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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Of Urbanization On The Avian Gut Microbiome, Mae Berlow May 2021

The Effects Of Urbanization On The Avian Gut Microbiome, Mae Berlow

Doctoral Dissertations

The gut microbiome influences and is influenced by the host, and can affect the host organism by contributing to health, development and immunity. Similarly, the host can influence this community; it’s makeup can vary with host species, locality, diet, social stressors, and environmental stressors. Some of these environmental stressors have arisen due to human-induced rapid environmental change, like urbanization. The physiology and behaviors of organisms that are able to persist in urban environments are often different from their non-urban congeners. Nutrition, development, and immunity—all of which are affected by the gut microbiome—are important factors that can determine ...


Improving Understanding Of Forest Communities And Biodiversity With Multi-Dimensional Landscape Gradients, Ben J. Padilla Dec 2020

Improving Understanding Of Forest Communities And Biodiversity With Multi-Dimensional Landscape Gradients, Ben J. Padilla

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation was motivated by a desire to understand the effects of habitat degradation and urbanization on a single species in a single study system in western Massachusetts, the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), but along the way unexpected conceptual and methodological hurdles caused the work to grow into a multi-species, multi-region, and multi-scale endeavor. As I designed my dissertation research and began considering approaches to quantifying heterogeneity and human influence in my study landscape, I recognized inconsistencies in methods used to define and quantify landscape metrics, particularly in urban systems. To investigate further, I conducted a critical review of the ...


Urbanization And Population Growth: Projected Impacts Of Growth On Ecological Resources In Ontario1, Laura J. Bozzelli Dec 2019

Urbanization And Population Growth: Projected Impacts Of Growth On Ecological Resources In Ontario1, Laura J. Bozzelli

International ResearchScape Journal

No abstract provided.


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum May 2018

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum

Celebration of Learning

Urban expansion has had devastating impacts on forest ecosystems, especially within the past century. Human attempts to dominate nature have diminished natural disturbance regimes, which have maintained the biodiversity and historic composition of these ecosystems. Fires have been a prominent force in maintaining the structure of oak, hickory and other heliophytic (sun loving and fire-adapted) forest systems. Human induced fire suppression has led to mesophication across North America. Mesophication is the transition from drier conditions with open canopies to wetter conditions with closed canopies. These new conditions decrease the survival rates of these important species and begin to favor mesophytic ...


A New Adaptive Landscape: Urbanization As A Strong Evolutionary Force, Lauren Christie Breza Dec 2015

A New Adaptive Landscape: Urbanization As A Strong Evolutionary Force, Lauren Christie Breza

Masters Theses

Urbanization is rapidly increasing as human population growth steadily grows, but there is little consensus of the ecological consequence of this population shift and almost no information of the evolutionary consequences for local biodiversity. Nearly two-thirds of the world’s population will live in city centers by 2050 with profound impacts on landscapes that can act as important agents of selection. This study aims to identify 1) the net effect of urbanization on species richness, 2) how phylogenetic diversity varies between urban and rural sites, and 3) the strength of urbanization as a selection pressure. First, a meta-analysis was conducted ...