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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Evaluating The Importance Of Biosecurity In Swine Operations, Lindsey Lemley, Lilly Rogers, Austin Calhoun Apr 2024

Evaluating The Importance Of Biosecurity In Swine Operations, Lindsey Lemley, Lilly Rogers, Austin Calhoun

ATU Research Symposium

Swine health is critical to maintaining a profitable and productive swine operation. Biosecurity and sanitation are important practices that help maintain herd health. This study aimed to discover how biosecurity protocols and management practices differ between swine operations of different sizes. With diseases such as Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Brucellosis, and Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) being common in the swine industry, a strong biosecurity protocol protects swine farmers from financial losses associated with disease outbreaks. In 2004 alone, the estimated financial loss to PRRSV was over $761 million. Data concerning biosecurity and sanitation was collected from …


Cocoa Polyphenols Modulate The Fecal Microbiome In A Mouse Model Of Colitis, Independent Of Basal Diet And Colon Inflammation, Abby D. Benninghoff Apr 2024

Cocoa Polyphenols Modulate The Fecal Microbiome In A Mouse Model Of Colitis, Independent Of Basal Diet And Colon Inflammation, Abby D. Benninghoff

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Chronic inflammation increases the risk of developing multiple chronic diseases, including cancer. The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) specifically is increased in individuals who suffer from colitis, a characteristic of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Diet is another risk factor for developing CRC, particularly an inflammation-promoting Western-type diet. Thus, supplementing a Western diet with functional foods containing anti-inflammatory polyphenols is a potential approach to decreasing CRC risk by reducing gut inflammation and altering gut microbiome profile. This study aimed to determine the effects of cocoa polyphenol (CP) supplementation on inflammation status and microbiome profile before, during, and after colitis when …


Alterations In Serum Thiol-Disulfide Homeostasis And Ischemia-Modified Albumin Concentrations In Clinical Canine Parvoviral Enteritis, Yasi̇n Şenel, Osman Safa Terzi̇, Erdal Kara, Özcan Erel, Sali̇m Neşeli̇oğlu, Ebubeki̇r Ceylan Apr 2024

Alterations In Serum Thiol-Disulfide Homeostasis And Ischemia-Modified Albumin Concentrations In Clinical Canine Parvoviral Enteritis, Yasi̇n Şenel, Osman Safa Terzi̇, Erdal Kara, Özcan Erel, Sali̇m Neşeli̇oğlu, Ebubeki̇r Ceylan

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

Monitoring biomarkers related to inflammation and oxidative stress is critical in dogs because parvovirus causes both inflammatory and antioxidant alterations. The aim of this study was to investigate inflammatory and antioxidant changes caused by canine parvoviral enteritis to better understand the oxidative stress process related to this disease. Thus, the total thiol, native thiol, disulfide, and ischemia-modified albumin levels of Canine parvovirus infected symptomatic puppies and healthy puppies were examined. Using the results of complete blood counts, the blood serum thiol-disulfide homeostasis and ischemia modified albumin levels of the puppies with Canine parvoviral enteritis (n = 65) and the healthy …


Determining The Effects Of Different Bypass Fat Supplementation On Performance, Milk Yield, And Milk Composition Of Anatolian Buffaloes, Sezer Öz, Seher Küçükersan Apr 2024

Determining The Effects Of Different Bypass Fat Supplementation On Performance, Milk Yield, And Milk Composition Of Anatolian Buffaloes, Sezer Öz, Seher Küçükersan

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

This study aimed to explore the effects of animal bypass fat (ABF) and palm bypass fat (PBF) added to the rations of Anatolian buffaloes on dry matter consumption, feed conversion ratio, milk yield, some milk components, and parameters. A total of 21 heads of buffalo in the early lactation period; milk yield averages, lactation periods, lactation numbers, live weights, and ages were selected and divided into three experimental groups, each consisting of 7 buffaloes. The experiment was conducted according to the crossover trial pattern. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of dry matter consumption and …


Pilot Study: Effects Of Whole Body Vibrational Therapy On Equine Epaxial Muscle Soreness, Riley Leibeck Apr 2024

Pilot Study: Effects Of Whole Body Vibrational Therapy On Equine Epaxial Muscle Soreness, Riley Leibeck

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Projects

Whole body vibrational therapy (WBV) is well-studied in people, but there is a paucity of research of its effect on horses. It is suggested that WBV use in horses increases performance, aids in recovery, and stimulates nerves, bones, and muscles in ways that normal exercise does not. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if frequent WBV therapy sessions affect back soreness in horses using pressure algometry. Most sporthorses will experience back soreness in their careers, and it is regarded as one of the most common causes of poor performance in equine athletes. Five horses were measured for …


Materials And Methods Developed For The Recording And Analysis Of Behavior In The Common Marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus)., Christian Wintle Mar 2024

Materials And Methods Developed For The Recording And Analysis Of Behavior In The Common Marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus)., Christian Wintle

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Materials and methods developed for the recording and analysis of behavior in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

Christian J. Wintlea, Jordan B. Hernandeza,b,c, Dobromir Dotovd, and Jonathan B. Claytona,b,e,f,g

aDepartment of Biology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA

bNebraska Food for Health Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA

cDepartment of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, NE, USA

dDepartment of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA

eDepartment of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, …


Impact Of Equine Interaction During Psychotherapy On Anxiety And Depression For Residential Treatment Program Patients Experiencing Substance Withdrawal, Molly M. Friend, Molly C. Nicodemus, Clay Cavinder, Caleb Lemley, Pauline Prince, Katherine A. Cagle-Holtcamp, Rebecca M. Swanson Feb 2024

Impact Of Equine Interaction During Psychotherapy On Anxiety And Depression For Residential Treatment Program Patients Experiencing Substance Withdrawal, Molly M. Friend, Molly C. Nicodemus, Clay Cavinder, Caleb Lemley, Pauline Prince, Katherine A. Cagle-Holtcamp, Rebecca M. Swanson

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

As incidences of substance use disorders (SUD) increase in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a need for more effective treatment approaches. Further, treatment approaches currently available struggle to retain patients during the period of substance withdrawal in early treatment due to patients’ withdrawal symptoms including increased feelings of anxiety and depression. Withdrawal symptoms have been linked to dysregulated cortisol concentrations present in this period. Psychotherapy incorporating equine interaction (PIE) has emerged in other populations as a treatment that decreases cortisol concentrations and improves treatment retention. The present study investigated the impact of 4 weeks of PIE on …


The Effect Of Housing Environment (Deep Litter With Or Without Access To Different Plant Species Outdoor) On Welfare And Behavior Across Two Strains Of Laying Hens, Brian Tainika, Ahmet Şekeroğlu, Ahmet Akyol, Samet Hasan Abaci, Fatih Mehmet Gür Feb 2024

The Effect Of Housing Environment (Deep Litter With Or Without Access To Different Plant Species Outdoor) On Welfare And Behavior Across Two Strains Of Laying Hens, Brian Tainika, Ahmet Şekeroğlu, Ahmet Akyol, Samet Hasan Abaci, Fatih Mehmet Gür

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

The impact of housing environment and strain on welfare and behavior of laying hens was the focus of this study. Lohmann LSL Classic (W) and Lohmann Sandy (S) were assessed under deep litter without outdoor access (DL), deep litter with access to outdoor pens covered with either Mentha piperita (MP), Petroselinum crispum (PC) or Medicago sativa (MS). Duration of tonic immobility, feather condition, footpad dermatitis, and temperatures (comb, breast region, footpad surface, and rectal) were determined at 31, 42, and 52 weeks of age. Hen`s behaviors were observed at 32, 42, and 52 weeks of age. Blood parameters were assessed …


Comparison Of Milk Microbiota Between Healthy And Mastitic Cows, Sibel Kizil, Fatma Esin Aydin, Cansu Önlen Güneri̇, Ufuk Ülker, Gürol Emekdaş, İbrahim Basmaci, Serkan Erat, Rıza Durmaz, Efsun Melike Çeçen, Asya Kazan Feb 2024

Comparison Of Milk Microbiota Between Healthy And Mastitic Cows, Sibel Kizil, Fatma Esin Aydin, Cansu Önlen Güneri̇, Ufuk Ülker, Gürol Emekdaş, İbrahim Basmaci, Serkan Erat, Rıza Durmaz, Efsun Melike Çeçen, Asya Kazan

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

Mammary gland infections occur due to bacterial changes in the mammary tissue. Studies conducted in recent years have reported variations in the most common bacteria differ according to geographical locations. California mastitis test (CMT), somatic cell count (SCC), and aerobic colony count (ACC) analyses were performed on approximately 50 mL of hygienically collected raw milk samples. Raw milk was also subjected to conventional bacteriological isolation and identification. Bacterial diversity and rates in raw milk were compared through metagenome analysis. Two samples, one from healthy milk and another from subclinical milk with mastitis, were independently tested to determine whether there were …


Determination Of Some Environmental Factors On Milk Yield Traits And Milk Components In Simmental Cows, Onur Şahi̇n, Mehmet İhsan Soysal, Eser Kemal Gürcan Feb 2024

Determination Of Some Environmental Factors On Milk Yield Traits And Milk Components In Simmental Cows, Onur Şahi̇n, Mehmet İhsan Soysal, Eser Kemal Gürcan

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various environmental factors on milk yield and milk components in Simmental cows. In the present study, 33,813 milk yield records from 1631 cows and milk samples from 233 cows were used for milk component analysis. Lactation milk yield (LMY) and 305-day yield (305-DMY) were the milk yield characteristics studied. Environmental factors considered for milk yield characteristics included province, calving year, calving month, parity, age, and lactation length. Milk components analyzed were fat percentage (FP), protein percentage (PP), lactose percentage (LP), somatic cell count (Log10SCC), and dry matter (DM). Environmental …


The Effect Of Artificial Insemination Catheters Covered With Protective Sheaths On Conception Rates In Heifers, Berrak Işık Soytürk, Hüseyin Erdem Feb 2024

The Effect Of Artificial Insemination Catheters Covered With Protective Sheaths On Conception Rates In Heifers, Berrak Işık Soytürk, Hüseyin Erdem

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

Artificial insemination is a biotechnological method widely practiced in cattle, first introduced in 1912. The present study investigated the effect of pierceable plastic sheaths used during artificial insemination of Holstein heifers on conception rates. A total of 110 heifers aged 15–18 months, detected to be in estrus based on observation, were included in the study. These heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The experimental group (n = 55) underwent insemination using an insemination catheter covered with a disposable, pierceable plastic sheath on day 0. Conversely, the control group (n = 55) underwent insemination using the standard conventional technique. …


Investigation Of Molecular Detection Rate And Associated Risk Factors Of Psittacine Beak And Feather Disease Virus In Psittaciformes In Iran, Mojtaba Khosravi, Shoreh Alian Samakkhah, Rahem Khoshbakht Feb 2024

Investigation Of Molecular Detection Rate And Associated Risk Factors Of Psittacine Beak And Feather Disease Virus In Psittaciformes In Iran, Mojtaba Khosravi, Shoreh Alian Samakkhah, Rahem Khoshbakht

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

Psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV) is a significant viral pathogen affecting the development of beak and feather cells, leading to feather abnormalities in avian species. This study aimed to investigate the molecular detection rate of PBFDV among Psittaciformes in Iran and to evaluate the influence of factors such as sex, species, season, and bird origin on PBFDV prevalence. Feather samples were collected from 1335 Psittaciformes, including Agapornis roseicollis, Pyrrhura molinae, Myiopsitta monachus, Aratinga solstitialis, Nymphicus hollandicus, Psittacula krameri, Psittacus erithacus, Poicephalus senegalus, Eos bornea, and Agapornis fischeri, and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for PBFDV detection. The …


Determination Of Antibiotic Resistance In Salmonella Typhimurium And Salmonella Kentucky Serotypes Of Animal Origin Using Conventional And Molecular Methods, Zeynep Şik, Mehmet Akan Feb 2024

Determination Of Antibiotic Resistance In Salmonella Typhimurium And Salmonella Kentucky Serotypes Of Animal Origin Using Conventional And Molecular Methods, Zeynep Şik, Mehmet Akan

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

The high incidence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky isolates is a concern for human and animal health. This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance determinants of a total of 150 S. Typhimurium and S. Kentucky isolates obtained from cows, calves, lambs, and poultry. Salmonella isolates were tested against 13 different antimicrobials using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, and genotypic antimicrobial resistance determinants were investigated by polymerase chain reaction. Significant differences were detected among serovars for gentamicin, streptomycin, ampicillin, sulfonamide, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline resistance, with the rates of resistance to these antibiotics being determined to be …


Birds, Bats And Minds. Tales Of A Revolutionary Scientist: Donald R. Griffin. Volume Three, Carolyn A. Ristau Feb 2024

Birds, Bats And Minds. Tales Of A Revolutionary Scientist: Donald R. Griffin. Volume Three, Carolyn A. Ristau

eBooks

In this three-volume biography, we revisit the life and accomplishments of the revolutionary scientist, Donald R. Griffin. He encountered a lifetime of initial hostile resistance to his ideas and studies; now they are largely accepted. He and a colleague discovered the phenomenon of echolocation used by bats to navigate and capture insects, proposed that birds navigate guided by such cues as the sun and stars, and suggested that animals are likely aware, thinking and feeling beings. Forty interviews with his colleagues and friends help us understand the young emerging scientist and the mature researcher. We learn about his and others’ …


Therapeutic Potential Of Snake Venom: Toxin Distribution And Opportunities In Deep Learning For Novel Drug Discovery, Anas Bedraoui, Montamas Suntravat, Salim El Mejjad, Salwa Enezari, Naoual Oukkache, Elda E. Sanchez, Jacob Galan, Rachid El Fatimy, Tariq Daouda Feb 2024

Therapeutic Potential Of Snake Venom: Toxin Distribution And Opportunities In Deep Learning For Novel Drug Discovery, Anas Bedraoui, Montamas Suntravat, Salim El Mejjad, Salwa Enezari, Naoual Oukkache, Elda E. Sanchez, Jacob Galan, Rachid El Fatimy, Tariq Daouda

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Snake venom is a rich source of bioactive molecules that hold great promise for therapeutic applications. These molecules can be broadly classified into enzymes and non-enzymes, each showcasing unique medicinal properties. Noteworthy compounds such as Bradykinin Potentiating Peptides (BPP) and Three-Finger Toxins (3FTx) are showing therapeutic potential in areas like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and pain-relief. Meanwhile, components like snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP), L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO), and Phospholipase A2s (PLA2) are paving new ways in oncology treatments. The full medicinal scope of these toxins is still emerging. In this review, we discuss drugs derived from snake venoms that address …


Detección Molecular Del Blv En Bovinos Y Asociación Con Algunos Factores De Riesgo/Protección En Hatos De Risaralda (Colombia), Guillermo Andrés Bohórquez Toro, Juan Carlos González Corrales, Juan Carlos Rincón Flórez Jan 2024

Detección Molecular Del Blv En Bovinos Y Asociación Con Algunos Factores De Riesgo/Protección En Hatos De Risaralda (Colombia), Guillermo Andrés Bohórquez Toro, Juan Carlos González Corrales, Juan Carlos Rincón Flórez

Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

La leucosis es una enfermedad producida por un retrovirus oncogénico que pertenece a la familia Retroviridae. Si bien es conocido por su distribución mundial porque ha causado grandes pérdidas económicas, especialmente en ganadería de leche, en Risaralda (Colombia) se han reportado pocos estudios sobre la enfermedad. Es por ello que el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia del virus de la leucosis bovina y su asociación con algunos factores de riesgo/protección en hatos bovinos en este departamento colombiano. Durante el 2018, se tomaron muestras de sangre de 145 individuos de seis hatos ubicados en Risaralda. Se extrajo ADN …


Conjunctival Hemangiosarcoma In A Female Dog: Case Report, Felipe Gaia De Sousa, Suzane Lilian Beier, José Antônio Da Cruz Neto, Natália Fagundes, Isaac Scherre Lubiana, Alaine Cristina De Andrade Jan 2024

Conjunctival Hemangiosarcoma In A Female Dog: Case Report, Felipe Gaia De Sousa, Suzane Lilian Beier, José Antônio Da Cruz Neto, Natália Fagundes, Isaac Scherre Lubiana, Alaine Cristina De Andrade

Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

Los hemangiosarcomas son tumores de origen mesenquimatoso, potencialmente deletéreos, asociados a áreas de alta vascularización. La progresión y el crecimiento del tumor están asociados con la capacidad de estos tumores para retener sangre y dar lugar a vasos sanguíneos tortuosos. Estos tumores tienen una gran capacidad metastásica, presentándose a menudo en órganos como el bazo, el hígado y la arteria aorta. Sin embargo, otros sitios pueden verse afectados, aunque con menor frecuencia, como el tercer párpado, la conjuntiva y las regiones cutáneas. El objetivo de este artículo es reportar el caso de una perra de 8 años de edad con …


Primeira Descrição De Dirofilariose Canina Alóctone Em Rio Branco, Acre: Relato De Caso, Leticia Gomes Zanfagnini, Gleice Kelly Carvalho Bento, Patricia Fernandes Nunes Da Silva Malavazi, Soraia Figueiredo Souza, Acácio Duarte Pacheco Jan 2024

Primeira Descrição De Dirofilariose Canina Alóctone Em Rio Branco, Acre: Relato De Caso, Leticia Gomes Zanfagnini, Gleice Kelly Carvalho Bento, Patricia Fernandes Nunes Da Silva Malavazi, Soraia Figueiredo Souza, Acácio Duarte Pacheco

Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

No abstract provided.


Growing South Dakota (Winter 2024), Michelle Cartney Jan 2024

Growing South Dakota (Winter 2024), Michelle Cartney

Growing South Dakota (Publication of the College of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences)

[Page] 3 Continuing a Leadership Journey
[Page] 5 CAFES Leadership Team Grows
[Page] 7 Award-Winning Faculty & Staff
[Page] 9 New Endowment Holders Recognized
[Page] 10 Inaugural Precision Livestock Field School Offered at SDSU Cottonwood Field Station
[Page] 11 SDSU Celebrates Professional Program in Veterinary Medicine Students [Page] 13 Clay Carlson, SDSU Meat Science Graduate Student Approaches School and Life with Winning Mindset
[Page] 15 SDSU Alumni has been selected as the Head Coach of the South Dakota State University Livestock Judging Team
[Page] 16 Livestock Units Promote Hands-On Learning & Premier Research
[Page] 20 SDSU leads NSF-backed fertilizer development …


The Stereological And Morphometrical Investigation Of Pars Lumbalis Of The Spinal Cord Innew Zealand Rabbit, Berna Duman, İftar Gürbüz Jan 2024

The Stereological And Morphometrical Investigation Of Pars Lumbalis Of The Spinal Cord Innew Zealand Rabbit, Berna Duman, İftar Gürbüz

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

In the study, 12 (6 females, 6 males) healthy adult New Zealand rabbits were used to examine the morphometrical andstereological values. White matter, gray matter and total segment volume of the segments in the pars lumbalis were calculated byCavalieri’s principle. The findings were grouped according to sexand statistically evaluated. As a result, 38% of the length of the spinalcord in rabbits belonged to the pars lumbalis. The morphometric parameters were not statistically different between male and femalerabbits (p > 0.05). The segment with the biggest volume was L5. White matter’s greatest volume was the L4 segment. The volume of graymatter was …


Identification Of Dermatophytes And Comparative Efficacy Of Topical Antifungals Fortreating Canine Dermatophytosis, Arun Prakash Vadakkoot, Rathish Ramachandran Latha, Neeraja Eramthottil, Lijo John, Bipin Kuriyedath Chitharalil, Deepa Padinjare Meleppat Jan 2024

Identification Of Dermatophytes And Comparative Efficacy Of Topical Antifungals Fortreating Canine Dermatophytosis, Arun Prakash Vadakkoot, Rathish Ramachandran Latha, Neeraja Eramthottil, Lijo John, Bipin Kuriyedath Chitharalil, Deepa Padinjare Meleppat

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

Dermatophytosis is a potentially zoonotic superficial skin infection caused by keratinophilic fungi. Identification ofdermatophytes aids in understanding the epidemiology of infections and finding out better treatment modalities. The study aimed toidentify dermatophytes in dogs and compare the effectiveness of three different topical drugs for treating dermatophytosis. Molecularidentification of dermatophyte isolates obtained on culturing was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ampliconobtained by polymerase chain reaction of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the recombinant DNA. Thirty of the positivecases were divided into three groups, Group I was treated with shampoo containing 2% each of miconazole chlorhexidine, Group …


Site-Specific Space Use And Resource Selection By Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus) In The Southeastern Usa, Betsy Evans, John S. Humphrey, Eric A. Tillman, Michael L. Avery, Bryan M. Kluever Jan 2024

Site-Specific Space Use And Resource Selection By Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus) In The Southeastern Usa, Betsy Evans, John S. Humphrey, Eric A. Tillman, Michael L. Avery, Bryan M. Kluever

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

North American populations of Black Vultures Coragyps atratus have increased and expanded their distribution in the southern and eastern USA. In conjunction with these patterns has been a rise in human–vulture conflicts. To improve our understanding of space use patterns and better inform management, we evaluated the movements of Black Vultures (n = 23) in the southeastern USA using a long-term GPS tracking database. Our specific objectives were to: (1) quantify home-range sizes in relation to season and geographical study location and (2) examine within-home-range resource selection to identify landscape and anthropogenic factors influencing roost and diurnal space use. …


Treatment With The Immunocontraceptive Vaccine, Gonacon, Induces Temporary Fertility Control In Free-Ranging Prairie Dog Populations In Colorado, Usa, Aaron B. Shiels, Jackson Runte, Emily W. Ruell, Douglas C. Eckery, Gary W. Witmer, Daniel J. Salkeld Jan 2024

Treatment With The Immunocontraceptive Vaccine, Gonacon, Induces Temporary Fertility Control In Free-Ranging Prairie Dog Populations In Colorado, Usa, Aaron B. Shiels, Jackson Runte, Emily W. Ruell, Douglas C. Eckery, Gary W. Witmer, Daniel J. Salkeld

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Context

Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are rodents enjoyed by some humans; yet, they cause crop and property damage, and carry zoonotic disease. Non-lethal control of prairie dogs is of interest in urban/suburban settings. The injectable immunocontraceptive vaccine GonaCon (active ingredient is gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]) has been shown to be effective at reducing fertility in equine and deer, and is a US EPA-registered vaccine for use in these ungulate species.

Aims

To conduct a replicated field study to test efficacy of GonaCon in black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus), and if found to be efficacious, to help facilitate …


Comparison Of Ketamine-Xylazine, Butorphanol-Azaperone-Medetomidine, And Nalbuphine-Medetomidine-Azaperone For Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Immobilization, Shylo R. Johnson, Christine K. Ellis, Chad Wickham, Molly R. Selleck, Amy T. Gilbert Jan 2024

Comparison Of Ketamine-Xylazine, Butorphanol-Azaperone-Medetomidine, And Nalbuphine-Medetomidine-Azaperone For Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Immobilization, Shylo R. Johnson, Christine K. Ellis, Chad Wickham, Molly R. Selleck, Amy T. Gilbert

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are frequently handled using chemical immobilization in North America for management and research. In a controlled environment, we compared three drug combinations: ketamine-xylazine (KX), butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine (BAM), and nalbuphinemedetomidine- azaperone (NalMed-A) for raccoon immobilization. In crossover comparisons, raccoons received a mean of the following: 8.66 mg/kg ketamine and 1.74 mg/kg xylazine (0.104 mL/kg KX); 0.464 mg/kg butorphanol, 0.155 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.185 mg/kg medetomidine (0.017 mL/kg BAM); and 0.800 mg/kg nalbuphine, 0.200 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.200 mg/kg medetomidine (0.020 mL/kg NalMed-A). Induction time was shortest with KX (mean6SE, 10.060.7 min) and longest with NalMed-A (13.061.3 min). …


Oral Rabies Vaccination Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) Across A Development Intensity Gradient In Burlington, Vermont, Usa, 2015–2017, Emily M. Beasley, Kathleen M. Nelson, Dennis Slate, Amy T. Gilbert, Frederick E. Pogmore, Richard B. Chipman, Amy J. Davis Jan 2024

Oral Rabies Vaccination Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) Across A Development Intensity Gradient In Burlington, Vermont, Usa, 2015–2017, Emily M. Beasley, Kathleen M. Nelson, Dennis Slate, Amy T. Gilbert, Frederick E. Pogmore, Richard B. Chipman, Amy J. Davis

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Management of the raccoon rabies virus variant in North America is conducted primarily using oral rabies vaccination (ORV). When a sufficient proportion of the population is vaccinated (60%), rabies transmission can be eliminated. To date, ORV programs have successfully controlled and eliminated raccoon rabies in rural areas, but there has been less success in urban areas. We studied the proportions of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in a raccoon (Procyon lotor) population during a 3-year ORV trial in developed areas of Burlington, Vermont, United States. We used a modified N-mixture model to estimate raccoon abundance, RVNA seroprevalence, and …


Recent Beak Evolution In North American Starlings After Invasion, Julia M. Zichello, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Paul Shrewsbury, Agnieszka A. Pierwola, Scott J. Werner Jan 2024

Recent Beak Evolution In North American Starlings After Invasion, Julia M. Zichello, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Paul Shrewsbury, Agnieszka A. Pierwola, Scott J. Werner

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

European starlings are one of the most abundant and problematic avian invaders in the world. From their native range across Eurasia and North Africa, they have been introduced to every continent except Antarctica. In 160 years, starlings have expanded into different environments throughout the world, making them a powerful model for understanding rapid evolutionary change and adaptive plasticity. Here, we investigate their spatiotemporal morphological variation in North America and the native range. Our dataset includes 1,217 specimens; a combination of historical museum skins and modern birds. Beak length in the native range has remained unchanged during the past 206 years, …


Assessing The Efficiency Of Local Rabies Vaccination Strategies For Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) In An Urban Setting, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Nicole T. Gorman, Katherine M. Mcclure, Larissa Nituch, Tore Buchanan, Richard B. Chipman, Amy T. Gilbert, Kim M. Pepin Jan 2024

Assessing The Efficiency Of Local Rabies Vaccination Strategies For Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) In An Urban Setting, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Nicole T. Gorman, Katherine M. Mcclure, Larissa Nituch, Tore Buchanan, Richard B. Chipman, Amy T. Gilbert, Kim M. Pepin

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Raccoon rabies virus (RRV) has been managed using multiple vaccination strategies, including oral rabies vaccination and trap-vaccinate-release (TVR). Identifying a rabies vaccination strategy for an area is a nontrivial task. Vaccination strategies differ in the amount of effort and monetary costs required to achieve a particular level of vaccine seroprevalence (efficiency). Simulating host movement relative to different vaccination strategies in silico can provide a useful tool for exploring the efficiency of different vaccination strategies. We refined a previously developed individual-based model of raccoon movement to evaluate vaccination strategies for urban Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. We combined different oral rabies vaccination baiting …


Limitations Of Invasive Snake Control Tools In The Context Of A New Invasion On An Island With Abundant Prey, Shane R. Siers, Melia G. Nafus, Jereid E. Calaor, Rachel M. Volsteadt, Matthew S. Grassi, Megan Volsteadt, Aaron F. Collins, Patrick D. Barnhart, Logan T. Huse, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Diane L. Vice Jan 2024

Limitations Of Invasive Snake Control Tools In The Context Of A New Invasion On An Island With Abundant Prey, Shane R. Siers, Melia G. Nafus, Jereid E. Calaor, Rachel M. Volsteadt, Matthew S. Grassi, Megan Volsteadt, Aaron F. Collins, Patrick D. Barnhart, Logan T. Huse, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Diane L. Vice

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

In October 2020, a new population of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) was discovered on the 33-ha Cocos Island, 2.5 km off the south coast of Guam, United States. Cocos Island is a unique conservation resource, providing refuge for many lizards and birds, including endangered species, which were extirpated from mainland Guam by invasive predators including brown treesnakes. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of toxic baiting with acetaminophen-treated carrion baits and cage trapping, common tools for the control of brown treesnakes on mainland Guam, as potential eradication tools on Cocos Island. We evaluated multiple bait types and …


Molecular Characterization Of Fecundity-Related Gene Regions In Some Of Türkiye’S Native Sheep Breeds, Ramazan Aymaz, Fulya Özdi̇l, Yalçın Yaman Jan 2024

Molecular Characterization Of Fecundity-Related Gene Regions In Some Of Türkiye’S Native Sheep Breeds, Ramazan Aymaz, Fulya Özdi̇l, Yalçın Yaman

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

In this study, the BMP15 and GDF9 gene regions were examined through DNA sequencing in some native sheep breeds of Türkiye (Kıvırcık, Karacabey Merino, Chios, Gökçeada, Çine Çaparı, Awassi, and Karakacan). In the BMP15 exon 2 region, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: one synonymous SNP, P248P (proline/proline), and one nonsynonymous SNP, L251P (leucine/proline), resulting in a missense mutation. In the GDF9 exon 1 region, only a nonsynonymous SNP, R87H (histidine/ arginine), was found. In the GDF9 exon 2 region, four SNPs were identified: two nonsynonymous SNPs, E241K (glutamate/lysine) and V332I (valine/isoleucine), and two synonymous SNPs, L159L (leucine/leucine) and …


Behavioral Activity Budget Of Grower Beetal Kids Offered Total Mixed Ration Under Stall-Fed System, Priya Dhattarwal, Mandeep Singla, Sandeep Kaswan, Ravinder Singh Grewal, Neeraj Kashyap, Dalpat Singh Malik Jan 2024

Behavioral Activity Budget Of Grower Beetal Kids Offered Total Mixed Ration Under Stall-Fed System, Priya Dhattarwal, Mandeep Singla, Sandeep Kaswan, Ravinder Singh Grewal, Neeraj Kashyap, Dalpat Singh Malik

Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

This study investigates the behavioral activities of grower Beetal kids fed in a conventional method-control group manner orgiven total mixed ration (TMR) (i.e. hay-based - T1 and green fodder-based - T2). Twenty-four weaned Beetal kids were enrolled andrandomly distributed into 3 groups based on their body weight, sex, and age. Behavioral observations were recorded 30 min after givingexperimental ration to the kids using the scan sampling method for 1 h, which inferred time spent eating normally, eating with forelegson the cage, and eating with forelegs on the feeders; standing idle and urination were significantly higher in the control group than …