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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effects Of Diet And Genetics On Growth Performance Of Pigs In Response To Repeated Exposure To Heat Stress, Wendy M. Rauw, E. Johana Mayorga, Soi Meng Lei, Jack C. M. Dekkers, John F. Patience, Nicholas K. Gabler, Steven M. Lonergan, Lance H. Baumgard Oct 2017

Effects Of Diet And Genetics On Growth Performance Of Pigs In Response To Repeated Exposure To Heat Stress, Wendy M. Rauw, E. Johana Mayorga, Soi Meng Lei, Jack C. M. Dekkers, John F. Patience, Nicholas K. Gabler, Steven M. Lonergan, Lance H. Baumgard

Animal Science Publications

Heat stress (HS) is one of the costliest issues in the U.S. pork industry. Aims of the present study were to determine the consequences of repeated exposure to HS on growth performance, and the effects of a high fiber diet, the genetic potential for high lean tissue accretion, and the genetic potential for residual feed intake (RFI) on resilience to HS. Barrows (n = 97) from three genetic lines (commercial, high RFI, low RFI) where subjected three times to a 4-day HS treatment (HS1, HS2, and HS3) which was preceded by a 9-day neutral (TN) adaptation period (TN1) and alternated ...


Physiological Mechanisms Through Which Heat Stress Compromises Reproduction In Pigs, Jason W. Ross, Benjamin J. Hale, Jacob T. Seibert, Matthew R. Romoser, Malavika K. Adur, Aileen F. Keating, Lance H. Baumgard Sep 2017

Physiological Mechanisms Through Which Heat Stress Compromises Reproduction In Pigs, Jason W. Ross, Benjamin J. Hale, Jacob T. Seibert, Matthew R. Romoser, Malavika K. Adur, Aileen F. Keating, Lance H. Baumgard

Animal Science Publications

Seasonal variations in environmental temperatures impose added stress on domestic species bred for economically important production traits. These heat‐mediated stressors vary on a seasonal, daily, or spatial scale, and negatively impact behavior and reduce feed intake and growth rate, which inevitably lead to reduced herd productivity. The seasonal infertility observed in domestic swine is primarily characterized by depressed reproductive performance, which manifests as delayed puberty onset, reduced farrowing rates, and extended weaning‐to‐estrus intervals. Understanding the effects of heat stress at the organismal, cellular, and molecular level is a prerequisite to identifying mitigation strategies that should reduce the ...


Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Potential Mechanisms Underlying Differential Heart Development In Fast- And Slow-Growing Broilers Under Heat Stress, Jibin Zhang, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont Apr 2017

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Potential Mechanisms Underlying Differential Heart Development In Fast- And Slow-Growing Broilers Under Heat Stress, Jibin Zhang, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Jibin Zhang

Background
Modern fast-growing broilers are susceptible to heart failure under heat stress because their relatively small hearts cannot meet increased need of blood pumping. To improve the cardiac tolerance to heat stress in modern broilers through breeding, we need to find the important genes and pathways that contribute to imbalanced cardiac development and frequent occurrence of heat-related heart dysfunction. Two broiler lines – Ross 708 and Illinois – were included in this study as a fast-growing model and a slow-growing model respectively. Each broiler line was separated to two groups at 21 days posthatch. One group was subjected to heat stress treatment ...


Development And Evaluation Of An Evaporation Model For Predicting Sprinkler Interval Time, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, John F. Patience Jan 2017

Development And Evaluation Of An Evaporation Model For Predicting Sprinkler Interval Time, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, John F. Patience

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Heat stress in swine causes decreased productivity and economic losses; hence, heat stress mitigation techniques must be developed to be economically and resource efficient. Current cooling strategies for livestock facilities, such as evaporative coolers or sprinklers, are governed by the Water Vapor Pressure (WVP) concentration gradient between the air (a function of dry-bulb temperature; tdb, Relative Humidity; RH, and atmospheric pressure) and the saturated WVP at the wet surface. Traditional sprinkler control systems operate at fixed ‘off’ intervals (i.e., drying) regardless if the thermal environment (TE) has the capacity or not to evaporate the dispersed water. Therefore, the objectives ...


Evaluating A New Shade For Feedlot Cattle Performance And Heat Stress, Morgan D. Hayes, Tami M. Brown-Brandl, Roger A. Eigenberg, Larry A. Kuehn, R. Mark Thallman Jan 2017

Evaluating A New Shade For Feedlot Cattle Performance And Heat Stress, Morgan D. Hayes, Tami M. Brown-Brandl, Roger A. Eigenberg, Larry A. Kuehn, R. Mark Thallman

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Heat stress in cattle results in decreased feed intake, lower daily gain, and potentially death in susceptible animals under intense conditions. A study was carried out during the summer of 2013 at the USDA-ARS U.S. Meat Animal Research Center feedlot evaluating the impact of shade on environmental conditions and cattle performance. A novel two-tiered shade was used in half of the 14 pens, each holding 30 animals. The shades were designed to reduce solar heat load by 40% to 60% and to provide traveling shade across the pen, providing varied amounts of shade area as well as varied solar ...


Case Study: Improving Heat Abatement Strategies For Lactating Dairy Cows In Southwest Kansas, L. Mendonca, A. Scanavez Jan 2017

Case Study: Improving Heat Abatement Strategies For Lactating Dairy Cows In Southwest Kansas, L. Mendonca, A. Scanavez

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Temperature loggers attached to intravaginal devices can be used to assess severity of heat stress in dairy cows. Vaginal temperature data collected using this method can be used to evaluate effectiveness of heat abatement systems. The goal for this study was to use vaginal temperature information to evaluate the impact of implementing new heat abatement strategies in order to minimize heat stress in lactating dairy cows. Vaginal temperature of cows from 2 dairies located in southwest Kansas were assessed during summers of 2014 and 2017. Dairy A improved the heat abatement systems in 2017, while Dairy B did not. Historical ...


The Effects Of An Evaporative Cooling System On Reducing Heat Load In Lactating Dairy Cows, J. R. Johnson, M. J. Wolf, J. Mcbride, Michael Brouk Jan 2017

The Effects Of An Evaporative Cooling System On Reducing Heat Load In Lactating Dairy Cows, J. R. Johnson, M. J. Wolf, J. Mcbride, Michael Brouk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 cooling systems on barn temperature, core body temperature (CBT), respiration rate, rear udder temperature, and lying time in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Twenty lactating Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: CONV, where cows were housed in a conventional, open-sidewall freestall barn equipped with feedline soakers and fans located over the feedline and stalls; and TUNNEL, where cows were housed in a tunnel-ventilated freestall barn utilizing an evaporative cooling system. TUNNEL was effective at reducing barn temperature humidity index (THI) compared to CONV, but failed ...


Association Between Reproduction And Postpartum Cow Health During Summer Months In Dairies Located In The Great Plains Region, L. Mendonca, A. Scanavez Jan 2017

Association Between Reproduction And Postpartum Cow Health During Summer Months In Dairies Located In The Great Plains Region, L. Mendonca, A. Scanavez

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Postpartum cow health has an impact on fertility of dairy cows, and impaired fertility in dairy herds ultimately influences profitability of dairy farms. During summer months, postpartum cow health and reproductive performance are affected in dairies located in the Great Plains region. The goal for this study was to evaluate farm-level associations between reproductive efficiency and postpartum cow health in dairy herds located in the Great Plains region. Data from June to August of 2010 to 2016 from 18 herds located in Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Texas were extracted. Overall pregnancy per AI was used as the measure of ...


Strategies For Improving Reproductive Performance In Gilts, Matthew Robert Romoser Jan 2017

Strategies For Improving Reproductive Performance In Gilts, Matthew Robert Romoser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Efficient pork production is largely dictated by the reproductive success of the sow. Identifying gilts with the ability to produce an optimal number of pigs over successive parities, and do so in as few days as possible is the fundamental key to improving sow lifetime productivity. Low heritability and effect of external factors such as heat stress, makes selecting for reproductive success problematic. Age at puberty is predictive of sow longevity and has been associated with vulva development at approximately 100 days of age. To determine the effectiveness of scoring gilts according to prepubertal vulva width as a means ...


Investigating The Ovarian Response To Endotoxemia, Katie Lee Bidne Jan 2017

Investigating The Ovarian Response To Endotoxemia, Katie Lee Bidne

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The ovary is responsible for production of steroid hormones and gametes in the female. It is endowed with a finite pool of primordial follicles, established in utero, that serve as the source of oocytes during a female’s reproductive lifespan. Alterations to ovarian function and signaling can result in disruptions to steroid hormone production, follicle activation, and oocyte quality. The degree of disruption is dependent on the developmental or estrous cycle stage of the animal as well as the duration of the perturbation. Inflammation can have deleterious effects on ovarian signaling and function, and can arise from multiple sources, such ...


Effects Of Chromium (Cr) And Zinc (Zn) Supplementation On Metabolism, Inflammation, And Production Parameters In Heat-Stressed And Nutrient-Restricted Pigs, Edith J. Mayorga Lozano Jan 2017

Effects Of Chromium (Cr) And Zinc (Zn) Supplementation On Metabolism, Inflammation, And Production Parameters In Heat-Stressed And Nutrient-Restricted Pigs, Edith J. Mayorga Lozano

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) adversely impacts all aspects of global agriculture, and it particularly constrains domestic animal productivity and compromises animal welfare. Heat-stressed animals employ physiologic and metabolic adjustments to ameliorate the heat insult; consequently, efficiency is compromised because nutrients are partly diverted away from production purposes to maintain euthermia. Reduced animal productivity during HS can also be attributed to the direct effects of HS (independent of nutrient intake) on metabolism, physiology, reproduction, and health. Therefore, identifying nutritional alternatives with the potential to ameliorate the detrimental effects of HS on economically important performance and health is of particular interest. The overall ...


Genetic Factors Associated With Thermal Tolerance In Grow-Finish Pigs As Measured By Feeding Behavior, Amanda Jeanne Cross Jan 2017

Genetic Factors Associated With Thermal Tolerance In Grow-Finish Pigs As Measured By Feeding Behavior, Amanda Jeanne Cross

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were: one, use electronic monitoring to determine feeding behavior patterns of grow-finish pigs throughout the year and to identify changes that occurred during heat stress events, and second, identify genetic markers associated with changes in feeding behavior due to heat stress. Pigs were placed in a grow-finish barn at approximately eight to ten weeks of age in 6 pens of 40 animals and monitored for 4-months. Gilts and barrows were from three different sire breeds, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire. Each pen had one feeder, designed to feed 5 animals at a time. Feeders were fitted ...