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2017

Animal Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Resistant And Susceptible Chicken Lines Show Distinctive Responses To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection In The Lung Transcriptome, Melissa S. Deist, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont Dec 2017

Resistant And Susceptible Chicken Lines Show Distinctive Responses To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection In The Lung Transcriptome, Melissa S. Deist, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

Background Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a threat to poultry production worldwide. A better understanding of mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility to this virus will improve measures for NDV prevention and control. Males and females from resistant Fayoumi and susceptible Leghorn lines were either challenged with a lentogenic strain of the virus or given a mock infection at 3 weeks of age. The lung transcriptomes generated by RNA-seq were studied using contrasts across the challenged and nonchallenged birds, the two lines, and three time points post-infection, and by using Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGNCA).

Results Genetic line and sex ...


Evaluating Behavioral Responses Of Nesting Lesser Snow Geese To Unmanned Aircraft Surveys, Andrew Barnas, Robert Newman, Christopher J. Felege, Michael P. Corcoran, Samuel D. Hervey, Tanner J. Stechmann, Robert F. Rockwell, Susan N. Ellis-Felege Dec 2017

Evaluating Behavioral Responses Of Nesting Lesser Snow Geese To Unmanned Aircraft Surveys, Andrew Barnas, Robert Newman, Christopher J. Felege, Michael P. Corcoran, Samuel D. Hervey, Tanner J. Stechmann, Robert F. Rockwell, Susan N. Ellis-Felege

Publications and Research

Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are relatively new technologies gaining popularity among wildlife biologists. As with any new tool in wildlife science, operating protocols must be developed through rigorous protocol testing. Few studies have been conducted that quantify the impacts UAS may have on unhabituated individuals in the wild using standard aerial survey protocols. We evaluated impacts of unmanned surveys by measuring UAS-induced behavioral responses during the nesting phase of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) in Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada. We conducted surveys with a fixed-wing Trimble UX5 and monitored behavioral changes via discreet surveillance cameras at 25 nests ...


Comparative Study Of Spinning Field Development In Two Species Of Araneophagic Spiders (Araneae, Mimetidae, Australomimetus), Mark A. Townley, Danilo Harms Dec 2017

Comparative Study Of Spinning Field Development In Two Species Of Araneophagic Spiders (Araneae, Mimetidae, Australomimetus), Mark A. Townley, Danilo Harms

Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences Scholarship

External studies of spider spinning fields allow us to make inferences about internal silk gland biology, including what happens to silk glands when the spider molts. Such studies often focus on adults, but juveniles can provide additional insight on spinning apparatus development and character polarity. Here we document and describe spinning fields at all stadia in two species of pirate spider (Mimetidae: Australomimetus spinosus, A. djuka). Pirate spiders nest within the ecribellate orb-building spiders (Araneoidea), but are vagrant, araneophagic members that do not build prey-capture webs. Correspondingly, they lack aggregate and flagelliform silk glands (AG, FL), specialized for forming prey-capture ...


How Has Selection For Residual Feed Intake (Rfi) Affected Nursery And Finisher Pig’S Feeding Behavior And Performance?, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Jessica Colpoys, Jack Dekkers, Nicholas Gabler, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven Lonergan, John F. Patience, Anna K. Johnson Dec 2017

How Has Selection For Residual Feed Intake (Rfi) Affected Nursery And Finisher Pig’S Feeding Behavior And Performance?, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Jessica Colpoys, Jack Dekkers, Nicholas Gabler, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven Lonergan, John F. Patience, Anna K. Johnson

Animal Science White Papers, Technical Reports, & Fact Sheets

Feed is the largest cost in pork production; therefore, improving finisher pig feed efficiency can increase producer profitability. Improving feed efficiency can support industry competitiveness, decrease the demand on global feed resources, and complement environmental sustainability. Selective breeding for residual feed intake (RFI) shows promise in meeting these increased demands. However, it is important to balance the benefits of feed efficiency selection with the pig’s feeding behavior and performance. Therefore, this factsheet will discuss feeding behavior and performance research on RFI selection conducted at Iowa State University.


Large Birds Of Prey, Policies That Alter Food Availability And Air Traffic: A Risky Mix For Human Safety, Rubén Moreno-Opo, Antoni Margalida Dec 2017

Large Birds Of Prey, Policies That Alter Food Availability And Air Traffic: A Risky Mix For Human Safety, Rubén Moreno-Opo, Antoni Margalida

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Raptors are considered to pose one of the greatest aviation bird strike risk. We investigated raptor bird strikes reported at the largest Spanish airport (Adolfo Suárez Madrid Barajas; AS-MB) from 2009 to 2016 to determine the factors contributing to the increased incidences and develop recommendations to mitigate the risks. We hypothesized that increased raptor bird strikes resulted from changes in foraging and dispersal patterns of Iberian Peninsula vultures (Aegypius spp. and Gyps spp.) after 2004-2005. We used information on raptor bird strikes obtained from official databases and published studies, reported incidences of raptor bird strikes and their characteristics (i.e ...


Learning To Live With Wolves: Community-Based Conservation In The Blackfoot Valley Of Montana, Seth M. Wilson, Elizabeth H. Bradley, Gregory A. Neudecker Dec 2017

Learning To Live With Wolves: Community-Based Conservation In The Blackfoot Valley Of Montana, Seth M. Wilson, Elizabeth H. Bradley, Gregory A. Neudecker

Human–Wildlife Interactions

We built on the existing capacity of a nongovernmental organization called the Blackfoot Challenge to proactively address wolf (Canis lupus)-livestock conflicts in the Blackfoot Valley of Montana. Beginning in 2007, wolves started rapidly recolonizing the valley, raising concerns among livestock producers. We built on an existing program to mitigate conflicts associated with an expanding grizzly bear population and worked within the community to build a similar program to reduce wolf conflicts using an integrative, multi-method approach. Efforts to engage the community included one-on-one meetings, workshops, field tours, and regular group meetings as well as opportunities to participate in data ...


Characterization Of Calcium Homeostasis Parameters In Trpv3 And Cav3.2 Double Null Mice, Aujan Mehregan Dec 2017

Characterization Of Calcium Homeostasis Parameters In Trpv3 And Cav3.2 Double Null Mice, Aujan Mehregan

Masters Theses

In mammals, calcium influx is required for oocyte maturation and egg activation, as it supports the persistent calcium oscillations induced by fertilization. These oscillations are required for the initiation of embryo development. The molecular identities of the plasma membrane calcium-permeant channels that underlie calcium influx are not established. Among these channels, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid, member 3 (TRPV3) allows divalent cations, namely strontium (Sr2+) and calcium (Ca2+) with high permeability, into cells, and its expression pattern seems to predict an essential role in the initiation of development. Another channel that was identified to be expressed in oocytes/eggs ...


Inhibition Of Growth And Ammonia Production Of Ruminal Hyper Ammonia-Producing Bacteria By Chinook Or Galena Hops After Long-Term Storage, Michael D. Flythe, Brittany E. Harlow, Glen E. Aiken, Gloria L. Gellin, Isabelle A. Kagan, Jesse Pappas Dec 2017

Inhibition Of Growth And Ammonia Production Of Ruminal Hyper Ammonia-Producing Bacteria By Chinook Or Galena Hops After Long-Term Storage, Michael D. Flythe, Brittany E. Harlow, Glen E. Aiken, Gloria L. Gellin, Isabelle A. Kagan, Jesse Pappas

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Surplus hops (Humulus lupulus L.) that are not needed by the brewing industry could be used as a feed supplement for cattle and other ruminants. Previous research indicates that antimicrobial hops plant secondary metabolites (i.e., α- and β-acids) inhibit methane and ammonia production and promote the growth of ruminant animals. The goal was to determine that hop pellets produced for brewing still possessed the requisite antimicrobial activity after 5-year storage. HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) analysis indicated that the α- and β-acid concentrations in two varieties of hops were relatively stable after 5 years of storage under N2 ...


Integrating Herbivore Population Dynamics Into A Global Land Biosphere Model: Plugging Animals Into The Earth System, Shree R. S. Dangal, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun Lu, Wei Ren, Shufen Pan, Jia Yang, Nicola Di Cosmo, Amy Hessl Dec 2017

Integrating Herbivore Population Dynamics Into A Global Land Biosphere Model: Plugging Animals Into The Earth System, Shree R. S. Dangal, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun Lu, Wei Ren, Shufen Pan, Jia Yang, Nicola Di Cosmo, Amy Hessl

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Mammalian herbivores are an essential component of grassland and savanna ecosystems, and with feedbacks to the climate system. To date, the response and feedbacks of mammalian herbivores to changes in both abiotic and biotic factors are poorly quantified and not adequately represented in the current global land surface modeling framework. In this study, we coupled herbivore population dynamics in a global land model (the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, DLEM 3.0) to simulate populations of horses, cattle, sheep, and goats, and their responses to changes in multiple environmental factors at the site level across different continents during 1980–2010. Simulated ...


Small-Animal Models Of Zika Virus, Justin G. Julander, Venkatraman Siddharthan Dec 2017

Small-Animal Models Of Zika Virus, Justin G. Julander, Venkatraman Siddharthan

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can result in serious consequences, including severe congenital manifestations, persistent infection in the testes and neurologic sequelae. After a pandemic emergence, the virus has spread to much of the new world and has been introduced to many countries outside of endemic areas as infected travelers return to their home countries. Rodent models have been important in gaining a better understanding of the wide range of disease etiologies associated with ZIKV infection and for the initial phase of developing countermeasures to prevent or treat viral infections. We discuss herein the advantages and disadvantages of small animal models ...


Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh Dec 2017

Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh

Capstones

This capstone is a data-driven investigation into New York City's rat problem. By using publicly available government data to map rat activity in NYC, I identified several socio-economic variables that correlate with rat populations at the community district, borough, and city-scale. I used these findings (mainly that rat problems are linked to lower incomes) as the basis of an investigation, which includes interviews with residents, experts, and city officials. Prof. Bobby Corrigan, urban rodentologist and formerly with the NYC Department of Health criticizes the city's efforts for the first time on the record.

https://thomasseiyawalsh.wixsite.com/ratstone


Resource Selection, Survival, And Departure Of Adult Female Mallards From The Lake St. Clair Region During Autumn And Winter, Matthew Palumbo Dec 2017

Resource Selection, Survival, And Departure Of Adult Female Mallards From The Lake St. Clair Region During Autumn And Winter, Matthew Palumbo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During autumn and winter, mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) maximize fitness through their spatiotemporal distribution to avoid mortality risks while balancing trade-offs to access foods to undergo migration and maintain homeostasis. Thousands of mallards use Lake St. Clair as it is an important, but threatened, migratory staging area in the Great Lakes. My goal was to understand how mallards were selecting resources in the region and potential relationships of selection strategies. My objectives were to estimate resource selection of adult female mallards, in relation to perceived risk of hunting mortality, and determine if selection strategies were related to survival and timing of ...


Four Legs Good, Two Legs Bad: How Slaughterhouse Safety Hasn’T Kept Up With The Times, Emily Ziemski Dec 2017

Four Legs Good, Two Legs Bad: How Slaughterhouse Safety Hasn’T Kept Up With The Times, Emily Ziemski

Capstones

From legal loopholes and outdated rules to undetectable infections and understaffing, the United States Department of Agriculture may not be doing all it can to make sure the American public’s health isn't at risk. As the people of the United States consume over 500 million pounds of beef a year, food safety policy and slaughterhouses are falling behind in proper procedural measurements in the beef industry.

emziemski.com/capstone


Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler Dec 2017

Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), constituents of crude oil, are implicated as a potent source of adverse toxicological effects on living organisms. To model the effects of PAHs in response to environmental oil spill disasters a species of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) was captured and exposed to crude oil in a laboratory-controlled setting. Over a period of 7 days, fish were dosed with crude oil by gavage, culled, and organs were harvested for analysis. Excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) of gall bladder tissue homogenates was used to verify exposure. Effects of PAHs on the p53 gene were evaluated as an indicator of genotoxicity ...


Organizational Effects Of Defeminizing Toxicants: Lessons Learned From An Environmental Sentinel Organism, The Fathead Minnow., Jonathan Ali Dec 2017

Organizational Effects Of Defeminizing Toxicants: Lessons Learned From An Environmental Sentinel Organism, The Fathead Minnow., Jonathan Ali

Theses & Dissertations

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that interfere with hormone function and are increasingly detected in aquatic environments, where they elicit adverse effects from exposed organisms. The toxicological effects of EDCs can be described as either activational (reversible) or organizational (irreversible), where the latter are associated with adverse outcomes in reproductive performance of adult fish. However, few studies have investigated the organizational impacts of anti-estrogenic or “defeminizing” EDCs, e.g. agrichemicals or pharmacological agents, in an environmentally-relevant or “sentinel” species. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of early-life EDC-initiated changes in estrogenic gene expression on organizational ...


Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, Katherine E. Mathers Dec 2017

Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, Katherine E. Mathers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hibernation, characterized by a seasonal reduction in metabolism and body temperature, allows animals to conserve energy when environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food availability) are unfavourable. During hibernation, small mammals such as the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) cycle between two distinct metabolic states: torpor, where metabolic rate is suppressed by >95% and body temperature falls to ~5 °C, and interbout euthermia (IBE), where metabolic rate and body temperature rapidly increase and are maintained at euthermic levels several hours. Suppression of metabolism during entrance into torpor is paralleled by rapid suppression of liver mitochondrial metabolism. In my thesis, I aimed ...


Translating Statistical Species-Habitat Models To Interactive Decision Support Tools, Lyndsie S. Wszola, Victoria L. Simonsen, Erica F. Stuber, Caitlyn R. Gillespie, Lindsey N. Messinger, Karie L. Decker, Jeffrey J. Lusk, Christopher F. Jorgensen, Andrew A. Bishop, Joseph J. Fontaine Dec 2017

Translating Statistical Species-Habitat Models To Interactive Decision Support Tools, Lyndsie S. Wszola, Victoria L. Simonsen, Erica F. Stuber, Caitlyn R. Gillespie, Lindsey N. Messinger, Karie L. Decker, Jeffrey J. Lusk, Christopher F. Jorgensen, Andrew A. Bishop, Joseph J. Fontaine

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

Understanding species-habitat relationships is vital to successful conservation, but the tools used to communicate species-habitat relationships are often poorly suited to the information needs of conservation practitioners. Here we present a novel method for translating a statistical species-habitat model, a regression analysis relating ring-necked pheasant abundance to landcover, into an interactive online tool. The Pheasant Habitat Simulator combines the analytical power of the R programming environment with the user-friendly Shiny web interface to create an online platform in which wildlife professionals can explore the effects of variation in local landcover on relative pheasant habitat suitability within spatial scales relevant to ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xiii. Review Of Pandinops Hawkeri, P. Peeli, P. Platycheles, And P. Pugilator (Scorpionidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Hassan Sh Abdirahman Elmi Dec 2017

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xiii. Review Of Pandinops Hawkeri, P. Peeli, P. Platycheles, And P. Pugilator (Scorpionidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Hassan Sh Abdirahman Elmi

Euscorpius

Pandinops platycheles (Werner, 1916) is diagnosed and fully complemented with color photos of types, and Pandinops pugilator (Pocock, 1900) is diagnosed and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as its habitat. The hemispermatophore of P. pugilator is illustrated and described for the first time. Pandinus hawkeri Pocock, 1900 and Pandinus peeli Pocock, 1900 are synonymized with Pandinops pugilator (Pocock, 1900).


Expression And Role Of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 2 And Its Receptor In Mammals, Amy Desaulniers, Rebecca A. Cederberg, Clay A. Lents, Brett R. White Dec 2017

Expression And Role Of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 2 And Its Receptor In Mammals, Amy Desaulniers, Rebecca A. Cederberg, Clay A. Lents, Brett R. White

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) and its receptor (GnRHR1) drive mammalian reproduction via regulation of the gonadotropins. Yet, a second form of GnRH (GnRH2) and its receptor (GnRHR2) also exist in mammals. GnRH2 has been completely conserved throughout 500 million years of evolution, signifying high selection pressure and a critical biological role. However, the GnRH2 gene is absent (e.g., rat) or inactivated (e.g., cow and sheep) in some species but retained in others (e.g., human, horse, and pig). Likewise, many species (e.g., human, chimpanzee, cow, and sheep) retain the GnRHR2 gene but lack the appropriate coding sequence ...


Habitat Use Of Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus Limbatus) At Fishing Piers, Kelsey L. Spencer Dec 2017

Habitat Use Of Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus Limbatus) At Fishing Piers, Kelsey L. Spencer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) can be observed near fishing piers throughout the summer along the northeast coast of South Carolina. These piers attract and support a wide variety of potential prey and sharks are able to forage on fishers’ discards with minimal energetic cost. I tagged 12 blacktip sharks with acoustic transmitters, monitored piers with acoustic receivers, and conducted pier-creel surveys to determine the habitat use of blacktip sharks at fishing piers, factors that influenced residence time and presence/absence at piers, and any cyclical patterns in visits to piers. Data were analyzed with pier association indices (PAI), mixed models ...


Clinical And Subclinical Mastitis Causing Pathogens In Tennessee Dairy Cattle, Michelle Marie Untch Dec 2017

Clinical And Subclinical Mastitis Causing Pathogens In Tennessee Dairy Cattle, Michelle Marie Untch

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Milk quality impacts the producers and consumers. Higher milk quality leads to a longer shelf life, improved cheese making ability, and improved taste. Milk quality can be severely impacted by intramammary infections which can result in mastitis. Identifying the common mastitis causing pathogens in milk samples collected from subclinical and clinical mastitis cases can assist the producer in managing mastitis. This can lead to improved milk quality, improved cow health, and reduced need for antibiotics to treat mastitis. This study investigates the prevalence of bacteria causing intramammary infection in dairy cattle of Tennessee. Milk samples were collected from 9 farms ...


Identification And Quantification Of Cyanide And Its Metabolites In Lemur Urine, Jeremy Peralta Dec 2017

Identification And Quantification Of Cyanide And Its Metabolites In Lemur Urine, Jeremy Peralta

Student Theses

Cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the monovalent groups of carbon and nitrogen. This substance is considered a rapidly acting deadly chemical. However, some animals such as lemurs consume food products that are known to contain elevated levels of cyanide without major consequences. The mechanism by which the lemur can handle this high exposure to cyanide is unknown. In this study, we developed and validated two analytical methods for the determination of cyanide and two metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in lemur urine. The method was applied to 47 authentic lemur urine samples collected from 4 different species ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xii. Pandinurus Hangarale Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland And A Review Of Type Locality And True Distribution Of Pandinurus Smithi (Pocock, 1897), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Ahmed Ibrahim Awale, Jana Štundlová, František Šťáhlavský Dec 2017

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xii. Pandinurus Hangarale Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland And A Review Of Type Locality And True Distribution Of Pandinurus Smithi (Pocock, 1897), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Ahmed Ibrahim Awale, Jana Štundlová, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Pandinurus hangarale sp. n. from Somaliland is described and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as its habitat. Hemispermatophore of P. hangarale sp. n. is illustrated and described. In addition to the analyses of external morphology and hemispermatophores, we also describe the karyotype of P. hangarale sp. n. (2n=120). Known localities of Pandinurus smithi (Pocock, 1897) are compiled; the type locality is not in Somaliland but in Ethiopia (Turfa) and in reality it is probably an endemic of Ethiopia.


Assessing Preservation Priorities Of Caves And Karst Areas Using The Frequency Of Endemic Cave-Dwelling Species, Eugen Nitzu, Marius Vlaicu, Andrei Giurginca, Ioana N. Meleg, Ionut Popa, Augustin Nae, Ştefan Baba Dec 2017

Assessing Preservation Priorities Of Caves And Karst Areas Using The Frequency Of Endemic Cave-Dwelling Species, Eugen Nitzu, Marius Vlaicu, Andrei Giurginca, Ioana N. Meleg, Ionut Popa, Augustin Nae, Ştefan Baba

International Journal of Speleology

Endemic and rare species as bioindicators of habitat vulnerability were used to develop protection and management plans for biotope prioritization (mainly islands habitats, lava tubes or groundwaters). Due to their narrow distribution, the endemic species (species confined to a restricted geographic area) are more susceptible to ecological disequilibrium and habitat loss than the widespread ones. Consequently, endemics become endangered in the context of ecological disturbance caused by anthropogenic pressure, making them suitable candidates to assess environmental preservation needs. Taking into consideration that most of the stygobitic and troglobitic species are endemic and confined to specific karst areas, based on their ...


Forecasting The Spread And Invasive Potential Of Apple Snails (Pomacea Spp.) In Florida, Stephanie A. Reilly Dec 2017

Forecasting The Spread And Invasive Potential Of Apple Snails (Pomacea Spp.) In Florida, Stephanie A. Reilly

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Forecasting the potential range of invasive species is a critical component for risk assessment, monitoring, and management. However, many of these invasive species are not yet at equilibrium which can be problematic for many modelling approaches. Using the climate matching method, MaxEnt, a series of species distribution models (SDMs) and risk analysis maps were created for select apple snail species in Florida: Pomacea canaliculata, P. diffusa, and P. maculata. Apple snails, freshwater gastropods in the family Ampullariidae, are native to South America and were introduced to the United States via the pet trade approximately 40 years ago. These highly invasive ...


Effects Of Migration On Wing Morphology In Rock Wrens, Nickolas Godlove Dec 2017

Effects Of Migration On Wing Morphology In Rock Wrens, Nickolas Godlove

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

This study examined how Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus) wing shape varies with latitude and relates to the presence or absence of migration. Existing research on other species has demonstrated that long, narrow wings are ideal for longer distance travels such as migration trips, while short, rounder wings are best suited for quick take-offs and maneuverability. Currently, there is no data on how wing morphology relates to migration in the Rock Wren populations of North America. Rock Wrens provide a great opportunity for studying this topic because their migratory and sedentary populations are separated; northern Rock Wrens migrate and southern ones ...


Thermal Effects During Incubation On Corn Snake (Pantherophis Guttatus) Pigment And Pattern Formation, Hawken Carlton Dec 2017

Thermal Effects During Incubation On Corn Snake (Pantherophis Guttatus) Pigment And Pattern Formation, Hawken Carlton

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

Coloration and patterning can be as critical to an animal’s survival and fitness as its physiology and behavior, and how appearance develops is key in determining likelihood of survival. In reptiles, the environmental factor of higher vs. lower mean temperatures during egg incubation can influence physical and physiological traits and incubation length to hatching, important in temperate regions or habitats with seasonal food supplies; fluctuating temperatures may have additive effects. Pattern or color may also influence fitness via aposematism, crypsis, and other survival strategies; however, thermal effects on pattern development have not been fully studied. This experimental study used ...


A New Island Species Of Centruroides Marx, 1890 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From The Southwestern Caribbean, Rolando Teruel, Brandon Myers Dec 2017

A New Island Species Of Centruroides Marx, 1890 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From The Southwestern Caribbean, Rolando Teruel, Brandon Myers

Euscorpius

Herein we describe a new species of the Buthidae scorpion genus Centruroides Marx, 1890. It occurs at least in two small offshore islands of the southwestern Caribbean: Cozumel in Mexico and Guanaja in Honduras, based upon type specimens from the former and photographic evidence from the latter. It belongs in the "gracilis" species-group and is most closely related to both Centruroides gracilis (Latreille, 1805) and Centruroides nigrescens (Pocock, 1898).


Dopamine Levels In The Brain Of Rat Models Of Human Rheumatoid Arthritis, Amelia Stinson Dec 2017

Dopamine Levels In The Brain Of Rat Models Of Human Rheumatoid Arthritis, Amelia Stinson

Theses & Dissertations

Research Focus. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, debilitating, autoimmune disease that causes the destruction of bone tissue and the articular structures of joints. At least 30% of RA patient populations have cognitive impairment. Acidic dopamine (DA) is the principal neuroimmunotransmitter that links the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system together. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of DA and its two acidic metabolites: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in arthritic induced rats, and whether their levels vary across four different parts of the brain: amygdala (AMG), front cerebral cortex (CX ...


Understanding And Finding Solutions To The Problem Of Sedimentation In The National Wildlife Refuge System, Max Post Van Der Burg, Karen E. Jenni, Timothy L. Nieman, Josh D. Eash, Gregory A. Knutsen Dec 2017

Understanding And Finding Solutions To The Problem Of Sedimentation In The National Wildlife Refuge System, Max Post Van Der Burg, Karen E. Jenni, Timothy L. Nieman, Josh D. Eash, Gregory A. Knutsen

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

The National Wildlife Refuge System (Refuge System) is a collection of public lands maintained by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for migratory birds and other wildlife. Wetlands on individual National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) may be at risk of increased sedimentation because of land use and water management practices. Increased sedimentation can reduce wetland habitat quality by altering hydrologic function, degrading water quality, and inhibiting growth of vegetation and invertebrates. On Refuges negatively affected by increased sedimentation, managers have to address complex questions about how to best remediate and mitigate the negative effects. The best way to account for ...