Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Urbanization

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 125

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Immunological Tradeoffs And The Impacts Of Urbanization On The Reproductive Ecology And Physiology Of The Side-Blotched Lizard (Uta Stansburiana), Emily E. Virgin Dec 2022

Immunological Tradeoffs And The Impacts Of Urbanization On The Reproductive Ecology And Physiology Of The Side-Blotched Lizard (Uta Stansburiana), Emily E. Virgin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Investing resources into reproduction can limit energy available to other competing demands, such as fighting off an infection; yet, both processes are necessary for organisms to survive and pass on their genes to the next generation. These strategies often follow patterns associated with lifespan, such that shorter-lived animals are more likely to invest more resources into reproduction over survival, and vice versa in long-lived animals. However, environmental change caused by urbanization can disrupt these relationships, and the within- and transgenerational costs of urbanization on females and offspring are unknown. I address these uncertainties in three research chapters to better understand …


The Role Of Women In Migration And Urbanization-Culinary Culture Interaction, Gozde Yilmaz, Selda Uca, Emrah Ozkul Oct 2022

The Role Of Women In Migration And Urbanization-Culinary Culture Interaction, Gozde Yilmaz, Selda Uca, Emrah Ozkul

University of South Florida (USF) M3 Publishing

The kitchen is one of the most important components reflecting the culture of a society. Individuals and communities have first fronted to getting know culinary cultures in order to adapt to new places of life due to migration. Women have been seen as an important factor in ensuring the interaction and continuity of culinary cultures. In this study, how can women have a role on culinary culture in the interaction of migration and urbanization- culinary culture based on the question of migration and culture in this context, it is aimed to evaluate the research conducted on culinary culture and women …


Analysis Of Urbanization And Climate Change Effects On Community Resilience In The Rio Grande Valley, South Texas, George Atisa, Alexis Racelis Jul 2022

Analysis Of Urbanization And Climate Change Effects On Community Resilience In The Rio Grande Valley, South Texas, George Atisa, Alexis Racelis

School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Disruptive development events have tested and will continue to test community resilience as people work to balance healthy living, economic growth, and environmental quality. Aspects of urbanization, if not designed and guided by healthy living strategies, convert natural areas into built environments, thus reducing the diversity of plant and animal species that are the foundation of resilience in communities. In this study, we attempted to answer the following question: What are the most effective ways to ensure that ongoing urbanization and climate change do not negatively affect ecological services and community resilience in the Rio Grande Valley (RGV)? The region …


Loggerhead Shrike Detectability And Occurrence In Coastal South Carolina Urban Areas, Michelle Krauser May 2022

Loggerhead Shrike Detectability And Occurrence In Coastal South Carolina Urban Areas, Michelle Krauser

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Grassland birds, such as the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), are threatened by extensive land-use change, including urbanization. Loggerhead shrikes have been declining since the early 1900s and are rare or extirpated in portions of their former range. Obtaining reliable population estimates of loggerhead shrikes is important to identify demographic trends and ensure conservation decisions are based on an accurate assessment of their current status. Imperfect detection, or the inability to detect every shrike during a survey, can result in biased population estimates. Estimating detection probability is labor-intensive and requires assumptions that are difficult to satisfy in most field studies. Understanding …


Density Dependent Refueling Of Migratory Songbirds During Stopover Within An Urbanizing Coastal Landscape, Emily B. Cohen, Jill M. Lafleur, Frank R. Moore Mar 2022

Density Dependent Refueling Of Migratory Songbirds During Stopover Within An Urbanizing Coastal Landscape, Emily B. Cohen, Jill M. Lafleur, Frank R. Moore

Faculty Publications

Refueling performance is the primary currency of a successful migration as birds must maintain energy stores to achieve an optimal travel schedule. Migrating birds can anticipate heightened energy demand, not to mention increased uncertainty that energy demands will be satisfied, especially within an urbanizing landscape following long-distance flights. We tested the expectation that refueling performance of songbirds is reduced as densities increase at stopover sites in an urbanizing coastline of the Gulf of Mexico. We measured the density of migrating birds, their refueling performance, and arthropod abundance in two large tracts of contiguous forest paired with two small isolated patches …


Stress And The City: The Impacts Of City Living And Urbanization On Mental Health, Natalie Akins Jan 2022

Stress And The City: The Impacts Of City Living And Urbanization On Mental Health, Natalie Akins

Scripps Senior Theses

Urbanization is causing a demographic and cultural shift to the landscape of cities across the globe. Although urban living can be advantageous for both individual and societal growth, it can negatively affect mental health and wellbeing. Individuals living in urban environments have an increased risk for mental disorders like depression and schizophrenia. Certain challenges common in urban environments and associated with increased stress, may be causing the increase with mental illness. Chronic stress and the subsequent hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sustained synthesis of glucocorticoids is detrimental to metabolic, endocrine, and immunologic processes. The overexposure to glucocorticoids can lead …


Light Pollution Levels On Beaches: How Window Tinting Effects Disorientation Of Sea Turtles On Hilton Head Island, Kathryn (Kate) Hettiger Dec 2021

Light Pollution Levels On Beaches: How Window Tinting Effects Disorientation Of Sea Turtles On Hilton Head Island, Kathryn (Kate) Hettiger

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Loggerhead sea turtles, an endangered species, are decreasing at alarming rates worldwide. Artificial light from beachfront hotels on Hilton Head Island are causing disorientation in Loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings affecting their ability to successfully find the ocean. To mitigate this, exterior windows facing the ocean will be tinted using either tinting spray, which will be implemented at the Marriott Grande Ocean, or using tinting film, which will be implemented at the Marriott Westin. During the typical nesting and hatching season (May-October), sea turtle hatchling tracks will be recorded using drones to compare the effects of various levels of light pollution …


Impact Of Urbanization Trends On Production Of Key Staple Crops, José F. Andrade, Kenneth G. Cassman, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, Fahmuddin Agus, Abdullahi Bala, Nanyan Deng, Patricio Grassini Nov 2021

Impact Of Urbanization Trends On Production Of Key Staple Crops, José F. Andrade, Kenneth G. Cassman, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, Fahmuddin Agus, Abdullahi Bala, Nanyan Deng, Patricio Grassini

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Urbanization has appropriated millions of hectares of cropland, and this trend will persist as cities continue to expand. We estimate the impact of this conversion as the amount of land needed elsewhere to give the same yield potential as determined by differences in climate and soil properties. Robust spatial upscaling techniques, well-validated crop simulation models, and soil, climate, and cropping system databases are employed with a focus on populous countries with high rates of land conversion. We find that converted cropland is 30–40% more productive than new cropland, which means that projection of food production potential must account for expected …


Urban Bat Pups Take After Their Mothers And Are Bolder And Faster Learners Than Rural Pups., Lee Harten, Nesim Gonceer, Michal Handel, Orit Dash, H. Bobby Fokidis, Yossi Yovel Sep 2021

Urban Bat Pups Take After Their Mothers And Are Bolder And Faster Learners Than Rural Pups., Lee Harten, Nesim Gonceer, Michal Handel, Orit Dash, H. Bobby Fokidis, Yossi Yovel

Faculty Publications

Background: Urbanization is rapidly changing our planet and animals that live in urban environments must quickly adjust their behavior. One of the most prevalent behavioral characteristics of urban dwelling animals is an increased level of risk-taking. Here, we aimed to reveal how urban fruitbats become risk-takers, and how they differ behaviorally from rural bats, studying both genetic and non-genetic factors that might play a role in the process. We assessed the personality of newborn pups from both rural and urban colonies before they acquired experience outdoors, examining risk-taking, exploration, and learning rates.

Results: Urban pups exhibited significantly higher risk-taking levels, …


Diminishing Opportunities For Sustainability Of Coastal Cities In The Anthropocene: A Review, John W. Day, Joel D. Gunn, Joseph Robert Burger Aug 2021

Diminishing Opportunities For Sustainability Of Coastal Cities In The Anthropocene: A Review, John W. Day, Joel D. Gunn, Joseph Robert Burger

Biology Faculty Publications

The world is urbanizing most rapidly in tropical to sub-temperate areas and in coastal zones. Climate change along with other global change forcings will diminish the opportunities for sustainability of cities, especially in coastal areas in low-income countries. Climate forcings include global temperature and heatwave increases that are expanding the equatorial tropical belt, sea-level rise, an increase in the frequency of the most intense tropical cyclones, both increases and decreases in freshwater inputs to coastal zones, and increasingly severe extreme precipitation events, droughts, freshwater shortages, heat waves, and wildfires. Current climate impacts are already strongly influencing natural and human systems. …


A Living City: Food Accessibility And Urban Growth In New York City, Kat Coleman May 2021

A Living City: Food Accessibility And Urban Growth In New York City, Kat Coleman

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper examines the way in which food equity and localization initiatives, specifically in New York City, are a vital response to urban growth and sustainable food demand. Improvements to the current food system in the form of changing the way food is produced, procured, stored, transported, and distributed improves nutrition and contributes to urban sustainability. Chapter 1 provides data on urban environmental justice issues related to food equity, drawing on research from the United Nations and food justice organizations in New York City. Chapter 2 explores the ethical issues surrounding food access and food justice in an increasingly urban …


State Of The Salish Sea: Executive Summary, Kathryn L. Sobocinski May 2021

State Of The Salish Sea: Executive Summary, Kathryn L. Sobocinski

Institute Publications

This report synthesizes information on past, current, and emerging stressors within the Salish Sea estuarine ecosystem. The Salish Sea is a complex waterbody shared by Coast Salish Tribes and First Nations, Canada, and the United States. It is defined by multiple freshwater inputs and marine water from the Pacific Ocean that mix in two primary basins, Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia. Human impacts are multifaceted and extensive within the Salish Sea, with a regional population of almost 9 million people. Population growth has driven urbanization and development, which in turn has triggered structural changes to the landscape and …


Vignette 11: Ecological Consequences Of Built Shorelines In The Salish Sea, Stuart H. Munsch May 2021

Vignette 11: Ecological Consequences Of Built Shorelines In The Salish Sea, Stuart H. Munsch

Institute Publications

The world's population is disproportionately located near water. As a result, many nearshore ecosystems are highly modified. This is the case in the Salish Sea where many species rely on shoreline habitats. One of the major modifications to the Salish Sea's shoreline is armoring. Armored shorelines sever the connection between land and sea, preventing mutual exchange of nutrients and energy, influencing fish composition, and affecting photosynthetic species through overwater structures. By appreciating habitat impacts and how to mitigate them, we may steer toward a future that enables people and nearshore ecosystems to coexist. Restoring shorelines by removing armoring can recover …


Vignette 20: Fraser River Estuary In Need Of Urgent Intensive Care, Laura Kehoe, Tara G. Martin May 2021

Vignette 20: Fraser River Estuary In Need Of Urgent Intensive Care, Laura Kehoe, Tara G. Martin

Institute Publications

The Fraser River is the lifeline of the Salish Sea, influencing its stratification, circulation, and primary productivity. If we do not take strong action to conserve the Fraser River estuary, two-thirds of the species at risk in this region are predicted to have a less than 50% chance of survival. Many of the region's most iconic species could disappear. Conservation action combined with environmental governance is a pathway for a brighter future for the Fraser River and other highly contested regions.


Section 4: Climate Change: A Global Problem With Local Impacts, Kathryn L. Sobocinski May 2021

Section 4: Climate Change: A Global Problem With Local Impacts, Kathryn L. Sobocinski

Institute Publications

Section 4 shifts from the local impacts of urbanization to the locally realized impacts of global climate change, including ocean acidification and sea level rise, followed by evidence of climate change in the ecosystem, ranging from phytoplankton and kelp, to wetlands, salmon, and marine birds.


Section 5: Cumulative Ecosystem Effects, Kathryn L. Sobocinski, Jennifer Boldt, Todd Sandell, Jaclyn Cleary, Michael Schmidt, Isobel Pearsall, Iris Kemp, Brian Riddell, Lynda V. Mapes May 2021

Section 5: Cumulative Ecosystem Effects, Kathryn L. Sobocinski, Jennifer Boldt, Todd Sandell, Jaclyn Cleary, Michael Schmidt, Isobel Pearsall, Iris Kemp, Brian Riddell, Lynda V. Mapes

Institute Publications

Section 5 introduces cumulative effects and brings in brief case discussions focused on herring, salmon, and orcas. Understanding the layers of stressors the ecosystem faces is integral to gaining a full picture of declines in ecosystem function.


Section 6: Opportunities For Improving Assessment And Understanding Of The Salish Sea, Kathryn L. Sobocinski May 2021

Section 6: Opportunities For Improving Assessment And Understanding Of The Salish Sea, Kathryn L. Sobocinski

Institute Publications

Section 6 offers a list of science-based needs and opportunities brought to light by the report and various existing efforts within the Salish Sea science community, representing opportunities for greater collaboration across geographic and jurisdictional boundaries.


Section 3: Urbanization And Human Impacts To The Seascape, Kathryn L. Sobocinski May 2021

Section 3: Urbanization And Human Impacts To The Seascape, Kathryn L. Sobocinski

Institute Publications

Section 3 turns to an in-depth discussion of stressors and impacts to the ecosystem from population growth and urbanization, such as increases in impervious surfaces, hardening of shorelines, and the problems caused by a myriad of marine contaminants.


Vignette 06: Living Shorelines In Puget Sound, Jason Toft May 2021

Vignette 06: Living Shorelines In Puget Sound, Jason Toft

Institute Publications

Nearly one third of Puget Sound’s shorelines are armored (e.g., seawall, bulkhead, riprap). Armoring has documented negative impacts on the flora and fauna that benefit from healthy intertidal beaches. Although shoreline armor may be necessary in some cases to protect people and property, there are often promising “living shoreline” options to restore natural features, also referred to as soft or green shorelines. These options can be applied to situations where complete restoration is either impractical or not feasible given human constraints. Living shoreline techniques often include a mix of design options, including armor removal, sediment nourishment of beaches, log placement, …


Section 7: The Future Of The Salish Sea? A Call To Action, Ginny Broadhurst, Natalie Baloy, Kathryn L. Sobocinski May 2021

Section 7: The Future Of The Salish Sea? A Call To Action, Ginny Broadhurst, Natalie Baloy, Kathryn L. Sobocinski

Institute Publications

Section 7 provides perspective from the Salish Sea Institute, acknowledging that science alone will not resolve continuing problems or emerging issues. Stronger policies along with education, leadership, and collaboration are needed.


Section 1: Introduction, Kathryn L. Sobocinski May 2021

Section 1: Introduction, Kathryn L. Sobocinski

Institute Publications

Section 1 is an introduction to the report and the Salish Sea as a whole. The introduction provides an overview of the Salish Sea, the concept of "ecosystem health," and a roadmap to the rest of the report.


Vignette 07: Stormwater Effluent Exerts A Key Pressure On The Salish Sea, Emily Howe May 2021

Vignette 07: Stormwater Effluent Exerts A Key Pressure On The Salish Sea, Emily Howe

Institute Publications

One of the primary terrestrial pressures on the Salish Sea estuarine and marine environment is urban stormwater runoff. When rainfall runs across hard, impervious surfaces, rather than soaking into the soil, it picks up and delivers toxic contaminants directly to nearby streams, rivers, and eventually the Salish Sea. In fact, for most toxic substances, surface runoff is the largest contributing source of loading to Puget Sound. Unfortunately, the Salish Sea’s relationship with stormwater effluent is no outlier; stormwater is the fastest growing cause of surface water impairment in the United States as urbanization transitions forested and other natural landscapes to …


The State Of The Salish Sea, Kathryn L. Sobocinski May 2021

The State Of The Salish Sea, Kathryn L. Sobocinski

Institute Publications

This report synthesizes information on past, current, and emerging stressors within the Salish Sea estuarine ecosystem. The Salish Sea is a complex waterbody shared by Coast Salish Tribes and First Nations, Canada, and the United States. It is defined by multiple freshwater inputs and marine water from the Pacific Ocean that mix in two primary basins, Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia. Human impacts are multifaceted and extensive within the Salish Sea, with a regional population of almost 9 million people. Population growth has driven urbanization and development, which in turn has triggered structural changes to the landscape and …


Vignette 08: Connection To Place: Indigenous Leadership In Səlilwət (Burrard Inlet), Tsleil-Waututh Nation’S Treaty Lands And Resources Department May 2021

Vignette 08: Connection To Place: Indigenous Leadership In Səlilwət (Burrard Inlet), Tsleil-Waututh Nation’S Treaty Lands And Resources Department

Institute Publications

Since time out of mind, Tsleil-Waututh have used and occupied Burrard Inlet and surrounding watersheds. Generations of Tsleil-Waututh people were brought up with the teaching, “When the tide went out, the table was set.” About 90% of our diet was once derived from Burrard Inlet and the Fraser River, but today the Inlet is unable to support our needs. Cumulative effects of colonial settlement and development have eroded the ecological health, integrity, and diversity of the Inlet. Tsleil-Waututh Nation (TWN) has a goal to restore the health of the Inlet so that we, and future generations of Tsleil-Waututh People, can …


Section 2: Context, Kathryn L. Sobocinski May 2021

Section 2: Context, Kathryn L. Sobocinski

Institute Publications

Section 2 sets a foundation for understanding the Salish Sea ecosystem by describing its fundamental biophysical processes and structure, including estuarine circulation, ecological productivity, and an overview of several important biogenic habitats.


Vignette 18: Bellingham Bay, Legacy Contamination Under Repair, Olivia Klein May 2021

Vignette 18: Bellingham Bay, Legacy Contamination Under Repair, Olivia Klein

Institute Publications

Bellingham Bay, home to twelve designated hazardous waste cleanup sites, illustrates the harm of past practices as well as the effectiveness of cleanup efforts. Since 2000, the Bellingham Bay cleanup has focused on the removal of contaminated sediment and soils introduced from a wide variety of sources, including construction and other industrial and municipal activities. Bellingham Bay cleanup is managed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (under the authority of Washington State’s Model Toxic Control Act) in coordination with a multi- agency Bellingham Bay Action Team.


The Effects Of Urbanization On Insect Morphology: A Meta-Analysis, Evann L. Bailey May 2021

The Effects Of Urbanization On Insect Morphology: A Meta-Analysis, Evann L. Bailey

Honors Theses

Urbanization has been shown to create a rapid change in the environment as you move from rural areas to urban areas. It can create a multitude of effects on the environment. Some examples include, land disturbance, pollution, increasing temperatures and a disturbance in vegetation and biodiversity. Insects are useful organisms that provide maintenance and upkeep for ecosystem functioning. The rapid development of urbanization and how it is changing the environment may impact insect morphology. Measuring morphological change in organisms have been used successfully as indicators of environmental and ecological disturbance. Changes that take place in an insect’s morphology may indicate …


The Effects Of Urbanization On The Avian Gut Microbiome, Mae Berlow May 2021

The Effects Of Urbanization On The Avian Gut Microbiome, Mae Berlow

Doctoral Dissertations

The gut microbiome influences and is influenced by the host, and can affect the host organism by contributing to health, development and immunity. Similarly, the host can influence this community; it’s makeup can vary with host species, locality, diet, social stressors, and environmental stressors. Some of these environmental stressors have arisen due to human-induced rapid environmental change, like urbanization. The physiology and behaviors of organisms that are able to persist in urban environments are often different from their non-urban congeners. Nutrition, development, and immunity—all of which are affected by the gut microbiome—are important factors that can determine survival in urban …


Spatial And Demographic Patterns Of Two Threatened Turtle Species In An Urban Environment, Carly E. Brouwers Apr 2021

Spatial And Demographic Patterns Of Two Threatened Turtle Species In An Urban Environment, Carly E. Brouwers

Masters Theses

Urban development is a global threat to native wildlife. The process of urbanization reduces and degrades the useable habitat of a region, and creates novel “urban ecosystems” that possess new threats and stressors to local species. Turtles are one of the most threatened vertebrate groups worldwide, and are particularly at risk of decline in urban ecosystems due to reduced nesting success, increased road mortality events, altered movement patterns, and increased predation rates. Eastern box and Blanding’s turtles are two at-risk turtle species in the state of Michigan, USA, primarily due to land use change. Presently, there are urban populations of …


Solutions Human Centered Approach To Conservation, Illustration Department, History, Philosophy, + The Social Sciences Department Mar 2021

Solutions Human Centered Approach To Conservation, Illustration Department, History, Philosophy, + The Social Sciences Department

Illustration Course Work & Materials

"These essays were were written and illustrated by students at the Rhode Island school of Design in February, 2021. Their perspectives are entirely personal and reflect their efforts within a 5.5-week fused studio/seminar course that was centered on the Sixth Mass Extinction and how biodiversity is changing because of humans. Discovering that science communication is more than delivering just the facts, students were invited to research a topic of personal interest that is relevant to human impacts on biodiversity. Through analysis of data and other scientific information, each sought to synthesize their research and opinions on their topic through a …