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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Studies On Ground Corn Flowability As Affected By Particle Size And Moisture Content, H. T. Jadhav, Chinwendu Ozoh, Sai Teja Marripudi, Xiong Cao, K. A. Rosentrater Jul 2017

Studies On Ground Corn Flowability As Affected By Particle Size And Moisture Content, H. T. Jadhav, Chinwendu Ozoh, Sai Teja Marripudi, Xiong Cao, K. A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Corn is the primary feed grain in the U.S., and it accounts for more than 90 percent of total feed grain production and use. Besides this, corn is the primary input for the U.S. ethanol industry. This results in tremendous infrastructure for handling and storage of corn and byproducts throughout the year. The flow properties of ground corn, which is a principal ingredient of animal feed, are very complex in nature. Many physical and chemical properties viz. angle of repose, bulk density, moisture of the product, protein content in the surface layer, etc. affects the flow properties of ...


Physically Adjusted Neutral Detergent Fiber System For Lactating Dairy Cow Rations. I: Deriving Equations That Identify Factors That Influence Effectiveness Of Fiber, Robin R. White, Mary Beth Hou, Jeffrey L. Firkins, Paul J. Kononoff Jan 2017

Physically Adjusted Neutral Detergent Fiber System For Lactating Dairy Cow Rations. I: Deriving Equations That Identify Factors That Influence Effectiveness Of Fiber, Robin R. White, Mary Beth Hou, Jeffrey L. Firkins, Paul J. Kononoff

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) is the fraction of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) that stimulates chewing activity and contributes to the floating mat of large particles in the rumen. Multiplying dietary NDF by particle size has been used as an estimate of peNDF. In re-evaluating the concept of peNDF, we compared the use of peNDF as dietary NDF × particle size with the use of individual NDF and particle size descriptors (physically adjusted NDF; paNDF) when used with other physical and chemical diet descriptors to predict dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), rumination time, and ruminal pH in lactating dairy cows ...


Particle Size Of Dry-Rolled Corn Affects Starch Digestibility But Not Feedlot Performance, E. F. Schwandt, J. Wagner, T. Engle, S. J. Bartle, D. U. Thomson, C. D. Reinhardt Jan 2017

Particle Size Of Dry-Rolled Corn Affects Starch Digestibility But Not Feedlot Performance, E. F. Schwandt, J. Wagner, T. Engle, S. J. Bartle, D. U. Thomson, C. D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Dry-rolling corn is a common practice in feedlots located in the Midwestern and Northern Plains regions of the United States. Optimizing total digestive tract starch utilization in diets containing dry-rolled corn is essential for maximizing efficiency. However, recommendations often suggest that grain be coarsely cracked to avoid producing an excessive amount of fine material that could potentially increase the rate of fermentation, reduce rumen pH, and cause digestive disturbances.

Wet distillers byproducts may be effectively used as a protein and energy source for feedlot finishing cattle and can replace a portion of the dry-rolled corn in the diet. The average ...


The Effect Of Hammermill Screen Hole Diameter And Hammer Tip Speed On Particle Size And Flowability Of Ground Corn, M. Saensukjaroenphon, C. E. Evans, K. H. Sheldon, C. K. Jones, C. B. Paulk, C. R. Stark Jan 2017

The Effect Of Hammermill Screen Hole Diameter And Hammer Tip Speed On Particle Size And Flowability Of Ground Corn, M. Saensukjaroenphon, C. E. Evans, K. H. Sheldon, C. K. Jones, C. B. Paulk, C. R. Stark

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A variable frequency drive can be installed on the motor of a hammermill to adjust motor speed and ultimately hammer tip speed. This enables particle size adjustments to be made externally without requiring screens to be changed, therefore reducing idle time. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of screen hole diameter and tip speed on geometric mean diameter (dgw), geometric standard deviation (Sgw), and angle of repose (AoR). Treatments were arranged as a 3 × 3 factorial in a completely randomized design using three screen hole diameters and three hammer tip speeds. Each treatment replicate ...


The Effects Of Cold Pelleting And Separation Of Fine Corn Particles On Growth Performance And Economic Return In Nursery Pigs, C. E. Evans, M. Saensukjaroenphon, C. K. Jones, J. M. Derouchey, J. C. Woodworth, M. D. Tokach, C. B. Paulk, C. R. Stark Jan 2017

The Effects Of Cold Pelleting And Separation Of Fine Corn Particles On Growth Performance And Economic Return In Nursery Pigs, C. E. Evans, M. Saensukjaroenphon, C. K. Jones, J. M. Derouchey, J. C. Woodworth, M. D. Tokach, C. B. Paulk, C. R. Stark

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 320 pigs (DNA 241 × 600; initially 22.5 lb BW) were used in a 21-d experiment to determine the effects on pelleting technique and removing fine corn particles (< 150 microns) on nursery pig growth performance. There were 5 pigs per pen and 8 pens per treatment and diets were all manufactured using corn ground to 400 microns. Diets were fed as a mash or pelleted using a traditional vertical die pellet mill equipped with a steam conditioner (steam pellet) or a horizontal pellet die with hot water conditioning prior to pelleting (cold pellet). Therefore, the 8 treatments were: 1) ground corn diet fed as mash, 2) ground corn diet steam pelleted, 3) ground corn diet cold pelleted, 4) ground corn with fines less than 150 microns removed from the diet and the diet fed as mash, 5) ground corn with fines less than 150 microns removed from the diet and the diet without fines was steam pelleted, 6) ground corn with fines less than 150 microns removed from the diet and the diet without fines was cold pelleted, 7) fines less than 150 microns were steam pelleted then proportionally added back to ground corn and fed as a mixture of pellets and mash, and 8) fines less than 150 microns were cold pelleted then proportionally added back to ground corn and fed as a mixture of pellets and mash. Removal of fines less than 150 microns from the corn improved the flowability characteristics of the diets as indicated by improved composite flow index values. The best flowability was achieved when fines were pelleted and added back to the mash diets. Pigs fed steam- or cold-pelleted diets had decreased (P < 0.02) ADG, ADFI, and d-21 BW, total feed cost, revenue, and income over feed cost (IOFC) compared to those fed mash diets. Pigs fed steam pelleted diets had decreased (P < 0.006) ADG, d-21 BW, revenue, and IOFC compared to those fed cold pelleted diets. There were no growth performance differences between pigs fed ground corn diets or ground corn diets with fines removed. Pigs fed diets with fines removed, pelleted, and subsequently added back had increased (P < 0.05) ADFI, F/G, and feed cost compared to all other treatments. It is assumed that this response resulted from increased feed wastage resulting from pigs sorting pellets mixed with mash diets. The results of this study indicate that removing particles less than 150 microns improved the flowability of a mash diet without sacrificing growth performance. Additionally, cold pelleting was a viable option to steam pelleting in the current experiment. However, pelleting diets reduced pig performance compared to pigs fed mash diets. Further research is needed to validate the response to cold pelleting when the expected response to pelleting using steam conditioning is achieved.


A Survey Of Dry Processed Corn Particle Size And Fecal Starch In Midwestern U.S. Feedlots, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, S. J. Bartle, C. D. Reinhardt Jan 2017

A Survey Of Dry Processed Corn Particle Size And Fecal Starch In Midwestern U.S. Feedlots, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, S. J. Bartle, C. D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Optimizing grain processing practices in cattle feeding operations is critical to reaching maximum feed utilization efficiency. An increased degree of grain processing has consistently shown improved dry matter and starch digestibility; however, it exists with conflicting results on improving performance in finishing cattle. These inconsistencies are likely due to diet composition, such as roughage and co-product level, that could offset the effects of reduced particle size on rate of fermentation thus reducing the risk of digestive dysfunction.

Finishing diets are commonly formulated with processed grain to increase utilization of starch and improve animal performance. Processing methods including steam-flaking, grinding, or ...