Parental Engagement To Influence Child Nutrition Habits, Mariah Van Ardenne May 2022

Parental Engagement To Influence Child Nutrition Habits, Mariah Van Ardenne

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

Brighter Bites Salinas is a non-profit agency whose mission is to create healthy communities through fresh food. They do this by providing nutrition education to children and delivering free, fresh produce to parents. In the United States, obesity and food insecurity are common, intertwined issues among children. The contributing factors to these entangled issues are associated with living in poverty, acculturation of minority groups, and negative parental influence. The consequences of this include increased risk of chronic diseases, high-cost treatments, and mental health issues. This capstone project was created to positively engage parents in nutrition education to influence their children ...