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Fruit Science

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Barrenador Grande Del Durazno, Marion Murray, Diane G. Alston, Celina Wille Jul 2021

Barrenador Grande Del Durazno, Marion Murray, Diane G. Alston, Celina Wille

All Current Publications

El barrenador grande del durazno (orden Lepidóptera, familia Sesiidae) es originario de América del Norte, donde las cerezas y ciruelas silvestres son sus huéspedes nativos. Es una plaga esporádica en los frutales de hueso o carozo de Utah, pero si no se controla, puede ser lo suficientemente grave como para causar la pérdida del árbol.


Seed Rain–Successional Feedbacks In Wet Tropical Forests, Nohemi Huanca Nuñez, Robin L. Chazdon, Sabrina E. Russo Apr 2021

Seed Rain–Successional Feedbacks In Wet Tropical Forests, Nohemi Huanca Nuñez, Robin L. Chazdon, Sabrina E. Russo

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Abstract

Tropical forest regeneration after abandonment of former agricultural land depends critically on the input of tree seeds, yet seed dispersal is increasingly disrupted in contemporary human-modified landscapes. Here, we introduce the concept of seed rain–successional feedbacks as a deterministic process in which seed rain is shaped by successional dynamics internal to a forest site and that acts to reinforce priority effects. We used a combination of time series and chronosequence approaches to investigate how the quantity and taxonomic and functional composition of seed rain change during succession and to evaluate the strength of seed rain–successional feedbacks, relative ...


Genetic Diversity Of Purple Passion Fruit, Passiflora Edulis F. Edulis, Based On Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers Discovered Through Genotyping By Sequencing, Nohra Cecilia Rodriguez Castillo, Xingbo Wu, María Isabel Chacón, Luz Marina Melgarejo, Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair Mar 2021

Genetic Diversity Of Purple Passion Fruit, Passiflora Edulis F. Edulis, Based On Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers Discovered Through Genotyping By Sequencing, Nohra Cecilia Rodriguez Castillo, Xingbo Wu, María Isabel Chacón, Luz Marina Melgarejo, Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Orphan crops, which include many of the tropical fruit species used in the juice industry, lack genomic resources and breeding efforts. Typical of this dilemma is the lack of commercial cultivars of purple passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. edulis, and of information on the genetic resources of its substantial semiwild gene pool. In this study, we develop single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the species and show that the genetic diversity of this fruit crop has been reduced because of selection for cultivated genotypes compared to the semiwild landraces in its center of diversity. A specific objective of the present study ...


Morphological And Agronomic Variability Among Cultivars, Landraces, And Genebank Accessions Of Purple Passion Fruit, Passiflora Edulis F. Edulis, Nohra Rodríguez Castillo, Daniel Ambachew, Luz Marina Melgarejo, Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair May 2020

Morphological And Agronomic Variability Among Cultivars, Landraces, And Genebank Accessions Of Purple Passion Fruit, Passiflora Edulis F. Edulis, Nohra Rodríguez Castillo, Daniel Ambachew, Luz Marina Melgarejo, Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Global demand for juice of the purple passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. edulis, is growing, making it a promising species for farmers to grow in the highland tropics, to which it is adapted. However, research centers and private companies have done little to produce new high-yielding varieties. The objective of the present study, therefore, was to evaluate the agronomic and morphological characteristics of 50 passion fruit genotypes across two different elevations and agro-ecological sites as a base for germplasm enhancement. Three groups of genotypes were commercial cultivars (8 genotypes), genebank accessions (8), and landraces (34) collected from throughout the highlands ...


Non-Linear Behavior Of Protein And Tannin In Wine Produced By Cofermentation Of An Interspecific Hybrid (Vitis Spp.) And Vinifera Cultivar, Erin L. Norton, Gavin L. Sacks, Joey N. Talbert Sep 2019

Non-Linear Behavior Of Protein And Tannin In Wine Produced By Cofermentation Of An Interspecific Hybrid (Vitis Spp.) And Vinifera Cultivar, Erin L. Norton, Gavin L. Sacks, Joey N. Talbert

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Wines produced from red interspecific hybrid grape cultivars (Vitis spp.) typically have lower tannin than wines produced from vinifera cultivars, which can be attributed to the lower concentration of tannins and higher concentration of tannin binding proteins of interspecific cultivars. Tannin in wines produced from hybrid cultivars could potentially be increased by blending hybrids with vinifera. We hypothesized that blending of grapes prior to fermentation (cofermentation) should result in final wine tannin concentrations lower than wine tannin concentrations predicted from the individual components due to protein-tannin binding, but that this effect should be absent from monovarietal wines blended post-fermentation. To ...


Effects Of Fruit Position In Standard Place Pack Cartons And Gamma 1 Irradiation On The Postharvest Quality Of ‘Barnfield’ Navel Oranges, Karina Cruz Rodriguez (Friscia), José De Jesús Ornelas-Paz, Vrani Ibarra-Junquera, Maria Criselda Toto, Akanksha Jain, Anuradha Prakash Aug 2018

Effects Of Fruit Position In Standard Place Pack Cartons And Gamma 1 Irradiation On The Postharvest Quality Of ‘Barnfield’ Navel Oranges, Karina Cruz Rodriguez (Friscia), José De Jesús Ornelas-Paz, Vrani Ibarra-Junquera, Maria Criselda Toto, Akanksha Jain, Anuradha Prakash

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

The objective of this study was to determine if oranges in the top and bottom layers within a Standard Place Pack were impacted differently by irradiation after long-term storage. ‘Barnfield’ Navel oranges were packed in Standard Place Pack cartons and treated with 0, 0.15, or 1 kGy of gamma irradiation. The fruit were stored for 3 weeks at 5 °C and then for 1 week at 20 °C. After storage, the fruit from the top and bottom layers were separately evaluated for quality. The development of stem-end rind breakdown (SERB) was the main cause of quality loss and was ...


Effects Of Bacillus Mycoides Supplement In A Reduced Frequency Fungicide Program On Chambourcin Grapevines (Vitis Vinifera L.), Ryan Alan Mairs Jul 2018

Effects Of Bacillus Mycoides Supplement In A Reduced Frequency Fungicide Program On Chambourcin Grapevines (Vitis Vinifera L.), Ryan Alan Mairs

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Fungal diseases pose significant challenges for grapevine producers in Kentucky due to the region’s abundant moisture and relative humidity. Methods to reduce fungicide application frequency would prove both economically and temporally valuable to producers. A field experiment was established in Bowling Green, KY in 2017 to investigate Bacillus mycoides isolate J (LifeGard) as a supplement to a fungicide program for systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Three fungicide treatment regimens were implemented consisting of a program modelled from the Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide (2017) and an identical program supplemented with 140 g ha-1 LifeGard per application (both applied on 14 ...


Replacing Herbicides With Groundcovers To Enhance Vineyard Sustainability, Benjamin A. Loseke May 2018

Replacing Herbicides With Groundcovers To Enhance Vineyard Sustainability, Benjamin A. Loseke

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

In many Midwestern vineyards a three to four-foot weed-free strip is maintained directly beneath the vines to reduce vine-weed competition. Conventionally, this strip has been conserved with repeated applications of herbicide, mainly glyphosate. The necessity for this weed-free strip to reduce vine-weed competition has been well documented in more arid climates. However, in areas with higher soil fertility and adequate rainfall, this strip may be unnecessary. Moreover, stand establishment and early vine growth have not been well documented when planting groundcovers (GC) immediately following the vine planting. The main objective of this project is to assess the severity of competition ...


Breeding For Resistance In California Strawberry To Verticillium Dahliae, Zachary Christman Mar 2018

Breeding For Resistance In California Strawberry To Verticillium Dahliae, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Since 1930 the University of California, Davis, has been developing strawberry cultivars that are adapted to the agricultural industry and regional farms. Developing cultivars that require fewer inputs are of significant economic importance in agronomy. Developing a crop resistant to a disease is beneficial for horticulturists since less labor and chemicals are needed for a high yield.6

In commercial strawberry cultivars, complete resistance to V. dahlia is extremely rare. The majority of Californian strawberry cultivars are highly susceptible to it.2 Over the last 18 years of plant breeding for strawberry cultivars with a high degree of resistance and ...


Grower Surveys Of Resistance Management Concerns, Knowledge And Implementation, Katherine Ghantous, Hilary A. Sandler, Laura Mcdermott, Martha Sylvia Jan 2018

Grower Surveys Of Resistance Management Concerns, Knowledge And Implementation, Katherine Ghantous, Hilary A. Sandler, Laura Mcdermott, Martha Sylvia

Cranberry Station Resistance Management

No abstract provided.


Evaluating Row Cover Establishment Systems For Cantaloupe And Summer Squash, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2018

Evaluating Row Cover Establishment Systems For Cantaloupe And Summer Squash, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Use of row covers offer an alternative to pesticide application for management of insect feeding and disease transmission and can be beneficial for extending the growing season. Unfortunately, labor required to establish cover is significant (particularly for single rows) and larger pieces of multi-row cover are subject to fatigue from wind and sun. Development of a mechanized single-row cover system or a durable multi-row cover system advances potential for use of covers. Field tests of a commercial semi-mechanized cover implement were conducted. Successful wire insertion ranged from 74 to 100% and depended on careful adjustment of the implement. Success was ...


Effect Of Phytosanitary Irradiation On The Quality Of Two Varieties Of Pummelos (Citrus Maxima (Burm.) Merr.), A. Jain, J. Ornelas-Paz, D. Obenland, K. Rodriguez (Friscia), Anuradha Prakash Jan 2017

Effect Of Phytosanitary Irradiation On The Quality Of Two Varieties Of Pummelos (Citrus Maxima (Burm.) Merr.), A. Jain, J. Ornelas-Paz, D. Obenland, K. Rodriguez (Friscia), Anuradha Prakash

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Phytosanitary treatments prevent the introduction of pests such as fruit flies into pest free zones, and are often required for international trade. Irradiation is increasingly being considered as an alternative to cold and chemical phytosanitary treatments, such as methyl bromide. In this study, the effect of low dose gamma irradiation on the post-harvest quality of two varieties of pummelos (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.), an emerging crop of interest in the US was evaluated. Two varieties of pummelos grown in California were irradiated at the phytosanitary target dose of 150 Gy and a higher dose of 1000 Gy to exaggerate and ...


Combined Effects Of Fertilizer, Irrigation, And Paclobutrazol On Yield And Fruit Quality Of Mango, Babul C. Sarker, Mohammad A. Rahim, Douglas D. Archbold Oct 2016

Combined Effects Of Fertilizer, Irrigation, And Paclobutrazol On Yield And Fruit Quality Of Mango, Babul C. Sarker, Mohammad A. Rahim, Douglas D. Archbold

Horticulture Faculty Publications

Combinations of fertilizer rates, foliar N sprays, irrigation practices, and paclobutrazol were studied to determine how much they could alter and/or improve mango (Mangifera indica L.) growth, flowering, and yield. Two treatment combinations derived from several years of prior studies of individual practices were compared: one combination was comprised of the best (BT) individual practices from the prior studies and included three applications of fertilizer, a 4% KNO3 spray application before flowering, paclobutrazol at 7.5 g/L, and weekly irrigation, and the other combination was comprised of the next best (NB) individual practices including two applications of ...


Particular Applications Of Food Irradiation Fresh Produce, Anuradha Prakash Jul 2016

Particular Applications Of Food Irradiation Fresh Produce, Anuradha Prakash

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

On fresh fruits and vegetables, irradiation at low and medium dose levels can effectively reduce microbial counts which can enhance safety, inhibit sprouting to extend shelf-life, and eliminate or sterilize insect pests which can serve to facilitate trade between countries. At the dose levels used for these purposes, the impact on quality is negligible. Despite the fact that regulations in many countries allow the use of irradiation for fresh produce, the technology remains under-utilized, even in the light of an increase in produce related disease outbreaks and the economic benefits of extended shelflife and reduced food waste. Putative concerns about ...


Changes In Oxidative Patterns During Dormancy Break By Warm And Cold Stratification In Seeds Of An Edible Fruit Tree, Dilinuer Shalimu, Jia Sun, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Liwei Sun, Yujun Liu May 2016

Changes In Oxidative Patterns During Dormancy Break By Warm And Cold Stratification In Seeds Of An Edible Fruit Tree, Dilinuer Shalimu, Jia Sun, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Liwei Sun, Yujun Liu

Biology Faculty Publications

The transition from seed dormancy to germination is triggered by environmental factors, and in pomegranate (Punica granatum) seeds higher germination percentages are achieved by warm + cold stratification rather than by cold stratification alone. Our objective was to define the pattern of internal oxidative changes in pomegranate seeds as dormancy was being broken by warm + cold stratification and by cold stratification alone. Embryos isolated from seeds after 1–42 days of warm stratification, after 56 days of warm stratification + 7, 28 or 56 days of cold stratification, and after 1–84 days of cold stratification alone, were used in biochemical tests ...


Comparative Evaluation Of The Effect Of Methyl Bromide Fumigation And Phytosanitary Irradiation On The Quality Of Fresh Strawberries, Tamar Serapian, Anuradha Prakash Feb 2016

Comparative Evaluation Of The Effect Of Methyl Bromide Fumigation And Phytosanitary Irradiation On The Quality Of Fresh Strawberries, Tamar Serapian, Anuradha Prakash

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Fresh strawberries are highly perishable and have a short shelf-life especially when the cold chain is not maintained. Strawberries exported to Asia are currently fumigated with methyl bromide for phytosanitary purposes, which exposes strawberries to warm temperatures for several hours and air freight without temperature control, resulting in a shelf life of just a few days in the destination country. Irradiation offers an efficacious alternative to fumigation and can be performed on cold fruit. This study was conducted to compare the quality of strawberries subject to methyl bromide fumigation or irradiation followed by simulated commercial air freight shipment of strawberries ...


Propagating Jujubes, Rachelle Johnstone Jan 2016

Propagating Jujubes, Rachelle Johnstone

Research Reports

Jujubes can be propagated by various methods such as wedge/cleft grafting, whip grafting and bark grafting as well as budding. Local propagators have better success with budding but find that wedge grafting leads to a stronger tree. Most of the latest research into propagation is in micropropagation and tissue culture however this technique is mainly used for research and breeding new cultivars and not in a commercial capacity. Grafting can be more of an art than a science. Much of the success of grafting depends on not only performing a technically correct graft but performing the graft at the ...


Vegetables, Fruits & Herbs Book, Utah State University Jan 2016

Vegetables, Fruits & Herbs Book, Utah State University

All Current Publications

This book is a compilation of 58 researched-based fact sheets written and compiled by Utah State University faculty and students. For more gardening resources provided by USU Extension please visit our gardening website at garden.usu.edu.


Mangiferin As A Biomarker For Mango Anthracnose Resistance, Herma Pierre Jul 2015

Mangiferin As A Biomarker For Mango Anthracnose Resistance, Herma Pierre

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mangos (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical/subtropical fruits belonging to the plant family Anacardiaceae. Anthracnose is the most deleterious disease of mango both in the field and during postharvest handling. It is most commonly caused by the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex. Mangiferin, a xanthanoid compound found in at least twelve plant families worldwide (Luo et al., 2012), is present in large amounts of the leaves and edible mangos. Even though this compound plays a pivotal role in the plant’s defense against biotic and abiotic stressors, no correlations been made between the compound and mango anthracnose resistance.

Mangos were collected, grouped ...


Accessing Chilling Conditions For Perennial Fruit Crop Production In Kentucky, Yao Xue May 2015

Accessing Chilling Conditions For Perennial Fruit Crop Production In Kentucky, Yao Xue

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Temperate Region fruit and nut trees, and many other perennial plants, require cool winter temperatures (chilling hours) to ensure leaf and flower bud production in the following season. Temperate Regions are characterized by variable winter and spring temperatures. Failure of meeting sufficient chilling requirement results in deformed fruits, unequal maturation, and other plant deformities, thereby reducing quality and yields. Chilling requirements are expressed as number of accumulated hours within a range of approximately 32º to 45ºF or 0º to 7.2ºC. These requirements are specific for level of temperature, length of temperature period, and species and cultivar of plants. Information ...


Review Of A Garden Of Marvels: How We Discovered That Flowers Have Sex, Leaves Eat Air, And Other Secrets Of Plants, By Ruth Kassinger, R. F. Diffendal Jr. Jan 2015

Review Of A Garden Of Marvels: How We Discovered That Flowers Have Sex, Leaves Eat Air, And Other Secrets Of Plants, By Ruth Kassinger, R. F. Diffendal Jr.

Robert F. Diffendal, Jr., Publications

Until I read Kassinger’s book I clearly did not have the historical perspective necessary to appreciate the incredible lives of plants and how botanists have come to their present understandings of same. Kassinger, a gardener by avocation, cut out most of the jargon, defined terms that she does use, and wrote simple and compelling tales of the histories of discoveries about the various parts of plants and how those parts work together for the benefit of the plant and, ultimately, for our benefit.

[This] is a book that any gardener or other interested person with a modest background in ...


Assessment Of Resistance Management Education And Experience Of Educators And Growers In The Northeast, Hilary A. Sandler, Laura Mcdermott, Katherine Ghantous, Dahlia Medeiros Jan 2015

Assessment Of Resistance Management Education And Experience Of Educators And Growers In The Northeast, Hilary A. Sandler, Laura Mcdermott, Katherine Ghantous, Dahlia Medeiros

Cranberry Station Resistance Management

No abstract provided.


An Economic Analysis Of Wild Bee Pollination In Lowbush Blueberry Production, Francis A. Drummond Nov 2014

An Economic Analysis Of Wild Bee Pollination In Lowbush Blueberry Production, Francis A. Drummond

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

The purpose of this project is to determine the relative economic values of wild bee pollinators and commercial honeybees in lowbush blueberry production for individual Maine farms. The lowbush blueberry requires insect pollination in order to set fruit. Most farmers rent colonies of the non-native honeybee for pollination services, but wild, native bees are also effective pollinators. This project aims to provide growers with the means to assess the pollination needs of individual fields and to understand the levels of pollination possible if honeybees are not available. In order to achieve these goals, the relative abundance and species diversity of ...


Growing Jujubes In Western Australia, Rachelle Johnstone Jan 2014

Growing Jujubes In Western Australia, Rachelle Johnstone

Research Reports

The Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is one of the most important fruit crops in China and has been commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine and food for thousands of years. The jujube is widely grown in China with cultivation records going back more than 3000 years and can also be found in neighbouring countries. The jujube is a medium-sized tree, growing 7–10 metres high. The tree has shiny deciduous foliage and produces a fruit that is known as a drupe. The fruit varies in size depending on the cultivar, and it has a thin, dark red skin ...


Effects Of Row Cover Removal Timing In Organic Muskmelon, Zachary Torres, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason Jan 2014

Effects Of Row Cover Removal Timing In Organic Muskmelon, Zachary Torres, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Muskmelons are difficult to grow using organic practices because of bacterial wilt and the cucumber beetle that vectors the disease. Row covers can be placed over muskmelon transplants and then removed at anthesis (the period at which 50% of plants have female flowers). In addition to shielding muskmelons from bacterial wilt, row covers also can protect plants from early season frost, wind damage, and fungal diseases. However, the intensive labor needs of row-cover deployment have limited their use to small fields on small-scale farms


Effects Of Scaling Up Row-Cover Removal Timing In Conventionally Grown Muskmelon, Zachary Torres, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason Jan 2014

Effects Of Scaling Up Row-Cover Removal Timing In Conventionally Grown Muskmelon, Zachary Torres, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Row covers are most often placed manually over muskmelon transplants and then removed at anthesis (the period at which 50% of plants have female flowers). Row covers protect muskmelons from bacterial wilt (vectored by cucumber beetles), early season frost, wind damage, and fungal diseases. However, the intensive labor needs of row cover deployment have limited their use to small fields on small-scale farms. In order to expand the use of row covers to large-scale farms, we are assessing the possibilities of using simple machinery to assist in the deployment and retrieval of the row covers.


Effects Of Surfactant Combinations With Captan For Control Of Apple Fruit Rots And Russeting, Hafizi Bin Rosli, Mark L. Gleason, Jean C. Batzer Jan 2014

Effects Of Surfactant Combinations With Captan For Control Of Apple Fruit Rots And Russeting, Hafizi Bin Rosli, Mark L. Gleason, Jean C. Batzer

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Surfactants are adjuvants that lower the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants can improve efficacy of fungicides on crops and could reduce the rate and number of fungicide applications. Combining fungicides and surfactants may increase the efficacy of existing control options. However, since some fungicide-surfactant combinations have been reported to cause phytotoxicity, these compounds should be screened. This is the first year of a two-year study to evaluate commercial surfactants+captan for control of apple fruit rot and phytotoxicity.


The Effects Of Temperature And Light In High Tunnel Primocane Red Raspberry Production—Year 2, Leah B. Riesselman, Gail R. Nonnecke Jan 2014

The Effects Of Temperature And Light In High Tunnel Primocane Red Raspberry Production—Year 2, Leah B. Riesselman, Gail R. Nonnecke

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Climatic factors found in tunnels of the Midwest may show negative effects to primocane growth and development of raspberry. Researchers have found that as air and root-zone temperature exceed 24°C (75.2°F) and 16°C (60.8°F), respectively, the following plant development occurs: decrease in water uptake by primocanes, premature dormancy of lateral and axillary buds, delayed time to fruit ripening, and reduced fruit quality and weight. In addition to temperature, high light (irradiance) causes a decline of fruit yield and quality. Premature dormancy and delayed time-to-flowering occur when irradiance exceed 600 μmol·mˉÇs ...


Testing A Warning System For Anthracnose Fruit Rot On Day-Neutral Strawberry—Year 3, Xiaoyu Zhang, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason Jan 2014

Testing A Warning System For Anthracnose Fruit Rot On Day-Neutral Strawberry—Year 3, Xiaoyu Zhang, Jean C. Batzer, Mark L. Gleason

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Anthracnose fruit rot (AFR) of strawberry is caused by three Colletotrichum spp. In the Midwest, however, only Colletotrichum acutatum is found. This fungus can attach itself to apparently healthy plants and spread throughout the field without causing symptoms on the foliage. When fruit begins to ripen and weather conditions are rainy and warm, AFR can suddenly cause great damage to the fruit. To protect against AFR where it has appeared in the past, growers need to spray every 7 to 10 days beginning at the start of bloom until harvest.


Evaluation Of Wines From The Cold Hardy Wine Grape Cultivar Trial, Paul Tabor, Paul A. Domoto Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Wines From The Cold Hardy Wine Grape Cultivar Trial, Paul Tabor, Paul A. Domoto

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

In conjunction with the Northeast Regional Research project NE-1020 “Multi-state Evaluation of Wine Grape Cultivars and Clones,” Iowa State University established a cold hardy wine grape cultivar trial in 2008 at the ISU Horticulture Research Station (HRS), Ames, Iowa, and Tabor Home Vineyards and Winery (THV), Baldwin, Iowa. Wines were made from the 2012 crop from six selections growing in the THV plot and were evaluated by winemakers and wine grape growers and non-grower/winemakers at two field days in 2013.