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Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri) Suppression With Half Rates Of Dicamba And Atrazine With Increasing Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) Density And Nitrogen Rate, I. B. Cuvaca, R. Currie, A. J. Foster Jun 2017

Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri) Suppression With Half Rates Of Dicamba And Atrazine With Increasing Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) Density And Nitrogen Rate, I. B. Cuvaca, R. Currie, A. J. Foster

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Palmer amaranth (PA) competition can result in severe yield loss in grain sorghum. Increasing sorghum density and nutrient supply could promote early/rapid canopy closure and therefore reduce the amount of light that could otherwise penetrate the canopy and promote PA growth in sorghum. A study was conducted at the Southwest Research-Extension Center near Garden City, KS, to determine if PA could be suppressed with dicamba and atrazine applied as PRE at half rates combined with increasing sorghum density (60,000, 90,000, and 120,000 seeds/a), and nitrogen rate (0, 100, 200 lb/a). Preliminary results indicate that ...


Nitrogen And Phosphorus Application Effects On Pearl Millet Forage Yield And Nutritive Value, D. D. Serba, A. Obour Jun 2017

Nitrogen And Phosphorus Application Effects On Pearl Millet Forage Yield And Nutritive Value, D. D. Serba, A. Obour

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

There is limited information on the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer requirement of pearl millet forage in dryland systems. Determination of optimum N and P rates for pearl millet forage production in dryland environments of the Great Plains will have economic advantage for farmers and ranchers growing pearl millet for forage. A field experiment was conducted in 2016 at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, KS, to investigate N and P fertilizer application effects on forage yield and nutritive value of pearl millet. Factorial combinations of five levels of N (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 lb/a) and three levels ...


Corn Grain Yield Trends From 2012 To 2016: A 26-Year Long-Term Experiment, J. Rivera-Zayas, Charles Rice Jun 2017

Corn Grain Yield Trends From 2012 To 2016: A 26-Year Long-Term Experiment, J. Rivera-Zayas, Charles Rice

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Long-term research trials provide an understanding of long-term effects on crop production. This long-term research studied the effect of conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) systems. Factors of this 22-year study of corn (Zea mays L.) production also included the application of nitrogen (N) in the forms of ammonium nitrate and manure at rates of 150 lb/N/a. Corn grain yield trends during 2012 to 2016 were affected by the interaction between N source and year (P < 0.05). The interaction between tillage practices and N source and the overall interaction between the last 5 years did not yield performance (P > 0.05). Under the studied conditions the 75 lb/N/a as N fertilizer or manure achieved high corn yields.


Impact Of Cover Crops And Phosphorus Fertilizer Management On Nutrient Cycling In No-Tillage Corn-Soybean Rotation, R. E. Carver, N. O. Nelson, D. S. Abel, K. Roozeboom, G. J. Kluitenberg, P. J. Tomlinson, J. R. Williams Jun 2017

Impact Of Cover Crops And Phosphorus Fertilizer Management On Nutrient Cycling In No-Tillage Corn-Soybean Rotation, R. E. Carver, N. O. Nelson, D. S. Abel, K. Roozeboom, G. J. Kluitenberg, P. J. Tomlinson, J. R. Williams

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of cover crops and different fertilizer management techniques on the amount of nutrients being removed and recycled in the soil system. This study was conducted at Ashland Bottoms, KS, from 2014-2016. A 2 × 3 factorial design with three replicates was utilized in this study. The fertilizer management treatments included a control of 0 lb/a P2O5, along with fall broadcast and spring injected applications of P2O5 based on a build and maintain recommendation system. Results show that total uptake of K2O and ...


Biochar And Nitrogen Effects On Winter Wheat Growth, T. E. Zee, N. O. Nelson, G. Newdigger Jun 2017

Biochar And Nitrogen Effects On Winter Wheat Growth, T. E. Zee, N. O. Nelson, G. Newdigger

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Biochar, a co-product of thermochemical bioenergy production, may be a valuable soil amendment, but little is known about its potential long-term effects on plant growth and soil fertility. In order to gain more information, this experiment was performed to see if the addition of biochar, in comparison to lime and fertilizer treatments, has the potential to return key nutrients back to the soil or increase crop yield. A field study to investigate the effects of biochar on plant growth was initiated in 2011 near St. John, KS. Treatments included biochar applied at 16.6 ton/a (biochar), lime and annual ...


Long-Term Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilization Of Irrigated Grain Sorghum, A. Schlegel, H. D. Bond Jun 2017

Long-Term Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilization Of Irrigated Grain Sorghum, A. Schlegel, H. D. Bond

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Long-term research shows that phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer must be applied to optimize production of irrigated grain sorghum in western Kansas. In 2016, N applied alone increased yields 71 bu/a, whereas N and P applied together increased yields up to 93 bu/a. Averaged across the past 10 years, N and P fertilization increased sorghum yields up to 77 bu/a. Application of 80 lb/a N (with P) was sufficient to produce 89% of maximum yield in 2016 which is slightly less than the 10-yr average. Application of potassium (K) has had no effect on sorghum ...


Long-Term Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilization Of Irrigated Corn, A. Schlegel, H. D. Bond Jun 2017

Long-Term Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilization Of Irrigated Corn, A. Schlegel, H. D. Bond

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Long-term research shows that phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer must be applied to optimize production of irrigated corn in western Kansas. In 2016, N applied alone increased yields 85 bu/a, whereas P applied alone increased yields only 12 bu/a. Nitrogen and P applied together increased yields up to 164 bu/a. This is 20 bu/a greater than the 10-year average, where N and P fertilization increased corn yields up to 144 bu/a. Application of 120 lb/a N (with highest P rate) produced about 94% of maximum yield in 2016, which is similar to the ...


Kansas Fertilizer Research 2017 Jun 2017

Kansas Fertilizer Research 2017

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Reports on fertilizer and related topics from Kansas State University.


Agricultural Bio-Stimulant Application To Enhance Phosphorus Availability In Grain Sorghum, A. Obour Jun 2017

Agricultural Bio-Stimulant Application To Enhance Phosphorus Availability In Grain Sorghum, A. Obour

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of AgZyme and SuperHume (both products of Ag Concepts Corp) application on phosphorus (P) uptake and utilization efficiency in grain sorghum. Treatments were a control, 30 lb P2O5/a, 20 oz/a AgZyme, 20 oz/a AgZyme + 30 lb P2O5/a, 20 oz/a AgZyme + 30 lb P2O5/a + 6 qt/a SuperHume, which were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Preliminary results in 2016 showed grain sorghum aboveground biomass, grain moisture content, and test weight were not affected ...


Long-Term Tillage And Nitrogen Fertilization Effects On Soil Surface Chemistry, A. Obour, J. D. Holman Jun 2017

Long-Term Tillage And Nitrogen Fertilization Effects On Soil Surface Chemistry, A. Obour, J. D. Holman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Long-term crop management practices can affect nutrient cycling and availability to crops. This study examined the long-term effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application (N rates of 0, 20, 40, and 60 lb N/a) and tillage intensity (conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT), and no-tillage (NT)) on soil phosphorus (P), micronutrients, and soil acidity in a dryland winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)–fallow cropping system. Results showed soil organic matter (SOM), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were greater under NT compared to CT or RT. Similarly, NT ( 32 ppm) increased P accumulation in the upper ...


Interaction Of Seeding And Nitrogen Rate On Grain Sorghum Yield In Southwest Kansas, A. J. Foster, A. Schlegel, J. D. Holman, I. A. Ciampitti, C. Thompson, D. Ruiz Diaz Jun 2017

Interaction Of Seeding And Nitrogen Rate On Grain Sorghum Yield In Southwest Kansas, A. J. Foster, A. Schlegel, J. D. Holman, I. A. Ciampitti, C. Thompson, D. Ruiz Diaz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This study compared drilled planted sorghum at four seeding rates to planted sorghum at three different nitrogen (N) fertility levels at two locations in southwest Kansas (Garden City and Tribune). At the Garden City location, no difference was observed in yield among the drilled seeded sorghum populations greater than 27,000 seeds/a compared to the standard planted sorghum (sorghum planted at 27,000 seeds/a with a planter at 30 in.-row spacing). At Tribune, there was no difference in yield between the drilled sorghum and the standard planted sorghum (sorghum planted at 40,000 seeds/a with a ...


Productivity Of A Triticale And Crimson Clover Winter Cover Crop For Dairies, K. Olagaray, C. Takiya, M. Scheffel, T. Brown, J. S. Stevenson, D. H. Min, B. Bradford Jan 2017

Productivity Of A Triticale And Crimson Clover Winter Cover Crop For Dairies, K. Olagaray, C. Takiya, M. Scheffel, T. Brown, J. S. Stevenson, D. H. Min, B. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The potential for a winter cover crop to align with agronomic objectives and to support milk production was evaluated at the Kansas State University Dairy Teaching and Research Center, Manhattan, KS. August planting of a triticale and crimson clover blend following corn silage harvest resulted in production of more than 3.5 tons of dry matter prior to subsequent corn planting. After ensiling, the impact of triticale/crimson clover silage (TCS) on milk production was evaluated in 48 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows. Cows were blocked by parity (1 and 2+) and milk production, then randomly assigned within block to ...


Determining Profitable Annual Forage Rotations, J. D. Holman, A. Obour, I. Kisekka, T. Roberts, S. Maxwell Jan 2017

Determining Profitable Annual Forage Rotations, J. D. Holman, A. Obour, I. Kisekka, T. Roberts, S. Maxwell

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Producers are interested in growing annual forages, yet western Kansas lacks proven recommended crop rotations such as those for grain crops. Forage production is important to the region’s livestock and dairy industries and is becoming increasingly important as irrigation-well capacity declines. Forages require less water than grain crops and may allow for increased cropping intensity and opportunistic cropping. A study was initiated in 2012 at the Southwest Research-Extension Center in Garden City, KS, comparing several 1-, 3-, and 4-year forage rotations with no-tillage and minimum-tillage (min-tillage). Data presented are from 2013 through 2016. Winter triticale yields were increased by ...


Sudden Death Syndrome And Soybean Planting Date, Eric Adee, C. R. Little, I. A. Ciampitti Jan 2017

Sudden Death Syndrome And Soybean Planting Date, Eric Adee, C. R. Little, I. A. Ciampitti

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The effect of planting date on severity of sudden death syndrome (SDS) and yield was evaluated for the second year in two studies at the Kansas River Valley experiment fields in 2016. One study was established to promote SDS and the other to minimize SDS. In both studies the severity of SDS was greatest with the earlier planting dates. The yield was greatest with the earlier planting date, except for the most susceptible variety. The severity of SDS was not as great as had been observed in previous years. There is a very positive benefit to planting in early May ...


Seed Yield And Biological Nitrogen Fixation For Historical Soybean Genotypes, S. Tamagno, I. A. Ciampitti Jan 2017

Seed Yield And Biological Nitrogen Fixation For Historical Soybean Genotypes, S. Tamagno, I. A. Ciampitti

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Seed yield formation and biological nitrogen (N) fixation (BNF) were evaluated during the seed filling period (SFP) for historical soybean genotypes under contrasting N strategies. Overall, seed yield increased with the year of release, primarily associated with increments in the seed number component. The study showed that seed weight factor was maintained across decades regardless of the improvement in seed number. Nitrogen factor, evaluated as zero-N application via inorganic fertilizers versus high-N added, influenced seed yield via impacting seed weight factor. The latter plant trait improved with the high-N treatment, which was related to changes in the duration of the ...


Wheat Variety Response To Intensive Vs. Standard Management Strategies To Narrow The Yield Gap In Kansas, A. De Oliveira Silva, A. K. Fritz, R. Lollato Jan 2017

Wheat Variety Response To Intensive Vs. Standard Management Strategies To Narrow The Yield Gap In Kansas, A. De Oliveira Silva, A. K. Fritz, R. Lollato

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Farmer-reported wheat grain yield in Kansas is approximately 35 bushels per acre lower than the estimated yield potential of ~75 bushels per acre. Our objective was to determine the influence of variety selection and management on grain yield to elucidate methods to decrease the wheat yield gap in Kansas. Field experiments were conducted at three locations (Ellsworth, Conway Springs and McPherson) in Kansas during the 2015-2016 growing season to evaluate variety-specific response to nitrogen (N) and foliar fungicide. At each site, 35 to 44 winter wheat varieties were evaluated under standard management practice (SM) based on current farmer’s practice ...


Southwest Research-Extension Center, Kansas State University, Staff, Acknowledgments, R. Gillen Jan 2017

Southwest Research-Extension Center, Kansas State University, Staff, Acknowledgments, R. Gillen

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

2017 Southwest Research-Extension Center Faculty and Staff. Acknowledgments.


Kansas River Valley Experiment Field, Eric Adee Jan 2017

Kansas River Valley Experiment Field, Eric Adee

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The Kansas River Valley Experiment Field was established to study management and effective use of irrigation resources for crop production in the Kansas River Valley (KRV). The Paramore Unit consists of 80 acres located 3.5 miles east of Silver Lake on U.S. Highway 24, then 1 mile south of Kiro, and 1.5 miles east on 17th street. The Rossville Unit consists of 80 acres located 1 mile east of Rossville or 4 miles west of Silver Lake on U.S. Highway 24.


Closing Corn Yield Gaps Via Improved Management: A Systems Approach, G. R. Balboa, I. A. Ciampitti Jan 2017

Closing Corn Yield Gaps Via Improved Management: A Systems Approach, G. R. Balboa, I. A. Ciampitti

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Three corn research trials were conducted during the 2016 growing season. Two studies were conducted at Scandia, KS, (dryland and irrigated) and one at Topeka, KS (dryland). The objective of these trials was to investigate the contribution of different farming systems for closing corn yield gaps. Each experiment consisted of five treatments: common practices (CP), comprehensive fertilization (CF), production intensity (PI), ecological intensification (CF + PI), and advanced plus (AD). Across all three experiments and under dryland and irrigation scenarios, CP presented the lowest yield. In environments with yield response, intensifying production without a balanced nutrition program did not increase yields ...


Cropping Sequence Influenced Crop Yield, Soil Water Content, Residue Return, And Co2 Efflux In Wheat-Camelina Cropping System, E. Obeng, A. Obour, N. O. Nelson, I. A. Ciampitti, Donghai Wang, E. A. Santos Jan 2017

Cropping Sequence Influenced Crop Yield, Soil Water Content, Residue Return, And Co2 Efflux In Wheat-Camelina Cropping System, E. Obeng, A. Obour, N. O. Nelson, I. A. Ciampitti, Donghai Wang, E. A. Santos

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a short-seasoned oilseed crop with potential as a fallow replacement crop in dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum) - based cropping systems. Crop rotation management can affect the quality and quantity of crop residue return to the system. In addition, residue has the ability to sequester carbon and can affect plant available water. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing fallow with camelina on crop yield, soil water at wheat planting, soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from treatments, and residue return. Treatments were four rotation schemes, and included wheat-fallow (W-F), wheat-sorghum-fallow (W-S-F), wheat-spring ...


Effect Of Residue Management, Row Spacing, And Seeding Rate On Winter Canola Establishment, Winter Survival, And Yield, B. M. Showalter, K. Roozeboom, M. J. Stamm, R. Figger Jan 2017

Effect Of Residue Management, Row Spacing, And Seeding Rate On Winter Canola Establishment, Winter Survival, And Yield, B. M. Showalter, K. Roozeboom, M. J. Stamm, R. Figger

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Winter survival of canola (Brassica napus L.) is a challenge for producers using high-residue, no-tillage, or reduced-tillage systems. An innovative residue management system being developed by AGCO Corporation was compared to cooperating canola producers’ residue management and planting methods in wheat stubble. This series of on-farm experiments was conducted in 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 at ten locations in central and south-central Kansas. The AGCO treatments were 20- or 30-in. row spacing and three seeding rates (100,000, 150,000, and 200,000 seeds/a) for a total of six treatments. The producer treatment at each location included row spacing, seeding rate ...


Irrigated Sunflowers In Northwest Kansas: Productivity And Canopy Formation, F. Lamm, R. M. Aiken, A. A. Aboukheira, G. J. Seiler Jan 2017

Irrigated Sunflowers In Northwest Kansas: Productivity And Canopy Formation, F. Lamm, R. M. Aiken, A. A. Aboukheira, G. J. Seiler

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sunflower was grown in a three-year study (2009, 2010, and 2012) at the Kansas State University Northwest Research-Extension Center at Colby, KS, under a lateral move sprinkler irrigation system. Irrigation capacities were limited to no more than 1 inch every 4, 8, or 12 days but were scheduled only as needed as determined with a weather-based water budget. Achene (sunflower seed) yields and oil yield generally plateaued at the medium irrigation level. Dormant preseason irrigation increased achene yield and oil yield by 2% with most of this increase occurring in the extreme drought year, 2012. The optimum harvest plant population ...


Development Of A Berry Processing Score For Sorghum Silage And Assessment Of Processing Effects On Sorghum Silage Starch Digestibility, J. R. Johnson, J. P. Goeser, Michael Brouk Jan 2017

Development Of A Berry Processing Score For Sorghum Silage And Assessment Of Processing Effects On Sorghum Silage Starch Digestibility, J. R. Johnson, J. P. Goeser, Michael Brouk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objectives of this study were to develop a berry processing score (BPS) for sorghum silage, similar to the kernel processing score currently used for corn silage, and to evaluate the effects of processing on starch digestibility. Sorghum silage samples were collected from commercial farms in Kansas and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 processing levels differing in roll gap spacing: unprocessed (UNP), 1.5 (1.5P), 1.0 (1.0P), or 0.5 (0.5P) mm. Differences in BPS and starch digestibility were found–as the roll gap decreased, both BPS and starch digestibility increased. Thus, by processing sorghum ...


Searc Agricultural Research 2017, L. W. Lomas Jan 2017

Searc Agricultural Research 2017, L. W. Lomas

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Southeast Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research 2017. Topics include grazing and supplemental feed for beef cattle, forage, pasture, hay, grasses, legumes, tillage, fertilizer, corn, soybeans, wheat, and soil health and variability.


Integrated Grain And Forage Rotations, J. D. Holman, A. Obour, T. Roberts, S. Maxwell Jan 2017

Integrated Grain And Forage Rotations, J. D. Holman, A. Obour, T. Roberts, S. Maxwell

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Producers are interested in growing forages in rotation with grain crops. Many producers are interested in diversifying their operations to include livestock or grow feed for the livestock industry. By integrating forages into the cropping system producers can take advantage of more markets and reduce market risk. Forages require less water to make a crop than grain crops, so the potential may exist to reduce fallow by including forages in the crop rotation. Reducing fallow through intensified grain/forage rotations may increase the profitability and sustainability compared to existing crop rotations.

This study was started in 2013, with crops grown ...


Tillage Intensity In A Long-Term Wheat-Sorghum-Fallow Rotation, A. Schlegel Jan 2017

Tillage Intensity In A Long-Term Wheat-Sorghum-Fallow Rotation, A. Schlegel

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This study was initiated in 1991 at the Kansas State University Southwest Research- Extension Center near Tribune, KS. The purpose of the study was to identify the effects of tillage intensity on precipitation capture, soil water storage, and grain yield in a wheat-sorghum-fallow rotation. Grain yields of wheat and grain sorghum increased with decreased tillage intensity in a wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) rotation. In 2016, available soil water at wheat and sorghum planting was greater for reduced tillage (RT) than no-tillage (NT) and least for conventional tillage (CT). Averaged across the 16-yr study, available soil water at wheat and sorghum planting was ...


Estimating Annual Forage Yields With Plant Available Water And Growing Season Precipitation, J. D. Holman, A. Obour, I. Kisekka, A. Schlegel, T. Roberts, S. Maxwell Jan 2017

Estimating Annual Forage Yields With Plant Available Water And Growing Season Precipitation, J. D. Holman, A. Obour, I. Kisekka, A. Schlegel, T. Roberts, S. Maxwell

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Forage production is important for western Kansas region’s livestock and dairy industries and has become increasingly important as irrigation-well capacity declines. Forages require less water than grain crops and may allow for increased cropping intensity and opportunistic cropping. Being able to estimate forage production is important for determining forage availability versus forage needs. Data from several studies were used to quantify annual forage yield response to plant available water (PAW) at planting and growing season precipitation (GSP). In addition, water use efficiency was quantified. Forages evaluated included winter triticale, spring triticale, and forage sorghum.


Large-Scale Dryland Cropping Systems, A. Schlegel, L. Haag Jan 2017

Large-Scale Dryland Cropping Systems, A. Schlegel, L. Haag

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This study was conducted from 2008 to 2016 at the Kansas State University Southwest Research-Extension Center near Tribune, KS. The purpose of the study was to identify whether more intensive cropping systems can enhance and stabilize production in rainfed cropping systems to optimize economic crop production, more efficiently capture and utilize scarce precipitation, and maintain or enhance soil resources and environmental quality. The crop rotations evaluated were continuous grain sorghum (SS), wheat-fallow (WF), wheat-corn-fallow (WCF), wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF), wheat-corn-sorghum-fallow (WCSF), and wheat-sorghum-corn-fallow (WSCF). All rotations were grown using no-tillage practices except for WF, which was grown using reduced-tillage. The efficiency of ...


Wheat Stubble Height On Subsequent Corn And Grain Sorghum Crops, A. Schlegel, L. Haag Jan 2017

Wheat Stubble Height On Subsequent Corn And Grain Sorghum Crops, A. Schlegel, L. Haag

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A field study initiated in 2006 at the Southwest Research-Extension Center near Tribune, KS, was designed to evaluate the effects of three wheat stubble heights on subsequent grain yields of corn and grain sorghum. Corn and sorghum yields in 2016 were greater than the long-term average. When averaged from 2007 through 2016, corn grain yields were 10 bu/a greater when planted into either high or strip-cut stubble than into low-cut stubble. Average grain sorghum yields were 6 bu/a (but not significantly) greater in high-cut stubble than low-cut stubble. Similarly, water use efficiency was greater for high or strip-cut ...


Wheat And Grain Sorghum In Four-Year Rotations, A. Schlegel, J. D. Holman, C. Thompson Jan 2017

Wheat And Grain Sorghum In Four-Year Rotations, A. Schlegel, J. D. Holman, C. Thompson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

In 1996, an effort began to quantify soil water storage, crop water use, and crop productivity on dryland systems in western Kansas. Research on 4-year crop rotations with wheat and grain sorghum was initiated at the Southwest Research-Extension Center near Tribune, KS. Rotations were wheat-wheat-sorghum-fallow (WWSF), wheatsorghum- sorghum-fallow (WSSF), and continuous wheat (WW). Soil water at wheat planting averaged about 9 in. following sorghum, which is about 3 in. more than the average for the second wheat crop in a WWSF rotation. Soil water at sorghum planting was only about 1 in. less for the second sorghum crop compared with ...