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Comparison Of Conventional And Alltech Beef Pn Finishing Programs: Meat Color Characteristics, Kelsey Phelps, K. A. Miller, Cadra L. Van Bibber-Krueger, J. Jennings, James S. Drouillard, John M. Gonzalez, Brandon E. Depenbusch Jan 2014

Comparison Of Conventional And Alltech Beef Pn Finishing Programs: Meat Color Characteristics, Kelsey Phelps, K. A. Miller, Cadra L. Van Bibber-Krueger, J. Jennings, James S. Drouillard, John M. Gonzalez, Brandon E. Depenbusch

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

To maximize efficiency and profit when producing beef, American producers currently employ a multitude of production programs that use feed additives such as Rumensin or Tylan (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) and growth promotants such as implants and Optaflexx (Elanco Animal Health). Rumensin and Tylan fed in combination can improve average daily gain and feed efficiency, and utilizing growth promotants enhances feed efficiency, average daily gain, hot carcass weight, and yield grades of carcasses. Although these products improve production efficiency, they can affect meat quality characteristics such as retail shelf life, necessitating better understanding of how management decisions in the ...


A Commercially Available Srp Vaccine Reduces Prevalence Of E. Coli O157:H7 In Feces Of Beef Cattle Under Commercial Feedlot Conditions, B.A. Butler, G.H. Loneragan, Daniel U. Thomson, Tiruvoor G. Nagaraja, Christopher D. Reinhardt Jan 2012

A Commercially Available Srp Vaccine Reduces Prevalence Of E. Coli O157:H7 In Feces Of Beef Cattle Under Commercial Feedlot Conditions, B.A. Butler, G.H. Loneragan, Daniel U. Thomson, Tiruvoor G. Nagaraja, Christopher D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Of all food safety challenges facing the beef industry, Escherichia coli O157:H7 has consistently presented the greatest economic remonstrance to meat packers and retailers. Cattle naturally shed E. coli O157:H7 in their feces, and it is a source of carcass contamination at harvest. If contaminated trim enters the food supply and is subsequently prepared incorrectly, it can lead to the human condition known as hemorrhagic colitis. In children or elderly people, an E. coli O157:H7 infection may lead to a more serious form known as hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is potentially lethal. Although the majority of previous ...


Agreement Between Observational And Necropsy-Derived Diagnosis For Cause Of Death For Cattle In A Commercial Beef Feedlot, D. Anspaugh, Benjamin W. Wileman, M. Apley, W. Taylor, T. Noffsinger, Daniel U. Thomson, Christopher D. Reinhardt Jan 2012

Agreement Between Observational And Necropsy-Derived Diagnosis For Cause Of Death For Cattle In A Commercial Beef Feedlot, D. Anspaugh, Benjamin W. Wileman, M. Apley, W. Taylor, T. Noffsinger, Daniel U. Thomson, Christopher D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Necropsy information is an integral component for monitoring feedlot disease and designing preventive and therapeutic strategies; however, field necropsy is a laborious and time-consuming procedure and may be an occupational hazard because personnel can become injured or be exposed to zoonotic disease while conducting necropsies. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of a pre-necropsy mortality diagnoses made by feedlot personnel compared with diagnoses made from necropsy results.


Spring Burning Of Native Tallgrass Pastures Influences Diet Composition Of Lactating And Non-Lactating Beef Cows, N.A. Aubel, G.J. Eckerle, L.A. Pacheco, M.J. Macek, L.R. Mundell, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Leigh W. Murray Jan 2012

Spring Burning Of Native Tallgrass Pastures Influences Diet Composition Of Lactating And Non-Lactating Beef Cows, N.A. Aubel, G.J. Eckerle, L.A. Pacheco, M.J. Macek, L.R. Mundell, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Leigh W. Murray

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Diet selection is a dynamic process because of seasonal changes in animal and plant characteristics. Nutrient requirements of grazing animals are a function of physiological state; moreover, plant characteristics may be altered with prescribed spring burning of native rangelands. Prescribed spring burning is used to improve the average quality of pasture forage by removing old growth and making new plant growth more accessible to grazing cattle. Microhistological analysis of fecal material has been a widely used method for quantifying the botanical composition of a grazing animal's diet since it was first described by Baumgartner and Martin in 1939. Little ...


Comparison Of The Effects Of Three Different Dehorning Techniques On Behavior And Performance In Feeder Cattle In A Western Kansas Feedlot, C.D. Neely, C.A. Kerr, David E. Anderson, Daniel U. Thomson, Christopher D. Reinhardt Jan 2012

Comparison Of The Effects Of Three Different Dehorning Techniques On Behavior And Performance In Feeder Cattle In A Western Kansas Feedlot, C.D. Neely, C.A. Kerr, David E. Anderson, Daniel U. Thomson, Christopher D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Removing the horns of cattle when they arrive at feeding facilities is a common practice to reduce injury to other cattle. Bruising on carcasses of cattle that have been housed in pens containing horned cattle increases noticeably. Horned feeder cattle marketed in Arkansas regional livestock auction barns received average discounts of $3.23/cwt in 2005, giving producers the incentive to dehorn their cattle before marketing. Three common techniques (tipping, dehorning, and banding) are utilized in the field to remove or reduce horn length in beef cattle. Tipping is the practice of removing the tip of the horn such that ...


Feeding Crude Glycerin Decreases Fecal Shedding Of E. Coli O157:H7 In Growing Cattle, C. Aperce, James S. Drouillard Jan 2012

Feeding Crude Glycerin Decreases Fecal Shedding Of E. Coli O157:H7 In Growing Cattle, C. Aperce, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Crude glycerin is a byproduct of ethanol production and is used as a carbohydrate source for cattle feed. Glycerin levels in previous studies have ranged from 0 to 20% of diet dry matter, and concentrations of 8% or less generally improve feedlot performance. At even low levels of glycerin, however, the activity of cellulolytic bacteria is depressed, ultimately leading to poorer fiber digestion. This observation suggests that glycerin may affect a specific population of bacteria in the gut. Crude glycerin can account for 8 to 10% of the weight of dried distillers grains with solubles, because it is one of ...


Aging Method, Usda Quality Grade, And Endpoint Temperature Affect Eating Quality Of Beef Longissimus Lumborum Steaks, E. Obuz, V. Gok, L. Akaya, Michael E. Dikeman Jan 2012

Aging Method, Usda Quality Grade, And Endpoint Temperature Affect Eating Quality Of Beef Longissimus Lumborum Steaks, E. Obuz, V. Gok, L. Akaya, Michael E. Dikeman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Tenderness is one of the most important factors affecting consumers' perceptions and acceptance of palatability. Tenderness is affected by both myofibrillar proteins and connective tissue content and quality. Both marbling and carcass maturity can have a significant effect on beef palatability, with higher consumer sensory scores generally given to USDA Choice loin steaks than to Select steaks for tenderness, juiciness, and overall palatability. Endpoint temperature can also have a significant effect, with higher endpoint temperatures generally decreasing palatability. Aging beef is a common practice in the meat industry because it increases tenderness and flavor development. The meat industry generally utilizes ...


Bedding Material In Dirt-Floor Pens Reduces Heat, D.J. Rezac, Daniel U. Thomson, Christopher D. Reinhardt Jan 2012

Bedding Material In Dirt-Floor Pens Reduces Heat, D.J. Rezac, Daniel U. Thomson, Christopher D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Weather-related stressors are a well-recognized opponent to animal welfare and can have important ramifications for animal performance. Sound animal husbandry practices historically have attempted to diminish the effects of deleterious environmental factors. Providing aid to animals when temperatures are above or below their thermal neutral zone (TNZ) can improve animal welfare and/or performance. Because most breeds of cattle are not well equipped to deal with heat, the temperatures at which heat stress can begin to affect cattle can be surprisingly low. The onset of mild heat stress can occur at a temperature humidity index (THI1) value of 75, which ...


Relationships Between Feedlot Health, Average Daily Gain, And Carcass Traits Of Angus Steers, M.L. Hands, T.T. Marston, L.R. Corah, Christopher D. Reinhardt, Justin W. Waggoner Jan 2012

Relationships Between Feedlot Health, Average Daily Gain, And Carcass Traits Of Angus Steers, M.L. Hands, T.T. Marston, L.R. Corah, Christopher D. Reinhardt, Justin W. Waggoner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Morbidity reduces performance and quality grade, but the effects of morbidity on quality grade independent of its effect on carcass fatness are rarely documented. As feedlot cattle fatten, a greater proportion of their daily carcass gain goes to fat deposition, and greater carcass fat is consistent with greater marbling score. Higher-grading cattle are often assumed to have reduced feedlot performance. Objectives of this research were to document the impacts of various animal and non-animal factors on feedlot average daily gain, health, and carcass traits in Angus steers and to correlate quality and yield grade components of carcass with live performance.


Comparative Efficacy Of Two Ivermectin Pour-On Anthelmintics In Beef Steers In A Commercial Feedyard, A.J. Tarpoff, T. Guichon, Daniel U. Thomson, Benjamin W. Wileman, Christopher D. Reinhardt Jan 2012

Comparative Efficacy Of Two Ivermectin Pour-On Anthelmintics In Beef Steers In A Commercial Feedyard, A.J. Tarpoff, T. Guichon, Daniel U. Thomson, Benjamin W. Wileman, Christopher D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Generic products generally have a cost advantage for beef producers over brand-name products. Recently, many beef producers have debated whether to utilize generic anthelmintics in cow/calf herds and feeder cattle. If generics are to be justified, the products must be proven to have efficacy similar to the brand-name product. Previous studies have indicated that generic macrocyclic lactones are less effective in controlling gastrointestinal parasites of cattle than the original brand-name products. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of Vetrimec (Norbrook Laboratories Limited, Newry, Co. Down, Northern Ireland) pour-on and Ivomec (Merial Animal Health, Duluth, GA ...


Vaccinating With Srp E. Coli Does Not Affect Feeder Cattle Performance, Health, Or Carcass Characteristics, D.J. Rezac, B.A. Butler, Daniel U. Thomson, Benjamin W. Wileman, Christopher D. Reinhardt Jan 2012

Vaccinating With Srp E. Coli Does Not Affect Feeder Cattle Performance, Health, Or Carcass Characteristics, D.J. Rezac, B.A. Butler, Daniel U. Thomson, Benjamin W. Wileman, Christopher D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Siderophore-receptor and porin-based (SRP) Escherichia coli vaccine technology functions by starving the E. coli organism via competitive exclusion for proteins that scavenge iron, an essential nutrient for E. coli viability. Vaccination with SRP E. coli technology decreased the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in artificially inoculated cattle and in cattle naturally shedding the organism. Examination of the effects that SRP E. coli vaccines exert on performance parameters has yet to be attempted in a commercial setting. The use of SRP E. coli vaccine technology effectively decreases the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feeder cattle and may improve ...


Time Of Onset, Location, And Duration Of Lameness In Beef Cattle In A Commercial Feedyard, T.M. Green, P.T. Guichon, Daniel U. Thomson, Benjamin W. Wileman, Christopher D. Reinhardt Jan 2012

Time Of Onset, Location, And Duration Of Lameness In Beef Cattle In A Commercial Feedyard, T.M. Green, P.T. Guichon, Daniel U. Thomson, Benjamin W. Wileman, Christopher D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Bovine lameness presents itself in a variety of forms. A number of predisposing factors have been reported, such as increased amounts of wet feces and mud from high rainfall; limb trauma from rocks, sticks, or handling facilities; inappropriate animal handling; or improper facility design. Trauma causes lameness directly and often provides an avenue for bacterial agents to enter and colonize a wound. Performance of lame cattle is diminished due to impaired ambulation, resulting in decreased feed intake and decreased body weight. The objective of this study was to determine the timing of the onset of lameness in feeder cattle and ...


Delaying Implant In High-Risk Calves Has No Benefit For Health Or Feedlot Performance, R.D. Munson, Daniel U. Thomson, Christopher D. Reinhardt Jan 2012

Delaying Implant In High-Risk Calves Has No Benefit For Health Or Feedlot Performance, R.D. Munson, Daniel U. Thomson, Christopher D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Bovine respiratory disease is the most common and costly disease in the beef industry. Calves affected by bovine respiratory disease have a 53-lb decrease in finished weights and decreased quality grades compared with healthy cattle. Many stressors influence post-arrival health and nutrient intake, including weaning, marketing, transportation, co-mingling, genetics, previous nutrition, and health history. These stressors can negatively affect the immune system at a time when the animal is more likely to be exposed to infectious agents within the bovine respiratory disease complex. Feed intake by stressed calves is low, and low nutrient intake likely increases the negative effects of ...


Effect Of Transportation On E. Coli O157:H7 Prevalence And Coliform Concentrations In Feces Of Feedlot Cattle, C. Aperce, James S. Drouillard Jan 2012

Effect Of Transportation On E. Coli O157:H7 Prevalence And Coliform Concentrations In Feces Of Feedlot Cattle, C. Aperce, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Foodborne illness from Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major concern for the food industry. Contamination of food products can occur at slaughter by contact with hide or feces. Limiting E. coli O157:H7 shedding is important to prevent outbreaks. Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between stress and levels of pathogens shed in feces. During transport to the slaughterhouse, animals are subjected to large amounts of stress. This stress could increase shedding of E. coli O157:H7 prior to slaughter, and in so doing increase the risk of contamination of beef products by contact with hides or feces. Our ...


Direct-Fed Microbials For Receiving Cattle I: Effects Of Proternative Stress Formula Fed In A Liquid Suspension On Growth And Health Performance Of Receiving Beef Heifers, A.V. Siverson, M.E. Corrigan, James J. Higgins, Dale A. Blasi, Brandon E. Oleen Jan 2012

Direct-Fed Microbials For Receiving Cattle I: Effects Of Proternative Stress Formula Fed In A Liquid Suspension On Growth And Health Performance Of Receiving Beef Heifers, A.V. Siverson, M.E. Corrigan, James J. Higgins, Dale A. Blasi, Brandon E. Oleen

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Lightweight stocker calves experience variable degrees of physiological stress resulting from weaning, transport, food and water deprivation, diet changes, inclement weather, and infectious diseases. Consequently, preconditioning and specialized nutrition that include direct-fed microbials may become more common in the beef industry as a means of controlling disease and minimizing the effects of stress.


Direct-Fed Microbials For Receiving Cattle Ii: Effects Of Proternative Stress Formula Fed In A Dry Suspension On Growth, Feed Intake, And Health Of Receiving Beef Heifers, A.V. Siverson, M.E. Corrigan, James J. Higgins, Dale A. Blasi, Brandon E. Oleen Jan 2012

Direct-Fed Microbials For Receiving Cattle Ii: Effects Of Proternative Stress Formula Fed In A Dry Suspension On Growth, Feed Intake, And Health Of Receiving Beef Heifers, A.V. Siverson, M.E. Corrigan, James J. Higgins, Dale A. Blasi, Brandon E. Oleen

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Enhanced preconditioning and nutritional management strategies are needed industrywide as a means of controlling stress and related health problems for freshly arrived stocker calves. Direct-fed microbials are feed additives that stimulate natural, nonpathogenic gut flora in an attempt to stimulate competition against potentially pathogenic gut flora. Previous research involving direct-fed microbials offered in a liquid suspension to lightweight stocker calves produced no effects on growth or health performance. Therefore, the objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of a directfed microbial offered as a dry suspension on feed intake, average daily gain, and morbidity of highly stressed beef ...


Mga And Growth Promotants Administered To Beef Feedlot Heifers Have No Effect On Subsequent Oocyte Quality Or In Vitro Embryo Production, N. Miller, David M. Grieger, Karol E. Fike Jan 2012

Mga And Growth Promotants Administered To Beef Feedlot Heifers Have No Effect On Subsequent Oocyte Quality Or In Vitro Embryo Production, N. Miller, David M. Grieger, Karol E. Fike

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Beef feedlot heifers have the potential to serve as viable donors of oocytes post-slaughter for in vitro embryo production. Oocyte quality is a critical factor affecting the success of in vitro embryo production and can be influenced by factors such as age and reproductive status, ovarian follicle size, and nutritional status of the donor female. In a conventional feedlot setting, heifers are typically administered steroid-based growth promotants and fed melengestrol acetate (MGA) for suppression of estrus, which increases circulating concentrations of reproductive steroids, particularly estradiol. The effects of these management practices on oocyte quality and numbers are unknown. The purpose ...


Presynchronizing Prostaglandin F2Α Injection Before Timed Artificial Insemination Co-Synch + Cidr Program, Scott L. Hill, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, H.I. Jr. Mellieon, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Ryan M. Breiner, G.A. Perry, G.C. Lamb, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 2012

Presynchronizing Prostaglandin F2Α Injection Before Timed Artificial Insemination Co-Synch + Cidr Program, Scott L. Hill, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, H.I. Jr. Mellieon, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Ryan M. Breiner, G.A. Perry, G.C. Lamb, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Fixed-time artificial insemination is an effective management tool that reduces the labor associated with more conventional programs that require detection of estrus. The 7-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert protocol has been shown to effectively initiate estrus and ovulation in cycling and non-cycling suckled beef cows, producing pregnancy rates at or greater than 50% in beef cows. The gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH) injection that begins the CO-Synch + CIDR program initiates ovulation in a large proportion of cows, particularly anestrous cows. The CIDR, which releases progesterone intravaginally, prevents short estrous cycles that usually follow the first postpartum ovulation in ...


Increasing Protein Supply To Pregnant Beef Cows When Energy Is Limited Does Not Improve Cow Or Calf Performance, E.A. Bailey, Evan C. Titgemeyer, R.C. Cochran, Timothy J. Jones, K. C. Olson Jan 2012

Increasing Protein Supply To Pregnant Beef Cows When Energy Is Limited Does Not Improve Cow Or Calf Performance, E.A. Bailey, Evan C. Titgemeyer, R.C. Cochran, Timothy J. Jones, K. C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Pre- and postpartum deficiencies of metabolizable protein have been identified as potentially limiting to productivity of beef cows and calves. Pre-partum supplementation of forage-based diets with ruminally undegraded protein has increased weight gain and breeding performance in prior studies, but the level of ruminally degraded protein fed was not known. Feeding adequate ruminally degraded protein to beef cows maximizes the productivity of microbes in the rumen, so any benefits shown in prior work could have been attributed to increased ruminal fermentation. Our objectives were (1) to determine the value of supplementing ruminally undegraded protein when dietary ruminally degraded protein supply ...


Effects Of Corn Steep Liquor Supplementation On Intake And Digestion Of Tallgrass Prairie Hay Contaminated With Sericea Lespedeza, G.J. Eckerle, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger Jan 2012

Effects Of Corn Steep Liquor Supplementation On Intake And Digestion Of Tallgrass Prairie Hay Contaminated With Sericea Lespedeza, G.J. Eckerle, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) is a noxious weed that infests approximately 600,000 acres of native range in Kansas. Intake of sericea lespedeza by grazing beef cattle is poor due to the presence of condensed tannins in the plant. Condensed tannins reduce protein digestion by beef cattle and may also decrease plant palatability because of their astringent nature. Prolific seed production, in combination with little or no grazing pressure, has contributed to the rapid spread of sericea lespedeza in the Flint Hills. Increasing grazing pressure on sericea lespedeza may reduce seed production and slow its advance; however, the presence of ...


Effects Of Corn Steep Liquor Supplementation On Voluntary Selection Of Tallgrass Prairie Hay Contaminated With Sericea Lespedeza And Uncontaminated Tallgrass Prairie Hay, G.J. Eckerle, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger Jan 2012

Effects Of Corn Steep Liquor Supplementation On Voluntary Selection Of Tallgrass Prairie Hay Contaminated With Sericea Lespedeza And Uncontaminated Tallgrass Prairie Hay, G.J. Eckerle, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) is classified as a noxious weed throughout the Great Plains. It produces copious amounts of seed annually and contains high levels of condensed tannins during much of the growing season, which deters grazing by large domestic herbivores. In Kansas alone, this plant infests approximately 600,000 acres of native range, reducing native grass production by up to 92%. Increased grazing pressure on sericea lespedeza by beef cattle may slow its spread and facilitate some measure of biological control. Feedstuffs or feed additives with tannin-binding properties may promote voluntary consumption of this plant by grazing beef cattle ...


Effects Of Prepartum And Postpartum Bolus Injections Of Trace Minerals On Performance Of Beef Cows And Calves Grazing Native Range, L.R. Mundell, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, David M. Grieger, L.A. Pacheco, J.W. Bolte, N.A. Aubel, G.J. Eckerle, M.J. Macek, L.J. Havenga, K. C. Olson Jan 2012

Effects Of Prepartum And Postpartum Bolus Injections Of Trace Minerals On Performance Of Beef Cows And Calves Grazing Native Range, L.R. Mundell, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, David M. Grieger, L.A. Pacheco, J.W. Bolte, N.A. Aubel, G.J. Eckerle, M.J. Macek, L.J. Havenga, K. C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Adequate dietary intakes of trace minerals are thought necessary to maximize cow reproduction, calf health, and calf performance. Diets grazed by beef cattle are generally deficient to marginal in copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) concentrations; therefore, these trace minerals are usually added to the diet in supplement form. The most widely used means of trace-mineral supplementation for grazing cattle is selffed, salt-based, loose mineral supplements. Although cattle do not balance their mineral needs when consuming a self-fed mineral supplement, usually no other practical way of supplying mineral needs exists under grazing conditions. The greatest limitation to ...


Influence Of Linpro And Dietary Copper On Feedlot Cattle Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Fatty Acid Composition Of Beef, C.A. Alvarado, C.C. Aperce, K.A. Miller, C.L. Van Bibber, S. Uwituze, James J. Higgins, James S. Drouillard Jan 2012

Influence Of Linpro And Dietary Copper On Feedlot Cattle Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Fatty Acid Composition Of Beef, C.A. Alvarado, C.C. Aperce, K.A. Miller, C.L. Van Bibber, S. Uwituze, James J. Higgins, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Human diets often contain high levels of saturated fatty acids that can have deleterious health consequences such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids, which are essential for human nutrition, are consumed at relatively low levels despite of their positive effects on health. Natural sources of omega-3 fatty acids include fresh legumes, cool-season grasses, flaxseed, and fish oil. In spite of the fact that fresh forages often are a key part of the cattle diet, beef is a relatively poor source of omega-3 fatty acids because of biohydrogenation, the action of microorganisms in the rumen that ...


Accelerated Step-Up Regimes For Feedlot Heifers Following Oral Dosing With Lactipro (Megasphaera Elsdenii Strain Ncimb 41125), K. Miller, C.L. Van Bibber, James S. Drouillard Jan 2012

Accelerated Step-Up Regimes For Feedlot Heifers Following Oral Dosing With Lactipro (Megasphaera Elsdenii Strain Ncimb 41125), K. Miller, C.L. Van Bibber, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Cattle entering feedlots typically are adapted to finishing diets over a period of 2 to 4 weeks by gradually replacing forages with concentrate feeds using a series of step-up diets. Without proper adaptation, naïve cattle are highly susceptible to ruminal acidosis, a disorder associated with excessive production and accumulation of organic acids within the rumen. One of the key metabolic intermediates associated with the manifestation of acidosis is lactic acid, which is derived from fermentation of readily available starches and sugars. Streptococcus bovis is a prolific, rapidly growing, and opportunistic organism that thrives in the presence of readily fermented starches ...


Zilmax Alters Blood Constituents Of Finishing Cattle, C.L. Van Bibber, James S. Drouillard Jan 2012

Zilmax Alters Blood Constituents Of Finishing Cattle, C.L. Van Bibber, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of Zilmax (Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) on changes in blood metabolites. Zilmax is a feed additive designed to improve production efficiency in cattle when fed during the last phase at the feedlot. Zilmax works by redirecting the energy use in the body to form more lean muscle at the expense of fat deposition. The blood metabolites measured in our experiment were glucose and lactate, which are the energy sources for various body functions including muscle growth. Plasma urea nitrogen was measured as an indicator of protein catabolism. Non-esterified fatty ...


Led Lighting Extends Color Shelf Life For Three Beef Products Compared With Fluorescent Lighting, K.S. Steele, M.J. Weber, Elizabeth A.E. Boyle, A.S. Lobaton-Sulabo, C. Cundith, Y.H. Hiebert, K.A. Abrolat, J.M. Attey, S.D. Clark, D. Johnson Jan 2012

Led Lighting Extends Color Shelf Life For Three Beef Products Compared With Fluorescent Lighting, K.S. Steele, M.J. Weber, Elizabeth A.E. Boyle, A.S. Lobaton-Sulabo, C. Cundith, Y.H. Hiebert, K.A. Abrolat, J.M. Attey, S.D. Clark, D. Johnson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Consumers are not able to estimate tenderness, juiciness, or flavor when selecting beef cuts at retail stores. Instead, they rely on color as one of the major criteria to select beef cuts. During refrigerated display, fresh meat color changes and consumers discriminate against discolored meats. Meat items with discoloration must be discounted or discarded, leading to up to $1 billion in revenue loss nationally for the meat industry. Lighting type and intensity have a major impact on the appearance and shelf life of fresh beef in refrigerated retail display. Light emitting diode (LED) lighting offers advantages for display because it ...


Combined Microwave And Convection Cooking Increases Post-Cooking Temperature Rise Of Beef Biceps Femoris Muscles More Than Convection Cooking, A. Gaschler, Michael E. Dikeman Jan 2012

Combined Microwave And Convection Cooking Increases Post-Cooking Temperature Rise Of Beef Biceps Femoris Muscles More Than Convection Cooking, A. Gaschler, Michael E. Dikeman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Combined microwave and convection cooking has gained popularity in the last 20 years because of more accurate heat control and more efficient use of energy. Combination microwave/convection cooking allows for more rapid cooking, but it does not have the same even heat distribution as convection cooking. Cooking is a critical stage when preparing meat. The main factors to consider during cooking are: temperature on the surface of meat, internal temperature throughout, and the method of heat transfer. Temperature on the surface and method of heat exchange primarily affect surface color and aroma, whereas internal temperature affects protein structure and ...


Steam-Generation Cooking Versus Dry Heat Convection Of Beef Roasts Differing In Connective Tissue, L.J. Bowers, Michael E. Dikeman, Leigh W. Murray, Sally L. Stroda Jan 2012

Steam-Generation Cooking Versus Dry Heat Convection Of Beef Roasts Differing In Connective Tissue, L.J. Bowers, Michael E. Dikeman, Leigh W. Murray, Sally L. Stroda

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Foodservice managers strive to control factors that affect yield, serving cost, and palatability of beef. Beef roasts are traditionally roasted at temperatures from 325°F to 350°F for both home and institutional use. Roasts relatively high in connective tissue cooked with moist heat generally are more tender than when cooked with dry heat. Roasts cooked to 150, 160, or 170°F could be expected to have cooking losses ranging from 20% to over 40%. The issue of cooking loss led Winston Industries to develop the CVap Cook and Hold Vapor Oven (Winston Industries, Louisville, KY). CVap technology controls evaporation ...


Wheat Gluten Films Prepared At High Temperature And Low Ph Decrease Degradation By Rumen Microorganisms, K. Blaine, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

Wheat Gluten Films Prepared At High Temperature And Low Ph Decrease Degradation By Rumen Microorganisms, K. Blaine, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Encapsulated amino acids, vitamins, and other nutrients are gaining popularity in the ruminant feed industry. The purpose of encapsulation is to provide protection from premature digestion in the rumen, making it possible to increase bioavailability of the core ingredient in the small intestine. Encapsulated products are more effective at delivering a targeted amount of a limiting nutrient than the traditional methods of heat or chemically treating protein, which result in an excess supply of other nutrients. The main limitation of feeding encapsulated products is cost. These products are expensive because of the cost of the film forming/encapsulating materials used ...


Urea Recycling In Beef Cattle Fed Prairie Hay- Based Diets, E.A. Bailey, D.W. Brake, David E. Anderson, M.L. Jones, Evan C. Titgemeyer, K. C. Olson Jan 2010

Urea Recycling In Beef Cattle Fed Prairie Hay- Based Diets, E.A. Bailey, D.W. Brake, David E. Anderson, M.L. Jones, Evan C. Titgemeyer, K. C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Maximizing utilization of native rangeland is an important aspect of the cow/calf phase of beef production. Native rangeland is often of poor quality (less than 7% crude protein). Protein content of the rangeland is important because nitrogen is a key growth factor used by ruminal microbes. Without adequate nitrogen, the ruminal ecosystem will not operate at peak efficiency, which subsequently reduces the supply of nutrients to the animal. Historically, producers have provided supplemental nutrients to their cattle to achieve maximum performance. Both supplemental protein and energy have been provided to cattle consuming low-quality forage with varying levels of success ...