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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Burnt Harvest: Penobscot People And Fire, James Eric Francis Sr. Oct 2008

Burnt Harvest: Penobscot People And Fire, James Eric Francis Sr.

Maine History

The scientific and ethnographic record confirms the fact that in southern New England, Indians used fire as a forest management tool, to facilitate travel and hunting, encourage useful grasses and berries, and to clear land for agriculture. Scholars have long suggested that agricultural practices, and hence these uses of fire, ended at the Saco or Kennebec, with Native people east of this divide less likely to systematically burn their forests. This article argues that Native people on the Penobscot River used fire, albeit in more limited ways, to transform the forest and create a natural environment more conducive to their ...


Farms To Forests In Blue Hill Bay: Long Island, Maine, Kristen Hoffman Oct 2008

Farms To Forests In Blue Hill Bay: Long Island, Maine, Kristen Hoffman

Maine History

Disturbance histories are important factors in determining the composition and structure of today’s forests, and not least among these disturbances is the human use of the land. Land clearing in Maine peaked in 1880 at six and a half million acres, beginning on the coast and lower river valleys and spreading northward and eastward. The forests of Maine’s coastal islands have endured a longer period of clearing than any other in the state. Long Island, located in Blue Hill Bay, was first settled in 1779, primarily by farmers. Sheep-herding, lumbering, fishing, and granite quarrying provided supplemental livelihoods. By ...


The Improved Acre: The Besse Farm As A Case Study In Landclearing, Abandonment, And Reforestation, Theresa Kerchner Oct 2008

The Improved Acre: The Besse Farm As A Case Study In Landclearing, Abandonment, And Reforestation, Theresa Kerchner

Maine History

From the vantage of the twenty-first century, it seems remarkable that farmers, working with only hand tools and farm animals, converted over half of New England’s “primeval” forests to tillage and pasture in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This period was marked by transitions as farmers responded to new markets, changing family values, and declining natural resources. These forces brought an end to agrarian expansion and caused New England’s iconic pastoral landscape to begin to revert to forestland. A case study based on the former Jabez Besse, Jr. farm in central upland Maine provides a link to New ...


Alternative Large-Scale Conservation Visions For Northern Maine: Interviews With Decision Leaders In Maine, Elizabeth Dennis Baldwin, Laura S. Kenefic, Will F. Lapage Jan 2007

Alternative Large-Scale Conservation Visions For Northern Maine: Interviews With Decision Leaders In Maine, Elizabeth Dennis Baldwin, Laura S. Kenefic, Will F. Lapage

Maine Policy Review

Based on confidential interviews with 21 decision leaders in Maine, Elizabeth Baldwin, Laura Kenefic, and Will LaPage examine the complexity of the conflicts over alternate visions for large-scale conservation in Maine. Exploring models that may be useful for policymakers grappling with competing values for Maine’s forests, they present four alternatives: national forests, new U.S. forest service models, forest heritage areas, and the British national park model. The authors found that the leaders interviewed agreed about the need for some level of conservation, but did not completely agree on how this might happen and where the decision-making power should ...


Are The Economics Of A Sustainable Maine Forest Sustainable?, Mike Levert, Charles S. Colgan, Charles Lawton Jan 2007

Are The Economics Of A Sustainable Maine Forest Sustainable?, Mike Levert, Charles S. Colgan, Charles Lawton

Maine Policy Review

Mike LeVert, Charles Colgan and Charles Lawton discuss the transformation of the economic environment of Maine’s forests over the past two decades. Paper companies have sold most of their holdings; residential and conservation demand for land has increased; forestland prices have skyrocketed; and new classes of landowners have different strategies, objectives, and time horizons than the old industrial landowners. The authors believe that management of Maine’s forests must now address changes in the economic environment with the same intensity as threats such as the spruce budworm were addressed if we are to keep Maine’s forests as forests.


Forging A Common Vision For Maine’S North Woods, Robert J. Lilieholm Jan 2007

Forging A Common Vision For Maine’S North Woods, Robert J. Lilieholm

Maine Policy Review

Robert Lilieholm takes stock of the challenges and opportunities facing Maine’s North Woods, the largest undeveloped forested block in the eastern United States. In the face of changing ownership patterns and development pressures, there is lively debate over current land use policies and trends. Lilieholm suggests that a broader, regional vision for the North Woods might better serve the long-term interests of both the area’s forests and its struggling communities.


U.S. Forest Ownership: Historic And Global Perspective, Lloyd C. Irland Jan 2005

U.S. Forest Ownership: Historic And Global Perspective, Lloyd C. Irland

Maine Policy Review

Mainers once enjoyed the sense that the state’s vast forested lands would forevermore be a feature of the state’s landscape and cultural heritage. However, this sensibility has been threatened by fragmentation and sprawl and rapid changes in ownership. According to Lloyd Irland, Maine is not unique. The U.S. is facing a crisis of sustainability in forests and rural communities. Irland provides a brief history of forest ownership in the U.S. and analyzes some global trends to help to explain this crisis. He suggests Mainers look to experiences elsewhere in the nation and world to come up ...


Certification And Labeling Of Forest Products: Will It Lead To More Environmentally Benign Forestry In Maine?, Mario F. Teisl, Stephanie Peavey, Kelly O’Brien Jan 2001

Certification And Labeling Of Forest Products: Will It Lead To More Environmentally Benign Forestry In Maine?, Mario F. Teisl, Stephanie Peavey, Kelly O’Brien

Maine Policy Review

From a supply and demand point of view, the trend toward forest-products certification appears simple: some retail consumers may prefer to buy products from forests managed in an environmentally sound way while some forest owners may be willing to alter their management practices in order to sell to these consumers. However, as the authors indicate, the issue of communicating to consumers the degree of “environmental good” being purchased can be complicated and may be a factor affecting the long-term success of certification programs. The authors present the results of a recent survey that assessed the use of two types of ...


Maine Forests: A Century Of Change, 1900-2000…And Elements Of Policy Change For A New Century, Lloyd Irland Jan 2000

Maine Forests: A Century Of Change, 1900-2000…And Elements Of Policy Change For A New Century, Lloyd Irland

Maine Policy Review

At the close of the 19th century, the state’s forest area was at an all time low; land ownership was changing rapidly with the emergence of new paper companies; a growing number of wildlife species were threatened; and widespread unease over the future of Maine’s forests was evident. Today a similar unease is evident. Many believe the state’s spruce-fir forest is being overcut; land ownership is changing rapidly; fear exists that the sustainability of Maine’s forests; and wildlife populations have been severely compromised. Given the similarity in circumstance, one might ask whether there has been any ...


Deforestation In Nineteenth-Century Maine: The Record Of Henry David Thoreau, Geoffrey Paul Carpenter Jun 1998

Deforestation In Nineteenth-Century Maine: The Record Of Henry David Thoreau, Geoffrey Paul Carpenter

Maine History

Thoreau’s Maine Woods, a record of three trips made between 1846 and 1857, offers a combination of literary metaphor and precise botanical and topographical observation. Comparing Thoreau’s journals with recent advances in forest ecology, author Geoffrey Paul Carpenter reveals a detailed picture of the various ways in which logging activity changed the forests, lakes, and rivers of Maine. Carpenter demonstrates that a precise understanding of forest history depends not only on traditional statistical sources, but also on the subjective personal testimony found in the literary record.


Maine Lumber Production, 1839-1997: A Statistical Overview, Lloyd C. Irland Jun 1998

Maine Lumber Production, 1839-1997: A Statistical Overview, Lloyd C. Irland

Maine History

Complementing the qualitative account of forestry's impact provided by Geoffrey Carpenter, Lloyd Irland gives us a broad statistical overview of the industry, its changing economic fortunes, and its impact on the environment of the north woods. The data, while not always precise, reveal the terms upon which the state's decision-makers historically viewed the forest and its future. Mr. Irland is private forestry consultant in Winthrop, Maine, who has written widely on New England forestry topics, including Wildlands and Woodlots: The Story Of New England's Forests (1982).


A Closer Look At Maine's Forest: Mainewatch Institute Conference Explores Sustainable Forestry Practice And Policy, Christopher "Kit" St. John Jan 1997

A Closer Look At Maine's Forest: Mainewatch Institute Conference Explores Sustainable Forestry Practice And Policy, Christopher "Kit" St. John

Maine Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Dynamic Tension: An Analysis Of What Happened With The Forestry Referendum And Where We Go From Here, Mitch Lansky Jan 1996

Dynamic Tension: An Analysis Of What Happened With The Forestry Referendum And Where We Go From Here, Mitch Lansky

Maine Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Forest Policy Is Hard, Lloyd C. Irland Jan 1996

Forest Policy Is Hard, Lloyd C. Irland

Maine Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Common Sense Over Politics Is The Answer, Kevin Hancock Jan 1996

Common Sense Over Politics Is The Answer, Kevin Hancock

Maine Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Clearcutting In Maine: Would Somebody Please Ask The Right Question?, John M. Hagan Iii Jan 1996

Clearcutting In Maine: Would Somebody Please Ask The Right Question?, John M. Hagan Iii

Maine Policy Review

In November [1996], Maine citizens will cast their votes for or against the Green Party-initiated referendum on forest practices. Better known as the clearcutting referendum, its supporters and opponents have staked out their terms in what has become a bitter debate over "jobs for Maine people" versus the "future of the Maine North Woods." Yet, amidst the deluge of media campaigns and ideological predictions, rest important questions—about forest management practices and how best to ensure a viable future for the people and forests of Maine. John Hagan contributes a perspective to this debate, blending scientific data with personal experience ...


Conservation Easements As A Forest Management Strategy, C. Edwin Meadows Jr., Donald J. Mansius Jan 1994

Conservation Easements As A Forest Management Strategy, C. Edwin Meadows Jr., Donald J. Mansius

Maine Policy Review

Conservation easements have become an increasingly popular way of protecting private lands that have public value. Maine, like other northeastern states, has a particular interest in conservation strategies given among other things, its natural resource-dependent economy. C. Edwin Meadows, Commissioner of the Maine Department of Conservation (MDOC), and Donald J. Mansius, the Northern Forest Lands Coordinator for MDOC, address the forest management aspects of conservation easements and provide examples of easement land where forest management is permitted. An accompanying sidebar by Chris Spruce describes a conservation easement that has existed for more than a down years along the Penobscot River ...


Academia In The Northern Forest Lands Debate: Research Versus Chronic Brushfires, David B. Field Jan 1993

Academia In The Northern Forest Lands Debate: Research Versus Chronic Brushfires, David B. Field

Maine Policy Review

David Field of the Department of Forest Management, University of Maine, offers his observations on the role of academia in the important debate over the future of the Northern Forestlands.


The Northern Forest Lands Council: Seeking Consensus, Christopher Spruce Jan 1992

The Northern Forest Lands Council: Seeking Consensus, Christopher Spruce

Maine Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Challenges For The North Maine Woods, Lloyd C. Irland Jan 1991

Challenges For The North Maine Woods, Lloyd C. Irland

Maine Policy Review

Lloyd Irland discusses the rapid changes in the value of Maine’s forests as perceived by the public, the threats to those values, the policy tools for managing those conflicts, and the ways of paying for forest benefits. He notes that regulation is destined to lay a larger role in the policy mix for these new forest values.


Percival P. Baxter: A Comment, Edward O. Schriver Apr 1981

Percival P. Baxter: A Comment, Edward O. Schriver

Maine History

This article analyzes Governor Baxter’s search over the years to find a rational understanding of the term “wilderness.”