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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Pituitary Genomic Expression Profiles Of Steers Are Altered By Grazing Of High Vs. Low Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Forages, Qing Li, Raquel Hegge, Phillip J. Bridges, James C. Matthews Sep 2017

Pituitary Genomic Expression Profiles Of Steers Are Altered By Grazing Of High Vs. Low Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Forages, Qing Li, Raquel Hegge, Phillip J. Bridges, James C. Matthews

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Consumption of ergot alkaloid-containing tall fescue grass impairs several metabolic, vascular, growth, and reproductive processes in cattle, collectively producing a clinical condition known as “fescue toxicosis.” Despite the apparent association between pituitary function and these physiological parameters, including depressed serum prolactin; no reports describe the effect of fescue toxicosis on pituitary genomic expression profiles. To identify candidate regulatory mechanisms, we compared the global and selected targeted mRNA expression patterns of pituitaries collected from beef steers that had been randomly assigned to undergo summer-long grazing (89 to 105 d) of a high-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE; 0.746 μg/g ...


Assessing Plant-Wax Markers As A Tool To Estimate Intake And Diet Composition In Beef Cattle, Emily J. Hilburger Jul 2017

Assessing Plant-Wax Markers As A Tool To Estimate Intake And Diet Composition In Beef Cattle, Emily J. Hilburger

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Estimating feed efficiency of ruminants in grazing environments is difficult due to challenges in measuring intake and diet composition of animals that are freely grazing. Plant-wax markers, especially n-alkanes (ALK), have been shown to be a potential tool to calculate intake and diet composition.

Two indoor experiments were conducted in successive years to assess ALK reliability to facilely estimate DMI (EDMI) and diet composition. Heifers were fed a ration of 69.8% corn silage and 30% ground alfalfa with a daily supplement containing a ALK marker (C32). Using a pooled fecal sample increased the correlation between observed DMI ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Nutrient Composition And Digestibility Of California Perennial And Annual Grasses At Four Stages Of Growth, Elaina Cromer Jul 2017

A Comparative Analysis Of The Nutrient Composition And Digestibility Of California Perennial And Annual Grasses At Four Stages Of Growth, Elaina Cromer

Master's Theses

Beef products represent the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the state of California, valuing more than $3 billion from 2013 to 2015 (CDFA, 2016) and procure 90% of the income for the range livestock industry (FRAP, 2003). Forages found on California’s coastal, desert, foothill, and mountain ranges are the basis of the state’s beef cattle industry. Understanding their nutritional quality of these forages is important for their effective use (George et al., 2001a; Waterman et al., 2014). The objectives of this research were to investigate the nutritional characteristics, and in situ digestbilities in Angus beef cattle, of common ...


Use Of Byproducts In Forage-Based, Post-Weaning Beef Systems And Effects Of Serial Slaughter On Performance And Profitability, Robert G. Bondurant Jr. May 2017

Use Of Byproducts In Forage-Based, Post-Weaning Beef Systems And Effects Of Serial Slaughter On Performance And Profitability, Robert G. Bondurant Jr.

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Crude glycerin was included in high-forage beef growing diets at 0, 4, 8, and 12% diet DM to determine the effect on fiber digestion by evaluating changes in microbial species abundance, NDF digestibility, and VFA concentrations. Total tract NDF digestibility decreased with increasing inclusion of GLY in high-forage diets. However, there was no decrease in in situ NDF digestibility and Fibrobacter succinogenes microbial populations were unaffected, indicating that fiber digestion was not directly affected by inclusion of GLY. Acetate decreased while propionate and butyrate VFA proportions increased as GLY increased.

Spayed heifers were utilized in a 2-yr study to evaluate ...


Utilizing Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins To Improve Reproductive Efficiency In Cattle, Sydney Taylor Reese May 2017

Utilizing Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins To Improve Reproductive Efficiency In Cattle, Sydney Taylor Reese

Masters Theses

Diagnosing and maintaining successful pregnancies are one of the most important components to profitable and efficient management of beef and dairy cattle operations. Pregnancy loss is a major component of reproductive inefficiency and has been investigated less intensively in beef cattle than in dairy cattle. Pregnancy Associate Glycoproteins [PAGs] are placental products which have been identified as an accurate tool for pregnancy diagnosis and as substantial evidence indicates, markers of embryo and placental competence. The aim of these two studies is to further distinguish characteristics of pregnancies based on PAG concentration. Serial embryo transfer was used in beef heifers to ...


Expression Of Cytokine Genes And Receptors In White Blood Cells Associated With Divergent Body Weight Gain In Beef Steers, Amanda K. Lindholm-Perry, Virginia M. Cederberg, Jeremy R. Miles, Andrew P. Foote Jan 2017

Expression Of Cytokine Genes And Receptors In White Blood Cells Associated With Divergent Body Weight Gain In Beef Steers, Amanda K. Lindholm-Perry, Virginia M. Cederberg, Jeremy R. Miles, Andrew P. Foote

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Previous work examining the transcriptome of steer tissue samples from animals with divergent gain have shown a relationship with the expression of genes with functions in immune and inflammatory pathways. The process of mounting an immune or inflammatory response is energetically expensive and variation in cytokine responses may affect cattle production traits. In addition, a previous study has identified variation in the transcript abundance of numerous genes, including the cytokine gene IL6ST, in the circulating white blood cells of pigs associated with high and low residual feed intake (RFI) lines. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes ...


Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleulin-8 Receptor Genes And Their Relationship To Production Traits And Hair Coat Scores In Crossbred Cattle, Avery B. Deaton, Laura Meyer, Jeremy Powell, Charles F. Rosenkrans Jr. Jan 2017

Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleulin-8 Receptor Genes And Their Relationship To Production Traits And Hair Coat Scores In Crossbred Cattle, Avery B. Deaton, Laura Meyer, Jeremy Powell, Charles F. Rosenkrans Jr.

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Little is understood about how the diversity of genes, specifically the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and interleukin-8 receptor (CXCR2), are related to reproductive health and how this affects physical traits in cattle. Glucocorticoid receptors have been positively associated with higher milk yields, lactose content, feed intake, and feed conversion rates. Interleukin-8 genes are part of the innate immune response and help with many aspects of female reproductive health, such as protecting the embryo from the maternal immune system during pregnancy. The objective of this research was to identify polymorphisms in the GR and CXCR2 genes and to associate genotypes between the ...


Climate Dependent Heat Stress Mitigation Modeling For Dairy Cattle Housing, Katlyn R. Devoe, Steven J. Hoff, Brett C. Ramirez, Lance H. Baumgard Jan 2017

Climate Dependent Heat Stress Mitigation Modeling For Dairy Cattle Housing, Katlyn R. Devoe, Steven J. Hoff, Brett C. Ramirez, Lance H. Baumgard

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Dairy cattle are susceptible to heat stress with reported milk production loss exceeding 1.2 billion dollars in 2010. Heat stress occurs when the local thermal environment prevents adequate dissipation of metabolic heat production over extended periods. Implementing mitigation strategies in order to reduce heat stress has been a crucial need as dairy housing has transitioned from pasture to indoor housing systems. In order to maximize production, producers need the most effective cooling system to reduce heat stress. A heat stress mitigation model was developed using TMY3 data sets as inputs. The objectives of this research were to: (i) analyze ...


Evaluating A New Shade For Feedlot Cattle Performance And Heat Stress, Morgan D. Hayes, Tami M. Brown-Brandl, Roger A. Eigenberg, Larry A. Kuehn, R. Mark Thallman Jan 2017

Evaluating A New Shade For Feedlot Cattle Performance And Heat Stress, Morgan D. Hayes, Tami M. Brown-Brandl, Roger A. Eigenberg, Larry A. Kuehn, R. Mark Thallman

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Heat stress in cattle results in decreased feed intake, lower daily gain, and potentially death in susceptible animals under intense conditions. A study was carried out during the summer of 2013 at the USDA-ARS U.S. Meat Animal Research Center feedlot evaluating the impact of shade on environmental conditions and cattle performance. A novel two-tiered shade was used in half of the 14 pens, each holding 30 animals. The shades were designed to reduce solar heat load by 40% to 60% and to provide traveling shade across the pen, providing varied amounts of shade area as well as varied solar ...


Growing Yeast For Livestock, Zachary Christman Jan 2017

Growing Yeast For Livestock, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Over 500,000 tons of organic materials such as food scraps are disposed of each year in Wisconsin. A large percentage of this material could be composted or turned into useful products.5 The purpose of this article is to educate farmers and organizations on how to turn food waste into a high value food source for livestock. Yeast can be grown at any time of the year without the large inputs of agricultural chemicals and machinery that is common with other feed production methods. A yeast growing facility can be scalable to any size the producer wants such as ...


Twenty-Four Hour Holter Monitoring In Finishing Cattle Housed Outdoors, D. A. Frese, J. D. Thomason, C. D. Reinhardt, S. J. Bartle, D. N. Rethorst, G. H. Loneragan, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson Jan 2017

Twenty-Four Hour Holter Monitoring In Finishing Cattle Housed Outdoors, D. A. Frese, J. D. Thomason, C. D. Reinhardt, S. J. Bartle, D. N. Rethorst, G. H. Loneragan, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring, in the form of Holter monitoring, has been used in human and veterinary medicine for decades as an aid in the diagnosis and determination of appropriate therapy of heart rhythm disturbances. Within veterinary medicine, Holter monitors have been primarily used in companion animal species, yet little attention has been given to food animal species. Moreover, the heart rhythm in clinically normal cattle fed high concentrate diets and housed outdoors in confined drylot facilities has not been previously reported. In order to properly identify pathologic arrhythmias in cattle, the normal rhythm and arrhythmia prevalence in healthy cattle should ...


Searc Agricultural Research 2017, L. W. Lomas Jan 2017

Searc Agricultural Research 2017, L. W. Lomas

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Southeast Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research 2017. Topics include grazing and supplemental feed for beef cattle, forage, pasture, hay, grasses, legumes, tillage, fertilizer, corn, soybeans, wheat, and soil health and variability.


Differences In Efficacy Between Gamithromycin, Tilmicosin, And Tulathromycin As Metaphylactic Treatments In High Risk Calves For Bovine Respiratory Disease, T. Miller, M. E. Hubbert, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, C. D. Reinhardt Jan 2017

Differences In Efficacy Between Gamithromycin, Tilmicosin, And Tulathromycin As Metaphylactic Treatments In High Risk Calves For Bovine Respiratory Disease, T. Miller, M. E. Hubbert, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, C. D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The cost of Bovine Respiratory Disease to the beef industry due to death, poorer conversions, and therapy is estimated to cost more than $3 billion per year. Identifying and mitigating Bovine Respiratory Disease in cattle can be difficult due to the increased susceptibility for Bovine Respiratory Disease in high risk cattle. One management option to minimize an outbreak of respiratory disease is the use of metaphylaxis, the mass treatment of a group of calves to reduce the incidence and adverse effects of respiratory disease on high risk animals. Criteria used to determine the necessity of metaphylactic treatment against Bovine Respiratory ...


Prevalence Of Horns In A Pen Does Not Affect Incidence Of Carcass Bruising In Feedlot Cattle, M. E. Youngers, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, J. C. Simroth, S. J. Bartle, M Siemens, C. D. Reinhardt Jan 2017

Prevalence Of Horns In A Pen Does Not Affect Incidence Of Carcass Bruising In Feedlot Cattle, M. E. Youngers, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, J. C. Simroth, S. J. Bartle, M Siemens, C. D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Disbudding and dehorning are two common practices done to remove horns from cattle to prevent injury to handlers and other cattle and to reduce bruising of carcasses. Bruised carcasses result in substantial reduction in profit due to trim loss, increased sanitation risk, and loss in time on the rail during processing. Previous research has indicated that cattle with horns increased hide damage of cohorts and caused injury to handlers. Cattle with horns cause circular shaped bruises that lead to trim loss due to bruising. Cattle with tipped horns do not have a lower bruising rate than cattle with intact horns ...


Liver Abscess Severity At Slaughter Does Not Affect Meat Tenderness And Sensory Attributes In Commercially Finished Beef Cattle Fed Without Tylosin Phosphate, E. J. Mccoy, T. G. O'Quinn, E. F. Schwandt, C. D. Reinhardt, D. U. Thomson Jan 2017

Liver Abscess Severity At Slaughter Does Not Affect Meat Tenderness And Sensory Attributes In Commercially Finished Beef Cattle Fed Without Tylosin Phosphate, E. J. Mccoy, T. G. O'Quinn, E. F. Schwandt, C. D. Reinhardt, D. U. Thomson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Liver abscesses are a significant problem in the United States’ cattle feeding industry, costing the industry an estimated $15.9 million annually in liver condemnation, trim losses, and reduced carcass weights and quality grades. Recent reported incidence rates of liver abscesses at slaughter range from 10 to 20%. Liver abscess incidence may be influenced by a number of factors including: breed, gender, diet, days on feed, cattle type, season, and geographical location. Liver abscesses typically occur secondary to rumen insults caused by acidosis or rumenitis. It has been proposed that pathogens associated with liver abscess formation enter the blood stream ...


Climate Dependent Heat Stress Mitigation Modeling For Dairy Cattle Housing, Katlyn Renea Devoe Jan 2017

Climate Dependent Heat Stress Mitigation Modeling For Dairy Cattle Housing, Katlyn Renea Devoe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Production loss due to heat stress is a major concern in the livestock industry. Dairy cattle are especially susceptible to heat stress. Milk production loss due to heat stress accounted for about 1.2 billion dollars in 2010 (Lundeen, 2014). Heat stress occurs when combinations of environmental parameters (temperature, airspeed, relative humidity, etc) reach levels where the animal struggles to release internally produced heat. Implementing mitigation strategies to reduce heat stress has been a crucial need as dairy housing has transitioned from pasture to indoor housing systems.

Currently, limited recommendations exist directing producers towards implementing one cooling system over another ...


Methods To Enhance Embryo Quality And Recovery Rates In Superovulated Beef Cows, Caitlin Elizabeth Wiley Jan 2017

Methods To Enhance Embryo Quality And Recovery Rates In Superovulated Beef Cows, Caitlin Elizabeth Wiley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Methods to enhance embryo quality and recovery rates in superovulated beef cows were investigated. In the first study, uteri from superovulated heifers on day of recovery were harvested immediately following exsanguination and sectioned into 3 segments per horn plus the oviduct (8 sections per total uterus). Each section was thoroughly flushed through individual filters, searched and evaluated. Sectioning of the uterine horns impacted location of embryos with the majority of embryos located in the tip and middle third of each horn. In comparing these two sections, a greater percentage of the embryos were in the tip than in the middle ...


Implications Of Trace Mineral Supplementation Strategies To Overcome The Effects Of High Antagonist Diets In Feedlot Cattle, Sarah Jeanette Hartman Jan 2017

Implications Of Trace Mineral Supplementation Strategies To Overcome The Effects Of High Antagonist Diets In Feedlot Cattle, Sarah Jeanette Hartman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Trace minerals (TM) serve functions in multiple enzymes and proteins that are essential to growth, development, and antioxidant status. As a result, TM are typically supplemented in ruminant diets to ensure animals maintain adequate status; however, a number of interactions can occur in the rumen that may inhibit the absorption of TM. Sulfur decreases the absorption of TM and can decrease cattle performance. The addition of dietary Mo to a diet containing high concentrations of S can also irreversibly inhibit the absorption of Cu. Hydroxy TM and injectable TM are novel supplements and little is known about the effectiveness of ...


Lysine Bioavailability Of Two Lipid Coated Lysine Products After Exposure To Silages With Different Acidity, Jessica N. Reiners Jan 2017

Lysine Bioavailability Of Two Lipid Coated Lysine Products After Exposure To Silages With Different Acidity, Jessica N. Reiners

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Three experiments were conducted to determine bioavailability of 2 lipid coated Lys products (EB and EC). In an initial experiment, Lys disassociation from 2 lipid coated Lys products was best described by a first-order kinetic model after incubation in alfalfa- or corn-silage at 2 different amounts of acidity. Greater amounts of Lys immediately disassociated from EC (15.7%) than EB (4.9%; P < 0.05). Lysine that initially disassociated in corn silage at low pH (0.5%) was less than corn silage at a more neutral pH (18.7%), whereas Lys that initially disassociated in alfalfa silage was not affected (P = 0.26) by pH. Lysine that slowly disassociated from lipid coated Lys differed by product (P = 0.01), and acidity (P < 0.01) affected amounts of Lys that slowly disassociated differently within alfalfa- or corn-silage (pH × silage = 0.02). Greater amounts of Lys disassociated from acidic corn silage (79%) than neutral corn silage (32%; P = 0.01). However, amounts of Lys that slowly disassociated from alfalfa silage was not impacted by acidity (P = 0.40). Additionally, amounts of Lys that did not disassociate (P < 0.04) within 24 h were greater (P < 0.04) when lipid coated Lys was mixed with neutral silages (44%) compared to acidic silages (21%). However, rate of Lys disassociation from lipid coated Lys products was not affected by acidity or exposure to alfalfa- or corn-silage (P = 0.21). In a second experiment, we measured in vitro ammonia release from EB and EC after mixing with alfalfa- or corn-silage at different amounts of acidity with or without monensin. Ammonia release from Lys increased (Quadratic < 0.01) with greater amounts of time; however, differences between in vitro cultures with added Lys and negative control were not detected until 36 h of incubation. By 36 h, all cultures containing added Lys were greater than the negative control. After 42 h of incubation, ammonia release from Lys was greatest from EC and when lipid and Lys-HCl in amounts identical to EB were provided to cultures; EB, Lys-HCl, and lipid and Lys in amounts identical to EC were intermediate. After 48 h of incubation, ammonia release from Lys in EB was greatest and Lys-HCl was least, but EC and amounts of lipid and Lys-HCl identical to either EB or EC were intermediate. Ammonia release from Lys were less from cultures containing monensin after 48 h of incubation. In experiment 3, 9 white-faced ewes (70.1 ± 5.2 kg BW; 5.3 ± 0.6 yr) were used to measure Lys bioavailability by a slope-ratio analysis from 2 lipid coated Lys products and Lys-HCl after mixing in corn silage. Plasma Lys concentrations increased (Linear < 0.01) in response to abomasal infusion of Lys, and bioavailability of EB, EC, and Lys- HCl were calculated to be 10.74%, 18.82%, and 11.87%, respectively. However, increases in plasma Lys from EB (Linear = 0.41) and Lys-HCl (Linear = 0.36) were not different from plasma Lys supported by diet alone, but the rate of increase in plasma Lys in response to EC tended (Linear = 0.15) to be greater than plasma Lys levels from diet. Evidently, manufacturing method among lipid coated Lys products as well as physical and chemical characteristics of diet can impact availability of Lys from lipid coated Lys products.


Progesterone Receptor And Prostaglandins Mediate Luteinizing Hormone-Induced Changes In Messenger Rnas For Adamts Proteases In Theca Cells Of Bovine Periovulatory Follicles, Erin L. Willis, Phillip J. Bridges, Joanne E. Fortune Jan 2017

Progesterone Receptor And Prostaglandins Mediate Luteinizing Hormone-Induced Changes In Messenger Rnas For Adamts Proteases In Theca Cells Of Bovine Periovulatory Follicles, Erin L. Willis, Phillip J. Bridges, Joanne E. Fortune

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Little is known about the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family of extracellular proteases in ovarian follicles of non‐rodent species, particularly in theca cells. In the present study, temporal changes in the abundance of mRNA encoding four ADAMTS subtypes and hormonal regulation of mRNA encoding two subtypes were investigated in theca interna cells during the periovulatory period in cattle. Gonadotropin‐releasing hormone (GnRH) was injected into animals to induce a luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle‐stimulating hormone (FSH) surge, and follicles were obtained at 0 hr post‐GnRH (preovulatory) or at 6, 12, 18, or 24 hr ...


Effect Of Grazing Pressure On Cattle Grazing Cool Season Annual Forages, Brooke Brunsvig Jan 2017

Effect Of Grazing Pressure On Cattle Grazing Cool Season Annual Forages, Brooke Brunsvig

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ruminants can use plant fiber to produce food products that provide nourishment to humans. However, a precise understanding of specific plants selected by grazing ruminants remains elusive. Many long- and short-term factors impact cattle grazing behavior. Ultimately, grazing behavior can affect forage available for grazing, nutrient density of forage, dry matter intake, and animal performance. A myriad of grazing management strategies have been developed utilizing animal behavior to allow more efficient use of forage resources. Many management strategies based on manipulation of grazing behavior are simple and cost effective. Optimal performance of individual animals and amount of animal products produced ...