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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Climbing Ability Of Teneral And Sclerotized Adult Bed Bugs And Assessment Of Adhesive Properties Of The Exoskeletal Fluid Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Kevin R. Hinson, Vladimir Reukov, Eric P. Benson, Patricia A. Zungoli, William C. Bridges, Brittany R. Ellis, Jinbo Song Dec 2017

Climbing Ability Of Teneral And Sclerotized Adult Bed Bugs And Assessment Of Adhesive Properties Of The Exoskeletal Fluid Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Kevin R. Hinson, Vladimir Reukov, Eric P. Benson, Patricia A. Zungoli, William C. Bridges, Brittany R. Ellis, Jinbo Song

Publications

We observed that teneral adults (<1 h post-molt) of Cimex lectularius L. appeared more adept at climbing a smooth surface compared to sclerotized adults. Differences in climbing ability on a smooth surface based on sclerotization status were quantified by measuring the height to which bed bugs climbed when confined within a glass vial. The average maximum height climbed by teneral (T) bed bugs (n = 30, height climbed = 4.69 cm) differed significantly (P< 0.01) from recently sclerotized (RS) bed bugs (n = 30, height climbed = 1.73 cm at ~48 h post molt), sclerotized group 1 (S1) bed bugs (n = 30, S1 = 2.42 cm at >72 h), and ...


Recurrent Sublethal Warming Reduces Embryonic Survival, Inhibits Juvenile Growth, And Alters Species Distribution Projections Under Climate Change, Michael A. Carlo, Eric A. Riddell, Ofir Levy, Michael W. Sears Nov 2017

Recurrent Sublethal Warming Reduces Embryonic Survival, Inhibits Juvenile Growth, And Alters Species Distribution Projections Under Climate Change, Michael A. Carlo, Eric A. Riddell, Ofir Levy, Michael W. Sears

Publications

The capacity to tolerate climate change often varies across ontogeny in organisms with complex life cycles. Recently developed species distribution models incorporate traits across life stages; however, these life-cycle models primarily evaluate effects of lethal change. Here, we examine impacts of recurrent sublethal warming on development and survival in ecological projections of climate change. We reared lizard embryos in the laboratory under temperature cycles that simulated contemporary conditions and warming scenarios. We also artificially warmed natural nests to mimic laboratory treatments. In both cases, recurrent sublethal warming decreased embryonic survival and hatchling sizes. Incorporating survivorship results into a mechanistic species ...


Spread Of Common Native And Invasive Grasses And Ruderal Trees Following Anthropogenic Disturbances In A Tropical Dry Forest, Xavier A. Jaime, Skip J. Van Bloem, Frank H. Koch, Stacy A.C. Nelson Oct 2017

Spread Of Common Native And Invasive Grasses And Ruderal Trees Following Anthropogenic Disturbances In A Tropical Dry Forest, Xavier A. Jaime, Skip J. Van Bloem, Frank H. Koch, Stacy A.C. Nelson

Publications

Introduction

A fundamental challenge to the integrity of tropical dry forest ecosystems is the invasion of non-native grass species. These grasses compete for resources and fuel anthropogenic wildfires. In 2012, a bulldozer from the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority cleared a 570-m trail from a state road into a mature dry forest section of Guánica Forest to control a wildfire. We monitored colonization by a non-native invasive grass (Megathyrsus maximus), a highly invasive tree (Leucaena leucocephala), and a native grass (Uniola virgata), as well as natural regeneration, along the bulldozer trail. We determined whether bulldozing facilitated colonization by these species ...


Reproductive Performance Of The Marine Green Porcelain Crab Petrolisthes Armatus Gibbes, 1850 In Its Introduced Range Favors Further Range Expansion, Ann Wassick, J. Antonio Baeza, Amy Fowler, Dara Wilber Oct 2017

Reproductive Performance Of The Marine Green Porcelain Crab Petrolisthes Armatus Gibbes, 1850 In Its Introduced Range Favors Further Range Expansion, Ann Wassick, J. Antonio Baeza, Amy Fowler, Dara Wilber

Publications

Invasive marine crustaceans can exhibit population-level variation in reproductive traits that are consistent with a response to stressful conditions near the range edge, or alternatively, that may favor establishing new exotic populations. Reproductive characteristics of the green porcelain crab Petrolisthes armatus Gibbes, 1850 were not previously known in its invasive range in the Atlantic waters of the southeastern USA. We compared fecundity estimates, size at sexual maturity, and various other morphological aspects among crabs collected from two sites at each of four locations spanning approximately 230 km from North Inlet, South Carolina (SC), to Savannah, Georgia (GA), USA. Reproductive output ...


Adaptability And Stability Of Reproductive And Vegetative Phases Of Peach Trees In Subtropical Climate, Filipe Bittencourt Machado De Souza, Rafael Pio, João Paulo Rodrigues Alves Delfino Barbosa, Gregory Lynn Reighard, Maraisa Hellen Tadeu, Paula Nogueira Curi Oct 2017

Adaptability And Stability Of Reproductive And Vegetative Phases Of Peach Trees In Subtropical Climate, Filipe Bittencourt Machado De Souza, Rafael Pio, João Paulo Rodrigues Alves Delfino Barbosa, Gregory Lynn Reighard, Maraisa Hellen Tadeu, Paula Nogueira Curi

Publications

The peach tree (Prunus persica) is a fruit species native to temperate climates that requires a chill during its hibernal period to overcome dormancy. However, due to genetic breeding, varieties are currently grown in subtropical and tropical regions where there are low occurrences of chill during this phenological stage. This study evaluated the adaptability and stability of the reproductive and vegetative phases of peach tree cultivars in a subtropical climate. An experiment was designed in randomized blocks with split time plots, with 23 peach tree cultivars and four replications, with each replication consisting of one plant and four shoots. The ...


Effects Of Salinity And Wet–Dry Treatments On C And N Dynamics In Coastal-Forested Wetland Soils: Implications Of Sea Level Rise, Xijun Liu, Alexander Ruecker, Bo Song, William H. Conner, Alex T. Chow Sep 2017

Effects Of Salinity And Wet–Dry Treatments On C And N Dynamics In Coastal-Forested Wetland Soils: Implications Of Sea Level Rise, Xijun Liu, Alexander Ruecker, Bo Song, William H. Conner, Alex T. Chow

Publications

Forested wetlands dominated by baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) are commonly found in coastal regions of the southeastern United States. Global climate change and in particular sea level rise will alter the frequency and magnitude of wet/dry periods and salinity levels in these ecosystems. Soil microcosm experiments were set up to identify the effects of water level variations (0.4–3.0 g-water g-soil−1) and salinity changes (0, 1 and 5 ppt of NaCl) on greenhouse gas emissions (CH4, CO2, and N2O) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) characteristics from forested wetland soils. Our results indicate ...


Warming And Elevated Co2 Alter The Suberin Chemistry In Roots Of Photosynthetically Divergent Grass Species, Vidya Suseela, Nishanth Tharayil, Elise Pendall, Apparao M. Rao Sep 2017

Warming And Elevated Co2 Alter The Suberin Chemistry In Roots Of Photosynthetically Divergent Grass Species, Vidya Suseela, Nishanth Tharayil, Elise Pendall, Apparao M. Rao

Publications

A majority of soil carbon (C) is either directly or indirectly derived from fine roots, yet roots remain the least understood component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. The decomposability of fine roots and their potential to contribute to soil C is partly regulated by their tissue chemical composition. Roots rely heavily on heteropolymers such as suberins, lignins and tannins to adapt to various environmental pressures and to maximize their resource uptake functions. Since the chemical construction of roots is partly shaped by their immediate biotic/abiotic soil environments, global changes that perturb soil resource availability and plant growth could potentially ...


Assessing Alternative Silvicultural Prescriptions For Mid-Rotation, Unthinned, Spruce-Fir Stands In Maine, Patrick Hiesl, Mindy S. Crandall, Aaron R. Weiskittel, Anil R. Kizha Sep 2017

Assessing Alternative Silvicultural Prescriptions For Mid-Rotation, Unthinned, Spruce-Fir Stands In Maine, Patrick Hiesl, Mindy S. Crandall, Aaron R. Weiskittel, Anil R. Kizha

Publications

Determining the optimal timing and type of entry in mid-rotation, unthinned stands can be complicated by a variety of economic and biological factors. In this analysis, long-term data from the Commercial Thinning Research Network was used to project spruce-fir (Picea spp.—Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) stand growth on six different sites across Maine following six alternative thinning treatments (33% and 50% relative density removal paired with low, crown, and dominant thinning methods). Results showed that the low-thinning treatment performed best in terms of maximum net present value, stand age at time of maximum net present value, and average merchantable stem ...


Homologous Recombination In Protozoan Parasites And Recombinase Inhibitors, Andrew A. Kelso, Sarah M. Waldvogel, Adam J. Luthman, Michael G. Sehorn Sep 2017

Homologous Recombination In Protozoan Parasites And Recombinase Inhibitors, Andrew A. Kelso, Sarah M. Waldvogel, Adam J. Luthman, Michael G. Sehorn

Publications

Homologous recombination (HR) is a DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that utilizes a homologous template to fully repair the damaged DNA. HR is critical to maintain genome stability and to ensure genetic diversity during meiosis. A specialized class of enzymes known as recombinases facilitate the exchange of genetic information between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes with the help of numerous protein accessory factors. The majority of the HR machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. In many protozoan parasites, HR is an essential DSB repair pathway that allows these organisms to adapt to environmental conditions and evade host immune systems ...


Detecting And Monitoring Foodborne Illness Outbreaks: Twitter Communications And The 2015 U.S. Salmonella Outbreak Linked To Imported Cucumbers, Yuliya V. Bolotova, Jie Lou, Ilya Safro Aug 2017

Detecting And Monitoring Foodborne Illness Outbreaks: Twitter Communications And The 2015 U.S. Salmonella Outbreak Linked To Imported Cucumbers, Yuliya V. Bolotova, Jie Lou, Ilya Safro

Publications

This research uses Twitter, as a social media device, to track communications related to the 2015 U.S. foodborne illness outbreak linked to Salmonella in imported cucumbers from Mexico. The relevant Twitter data are analyzed in light of the timeline of the official announcements made by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The largest number of registered tweets is associated with the period immediately following the CDC initial announcement and the official release of the first recall of cucumbers. [JEL: I18, Q13, Q18].


Correlation Of Trichome Density And Length And Polyphenol Fluorescence With Susceptibility Of Five Cucurbits To Didymella Bryoniae, Gabriel Rennberger, A. P. Keinath, M. Hess Aug 2017

Correlation Of Trichome Density And Length And Polyphenol Fluorescence With Susceptibility Of Five Cucurbits To Didymella Bryoniae, Gabriel Rennberger, A. P. Keinath, M. Hess

Publications

The fungal pathogen Didymella bryoniae causes gummy stem blight and black rot on a broad spectrum of cucurbits. However the substantial differences in susceptibility among Cucurbitaceae are not well studied. Susceptibility was characterized with muskmelon (Cucumis melo), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), and zucchini (C. pepo). Lesion diameters on leaf disks inoculated with agar plugs were measured 7 days after inoculation, and the necrotized areas of leaf disks inoculated with conidial suspensions were measured 48 h after inoculation (hai). For each species, the number of trichomes was counted on 16 leaf pieces using a stereomicroscope. Lengths ...


Special Issue On The Economics Of Changing Coastal Resources: The Nexus Of Food, Energy, And Water Systems, Mario F. Teisl, Kathleen P. Bell, Caroline L. Noblet Aug 2017

Special Issue On The Economics Of Changing Coastal Resources: The Nexus Of Food, Energy, And Water Systems, Mario F. Teisl, Kathleen P. Bell, Caroline L. Noblet

Publications

Viewed through the perspective of the nexus of food, energy, and water systems, improved management of coastal resources requires enhanced understanding of cross-system and cross-scale interactions and dynamics. The economics of changing coastal resources hinges on increased understanding of complex tradeoffs associated with these complex multisystem and multiscale relationships. How diverse forms of change will affect water quantity and quality as well as food and energy production in coastal areas is not well understood. Coastal resources provide many goods and services and influence markedly the nature of many human communities. In 2010, 43 percent of the US population lived in ...


In-Stream Habitat Predicts Salamander Occupancy And Abundance Better Than Landscape-Scale Factors Within Exurban Watersheds In A Global Diversity Hotspot, Nathaniel Weaver, Kyle Barrett Jul 2017

In-Stream Habitat Predicts Salamander Occupancy And Abundance Better Than Landscape-Scale Factors Within Exurban Watersheds In A Global Diversity Hotspot, Nathaniel Weaver, Kyle Barrett

Publications

The southern Appalachian Mountains have experienced rapid human population growth rates since the 1980s. Land used practices are shifting from rural to residential. The majority of development has been low density, and is often near biologically diverse areas such as National Forests and National Parks. The long-term effects of urbanization in the southeastern Appalachian Mountains are not clearly understood and even less is known with respect to stream salamander response to urbanization. In order to determine the temporal influence of exurban housing on southern Appalachian streams we sampled 27 first- and second-order streams in watersheds containing exurban developments ranging in ...


Phylogenetic Signals In Detoxification Pathways In Cyprinid And Centrarchid Species In Relation To Sensitivity To Environmental Pollutants, Peter Van Den Hurk, Lindsay E. Gerzel, Peter Calomiris, Dennis C. Haney Jul 2017

Phylogenetic Signals In Detoxification Pathways In Cyprinid And Centrarchid Species In Relation To Sensitivity To Environmental Pollutants, Peter Van Den Hurk, Lindsay E. Gerzel, Peter Calomiris, Dennis C. Haney

Publications

Observations in a previous study on biomarker responses in fish collected from urban creeks in Greenville, SC, indicated that there might be considerable differences in the expression of biotransformation enzymes in chub and sunfish species. To further investigate these species differences a dosing experiment was performed in which bluehead and creek chub (Nocomis leptocephalus and Semotilus atromaculatus), and redbreast sunfish, pumpkinseed, and bluegill (Lepomis auritus, L. gibbosus, and L. macrochirus) were injected with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a model compound for common pollutants in urban creeks. Fish were injected with BaP doses of 0, 25 and 50 mg/kg ...


A Revision Of Prespelea Park (Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae), Michael S. Caterino, Laura M. Vásquez-Vélez Jul 2017

A Revision Of Prespelea Park (Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae), Michael S. Caterino, Laura M. Vásquez-Vélez

Publications

We revise the genus Prespelea Park, redefining and redescribing the two previously known species, P.copelandi Park and P. quirsfeldi Park, and adding ten new species: P. parki Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P.minima Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. morsei Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. divergens Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. carltoni Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. myersae Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. georgiensis Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. enigma Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. wagneriCaterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., and P. basalis Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n.. The genus is still only known from a relatively small area in the ...


The Influence Of Exurban Landscapes And Local Site Characteristics On Riparian Vegetation, Nathan Weaver, Kyle Barrett, Don L. Hagan Jun 2017

The Influence Of Exurban Landscapes And Local Site Characteristics On Riparian Vegetation, Nathan Weaver, Kyle Barrett, Don L. Hagan

Publications

The southern Appalachian Mountains have experienced large population growth and a change in land use in the past 30 years. The majority of development has been low density, suburban land, known as exurban development. The long-term effects of exurbanization on riparian vegetative communities in the southeastern Appalachian Mountains are not well known. We sought to determine if vegetative community composition and structure change as a function of watershed–level variables such as time since neighborhood development or percent impervious surface within the watershed. We also assessed local–scale measures of disturbance such as canopy cover and basal area. Over two ...


Cancer Cell Redirection Biomarker Discovery Using A Mutual Information Approach, Kimberly Roche, F. Alex Feltus, Jang Pyo Park, Marie-May Coissieux, Chenyan Chang, Vera B.S. Chan, Mohamed Bentires-Alj, Brian W. Booth Jun 2017

Cancer Cell Redirection Biomarker Discovery Using A Mutual Information Approach, Kimberly Roche, F. Alex Feltus, Jang Pyo Park, Marie-May Coissieux, Chenyan Chang, Vera B.S. Chan, Mohamed Bentires-Alj, Brian W. Booth

Publications

Introducing tumor-derived cells into normal mammary stem cell niches at a sufficiently high ratio of normal to tumorous cells causes those tumor cells to undergo a change to normal mammary phenotype and yield normal mammary progeny. This phenomenon has been termed cancer cell redirection. We have developed an in vitro model that mimics in vivo redirection of cancer cells by the normal mammary microenvironment. Using the RNA profiling data from this cellular model, we examined high-level characteristics of the normal, redirected, and tumor transcriptomes and found the global expression profiles clearly distinguish the three expression states. To identify potential redirection ...


Exchange Of Polar Lipids From Adults To Neonates In Daphnia Magna: Perturbations In Sphingomyelin Allocation By Dietary Lipids And Environmental Toxicants, Namrata Sengupta, Delaney C. Reardon, Patrick D. Gerard, William S. Baldwin May 2017

Exchange Of Polar Lipids From Adults To Neonates In Daphnia Magna: Perturbations In Sphingomyelin Allocation By Dietary Lipids And Environmental Toxicants, Namrata Sengupta, Delaney C. Reardon, Patrick D. Gerard, William S. Baldwin

Publications

Because xenosensing nuclear receptors are also lipid sensors that regulate lipid allocation, we hypothesized that toxicant-induced modulation of HR96 activity would alter lipid profiles and the balance between adult survival and neonate production following exposure in Daphnia magna. Adult daphnids were exposed to unsaturated fatty acid- and toxicant- activators or inhibitors of HR96 and later starved to test whether chemical exposure altered allocation toward survival or reproduction. The HR96 activators, linoleic acid and atrazine, decreased reproduction as expected with concomitant changes in the expression of HR96 regulated genes such as magro. The HR96 inhibitors, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and triclosan, increased ...


Biochemical Effects Of Pollutant Exposure In Fish From Urban Creeks In Greenville, Sc (Usa), Peter Van Den Hurk, Dennis C. Haney May 2017

Biochemical Effects Of Pollutant Exposure In Fish From Urban Creeks In Greenville, Sc (Usa), Peter Van Den Hurk, Dennis C. Haney

Publications

The city of Greenville, SC is a rapidly expanding urban area located on the Reedy River in the upstate of South Carolina. Historical and current point-source pollutants and runoff from impermeable surfaces have resulted in a contaminated river environment, which through previous studies was demonstrated to be reflected in biological effects in fish species in the river. Because it was not known how much smaller tributaries in the urbanized area were contributing to the pollution of the main stem of the Reedy River, we collected fish (bluehead chub (Nocomis leptocephalus), creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), and redbreast sunfish ...


Annotation Of The Nuclear Receptors In An Estuarine Fish Species, Fundulus Heteroclitus, William S. Baldwin May 2017

Annotation Of The Nuclear Receptors In An Estuarine Fish Species, Fundulus Heteroclitus, William S. Baldwin

Publications

The nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that respond to various internal as well as external cues such as nutrients, pheromones, and steroid hormones that play crucial roles in regulation and maintenance of homeostasis and orchestrating the physiological and stress responses of an organism. We annotated the Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog; Atlantic killifish) nuclear receptors. Mummichog are a non-migratory, estuarine fish with a limited home range often used in environmental research as a field model for studying ecological and evolutionary responses to variable environmental conditions such as salinity, oxygen, temperature, pH, and toxic compounds because of their hardiness. F. heteroclitus ...


The Legionella Pneumophila Gig Operon Responds To Gold And Copper In Planktonic And Biofilm Cultures, Kathleen Jwanoswki, Christina Wells, Terri Bruce, Jennifer Rutt, Tabitha Banks, Tamara L. Mcnealy May 2017

The Legionella Pneumophila Gig Operon Responds To Gold And Copper In Planktonic And Biofilm Cultures, Kathleen Jwanoswki, Christina Wells, Terri Bruce, Jennifer Rutt, Tabitha Banks, Tamara L. Mcnealy

Publications

Legionella pneumophila contaminates man-made water systems and creates numerous exposure risks for Legionnaires’ Disease. Because copper/silver ionization is commonly used to control L. pneumophila, its mechanisms of metal response and detoxification are of significant interest. Here we describe an L. pneumophila operon with significant similarity to the GIG operon of Cupriavidus metallidurans. The Legionella GIG operon is present in a subset of strains and has been acquired as part of the ICE-βox 65-kB integrative conjugative element. We assessed GIG promoter activity following exposure of L. pneumophila to multiple concentrations of HAuCl4, CuSO4 and AgNO3. At 37 ...


A Leishmania Secretion System For The Expression Of Major Ampullate Spidroin Mimics, Todd A. Lyda, Elizabeth L. Wagner, Andre X. Bourg, Congyue Peng, Golnaz Najaf Tomaraei, Delphine Dean, Marian S. Kennedy, William R. Marcotte Jr. May 2017

A Leishmania Secretion System For The Expression Of Major Ampullate Spidroin Mimics, Todd A. Lyda, Elizabeth L. Wagner, Andre X. Bourg, Congyue Peng, Golnaz Najaf Tomaraei, Delphine Dean, Marian S. Kennedy, William R. Marcotte Jr.

Publications

Spider major ampullate silk fibers have been shown to display a unique combination of relatively high fracture strength and toughness compared to other fibers and show potential for tissue engineering scaffolds. While it is not possible to mass produce native spider silks, the potential ability to produce fibers from recombinant spider silk fibers could allow for an increased innovation rate within tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this pilot study, we improved upon a prior fabrication route by both changing the expression host and additives to the fiber pulling precursor solution to improve the performance of fibers. The new expression ...


Correlated Mutation In The Evolution Of Catalysis In Uracil Dna Glycosylase Superfamily, Bo Xia, Yingling Liu, Jose Guevara, Jing Li, Celeste Jilich, Ye Yang, Liangjiang Wang, Brian N. Dominy, Weiguo Cao Apr 2017

Correlated Mutation In The Evolution Of Catalysis In Uracil Dna Glycosylase Superfamily, Bo Xia, Yingling Liu, Jose Guevara, Jing Li, Celeste Jilich, Ye Yang, Liangjiang Wang, Brian N. Dominy, Weiguo Cao

Publications

Enzymes in Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily are essential for the removal of uracil. Family 4 UDGa is a robust uracil DNA glycosylase that only acts on double-stranded and single-stranded uracil-containing DNA. Based on mutational, kinetic and modeling analyses, a catalytic mechanism involving leaving group stabilization by H155 in motif 2 and water coordination by N89 in motif 3 is proposed. Mutual Information analysis identifies a complexed correlated mutation network including a strong correlation in the EG doublet in motif 1 of family 4 UDGa and in the QD doublet in motif 1 of family 1 UNG. Conversion of EG ...


Forest Composition And Growth In A Freshwater Forested Wetland Community Across A Salinity Gradient In South Carolina, Usa, Xijun Liu, William Conner, Bo Song, Anand D. Jayakaran Apr 2017

Forest Composition And Growth In A Freshwater Forested Wetland Community Across A Salinity Gradient In South Carolina, Usa, Xijun Liu, William Conner, Bo Song, Anand D. Jayakaran

Publications

Tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) of the southeastern United States are experiencing increased saltwater intrusion mainly due to sea-level rise. Inter-annual and intra-annual variability in forest productivity along a salinity gradient was studied on established sites. Aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of trees was monitored from 2013 to 2015 on three sites within a baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamp forest ecosystem in Strawberry Swamp on Hobcaw Barony, Georgetown County, South Carolina. Paired plots (20 × 25-m) were established along a water salinity gradient (0.8, 2.6, 4.6 PSU). Salinity was continuously monitored, litterfall was measured monthly, and growth of overstory ...


Double-Ended High Pressure Sodium Fixtures Decline Less Than 6% Over 2 Years And 5000 Hours, Jakob Johnson, Bruce Bugbee Apr 2017

Double-Ended High Pressure Sodium Fixtures Decline Less Than 6% Over 2 Years And 5000 Hours, Jakob Johnson, Bruce Bugbee

Publications

Double-ended (DE) high pressure sodium (HPS) lights with electronic ballasts are reported to age more slowly than the old mogul base technology with magnetic ballasts, but aging has not been well studied in a greenhouse environment. Both dirt accumulation and age can decrease output.


Undergraduate Research On General Aviation Hypoxia: A Student's Perspective, Timothy B. Holt, Jacqueline Luedtke, Claire G. Schindler Mar 2017

Undergraduate Research On General Aviation Hypoxia: A Student's Perspective, Timothy B. Holt, Jacqueline Luedtke, Claire G. Schindler

Publications

The problem this study addresses is the uncertainty of the common circumstances that general aviation pilots find themselves in that create a hypoxic state, as well as whether or not that pilot reported the occurrence to the proper establishments. The results of this study showed not only those that were impacted the greatest by hypoxia, but also a caring concern for reporting these events. The key elements for this research were:

• Level of flying experience that encountered hypoxia

• Reporting statistics

• Reasons for not reporting the event

• Suggestions for bettering flight physiology training


Compensatory Changes In Cyp Expression In Three Different Toxicology Mouse Models: Car-Null, Cyp3a-Null, And Cyp2b9/10/13-Null Mice, Ramiya Kumar, Linda C. Mota, Elizabeth J. Litoff, John P. Rooney, W. Tyler Boswell, Elliott Courter, Charles M. Henderson, Juan P. Hernandez, J. Christopher Corton, David D. Moore, William S. Baldwin Mar 2017

Compensatory Changes In Cyp Expression In Three Different Toxicology Mouse Models: Car-Null, Cyp3a-Null, And Cyp2b9/10/13-Null Mice, Ramiya Kumar, Linda C. Mota, Elizabeth J. Litoff, John P. Rooney, W. Tyler Boswell, Elliott Courter, Charles M. Henderson, Juan P. Hernandez, J. Christopher Corton, David D. Moore, William S. Baldwin

Publications

Targeted mutant models are common in mechanistic toxicology experiments investigating the absorption, metabolism, distribution, or elimination (ADME) of chemicals from individuals. Key models include those for xenosensing transcription factors and cytochrome P450s (CYP). Here we investigated changes in transcript levels, protein expression, and steroid hydroxylation of several xenobiotic detoxifying CYPs in constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)-null and two CYP-null mouse models that have subfamily members regulated by CAR; the Cyp3a-null and a newly described Cyp2b9/10/13-null mouse model. Compensatory changes in CYP expression that occur in these models may also occur in polymorphic humans, or may complicate interpretation of ...


Repository Review: Nasa Pubspace, Laura Pope Robbins Mar 2017

Repository Review: Nasa Pubspace, Laura Pope Robbins

Publications

Laura Pope Robbins is an advisor for The Charleston Advisor, and the review below is included in Scholarly Commons with the permission of the publisher.

PubSpace is a repository of full-text peer-reviewed articles resulting from NASA-funded research going back to 1961. The National Center for Biotechnology Information has integrated PubSpace into PubMed Central, a freely available repository of medical research. Using an established, stable, government-hosted platform for PubSpace seems to make sense. However, the lack of clear branding, an uneven application of phrase searching, and a missing thesaurus of NASA terminology highlights that this integration may not be the best.


Smug2 Dna Glycosylase From Pedobacter Heparinus As A New Subfamily In Udg Superfamily, Panjiao Pang, Ye Yang, Jing Li, Zhong Wang, Weiguo Cao, Wei Xie Mar 2017

Smug2 Dna Glycosylase From Pedobacter Heparinus As A New Subfamily In Udg Superfamily, Panjiao Pang, Ye Yang, Jing Li, Zhong Wang, Weiguo Cao, Wei Xie

Publications

Base deamination is a common type of DNA damage that occurs in all organisms. DNA repair mechanisms are essential to maintain genome integrity, in which the base excision repair (BER) pathway plays a major role in the removal of base damage. In the BER pathway, the uracil DNA glycosylase superfamily is responsible for excising the deaminated bases from DNA and generates apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified a family 3 SMUG1-like DNA glycoyslase from Pedobacter heparinus (named Phe SMUG2), which displays catalytic activities towards DNA containing uracil or hypoxanthine/xanthine. Phylogenetic analyses show that SMUG2 enzymes are ...


Poor Transferability Of A Distribution Model For A Widespread Coastal Marsh Bird In The Southeastern United States, Nicolette S. Roach, Elizabeth A. Hunter, Nathan P. Nibbelink, Kyle Barrett Mar 2017

Poor Transferability Of A Distribution Model For A Widespread Coastal Marsh Bird In The Southeastern United States, Nicolette S. Roach, Elizabeth A. Hunter, Nathan P. Nibbelink, Kyle Barrett

Publications

Species distribution models have been applied across a wide range of spatial scales to generate information for conservation planning. Understanding how well models transfer through space and time is important to promote effective species–habitat conservation. Here, we assess model transferability in coastal tidal marshes of the southeastern United States using count data of a widespread marsh bird: the Clapper Rail (Rallus crepitans). We developed species–habitat models at a state level in both South Carolina and Georgia, and then assessed how well top models from each state predicted abundance in the other state. Internally (locally) validated models performed well ...