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Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Animal Sciences

Stocker cattle

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Effects Of Prescribed Fire Timing On Stocker Cattle Performance, Native Plant Composition, Forage Biomass, And Root Carbohydrate Reserves In The Kansas Flint Hills: Year One Of Six, Z. M. Duncan, A. J. Tajchman, M. P. Ramirez, J. Lemmon, W. R. Hollenbeck, D. A. Blasi, K. C. Olson Jan 2020

Effects Of Prescribed Fire Timing On Stocker Cattle Performance, Native Plant Composition, Forage Biomass, And Root Carbohydrate Reserves In The Kansas Flint Hills: Year One Of Six, Z. M. Duncan, A. J. Tajchman, M. P. Ramirez, J. Lemmon, W. R. Hollenbeck, D. A. Blasi, K. C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: Our objective was to document the effects of prescribed fire timing on yearling beef cattle performance, native plant composition, and forage biomass ac­cumulation in the Kansas Flint Hills.

Study Description: Our study took place at the Kansas State Beef Stocker Unit located northwest of Manhattan, KS. Pastures were assigned to one of three prescribed burn treatments: early spring (April), mid-summer (August), or early fall (October). Treatments were applied and yearling heifers (n = 360) were subsequently grazed from May to August. Native plant composition and forage biomass were evaluated annually in late June and early July.

The Bottom Line ...


Evaluation Of Supplemental Energy Source For Grazing Stocker Cattle, L. W. Lomas, J. K. Farney, J. L. Moyer Jan 2020

Evaluation Of Supplemental Energy Source For Grazing Stocker Cattle, L. W. Lomas, J. K. Farney, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 216 steers grazing smooth bromegrass pastures were used to evaluate the effects of supplemental energy source on available forage, grazing gains, subsequent finishing gains, and carcass characteristics in 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019. Supplementation treatments evaluated were: no supplement, a supplement with starch as the primary source of energy, and a supplement with fat as the primary energy source. Supplements were formulated to provide the same quantity of protein and energy per head, daily. Supplementation with the starch-based or fat-based supplement during the grazing phase resulted in higher (P < 0.05) grazing gains than feeding no supplement during all six years. In 2014, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019, grazing gains of steers supplemented with the starch-based or fat-based supplement were similar (P > 0.05). In 2015, steers ...


Evaluation Of Supplemental Energy Source For Grazing Stocker Cattle, L. W. Lomas, J. K. Farney, J. L. Moyer Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Supplemental Energy Source For Grazing Stocker Cattle, L. W. Lomas, J. K. Farney, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 180 steers grazing smooth bromegrass pastures were used to evaluate the effects of supplemental energy source on available forage, grazing gains, subsequent finishing gains, and carcass characteristics in 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018. Supple­mentation treatments evaluated were: no supplement, a supplement with starch as the primary source of energy, and a supplement with fat as the primary source of energy. Supplements were formulated to provide the same quantity of protein and energy per head daily. Supplementation with the starch-based or fat-based supplement during the grazing phase resulted in higher (P < 0.05) grazing gains than feeding no supplement during all five years. In 2014, 2016, 2017, and 2018, grazing gains of steers supple­mented with the starch-based or fat-based supplement were similar (P > 0.05). In 2015, steers ...


Effects Of Interseeding Ladino Clover Into Tall Fescue Pastures Of Varying Endophyte Status On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance Of Stocker Steers, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer Jan 2019

Effects Of Interseeding Ladino Clover Into Tall Fescue Pastures Of Varying Endophyte Status On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance Of Stocker Steers, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

One hundred ninety-two yearling steers grazing tall fescue pastures were used to evalu­ate the effects of fescue cultivar and interseeding ladino clover on available forage, grazing gains, and subsequent finishing performance in 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fescue cultivars evaluated were high-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ low-endophyte Kentucky 31, ‘HM4,’ and ‘MaxQ.’ In 2016 and 2018, steers that grazed pastures of low-endophyte Kentucky 31, HM4, or MaxQ gained significantly more (P < 0.05) and produced more (P < 0.05) gain/a than those that grazed high-endophyte Kentucky 31 pastures. Gains of cattle that grazed low-endophyte Kentucky 31, HM4, or MaxQ were similar (P > 0.05). In 2017, steer gains were similar (P > 0.05) among all cultivars. High-endo­phyte Kentucky 31 pastures had more (P < 0.05) available forage than low-endophyte Kentucky 31, HM4, or MaxQ pastures during both 2016 and 2017. Steer gains and gain/acre were similar (P > 0.05) between pastures fertilized with nitrogen (N) in ...


Effects Of Supplementation With Corn Or Dried Distillers Grains On Gains Of Heifer Calves Grazing Smooth Bromegrass Pastures, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer Jan 2019

Effects Of Supplementation With Corn Or Dried Distillers Grains On Gains Of Heifer Calves Grazing Smooth Bromegrass Pastures, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 150 heifer calves grazing smooth bromegrass pastures were used to compare supplementation with 0.5% of body weight per head daily of corn or dried distillers grains (DDG) in 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018. Daily gains of heifers supplement­ed with corn or DDG were similar (P > 0.05) in all years except 2018, when heifers supplemented with DDG had greater (P < 0.05) gains than those supplemented with corn.


Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer Jan 2019

Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 360 mixed black yearling steers were used to compare grazing and subsequent finishing performance from pastures with ‘MaxQ’ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, or a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018. Daily gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue, wheat-bermudagrass, or wheat-crabgrass were similar (P > 0.05) in 2010, 2016, 2017, and 2018. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed MaxQ fescue in 2011 and 2012. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0 ...


Restricting Intake And Increasing Energy Improves Efficiency In Newly Received Growing Cattle And Zelnate Has No Effect, T. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, E. Titgemeyer, G. A. Hanzlicek, Christopher Vahl, T. G. Nagaraja, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi Jan 2018

Restricting Intake And Increasing Energy Improves Efficiency In Newly Received Growing Cattle And Zelnate Has No Effect, T. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, E. Titgemeyer, G. A. Hanzlicek, Christopher Vahl, T. G. Nagaraja, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objectives: Study effects of two limit-fed diets formulated to provide two levels of dietary energy and offered at two different intake rates to target similar gains and analyze the efficacy of a novel DNA-immunostimulant administered on arrival.

Study Description: A 56-day pen study was conducted utilizing 370 Angus × Brahman heifers shipped from Florida (1,455 mi) to study the effects of limit-feeding at 2 intakes based on prior research conducted at the Kansas State University Beef Stocker Unit, Manhattan, KS, to achieve similar gains and effects of Zelnate under the dietary conditions.

The Bottom Line: Limit-feeding a higher-energy, lower-roughage diet ...


Programming A Variety Of Gains Is Possible By Controlling Intake Of A Single High-Energy By-Product-Based Diet Early In The Receiving/Growing Period Without Affecting Efficiency, T. J. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, E. C. Titgemeyer, G. A. Hanzlicek, Christopher Vahl, T. G. Nagaraja, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi Jan 2018

Programming A Variety Of Gains Is Possible By Controlling Intake Of A Single High-Energy By-Product-Based Diet Early In The Receiving/Growing Period Without Affecting Efficiency, T. J. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, E. C. Titgemeyer, G. A. Hanzlicek, Christopher Vahl, T. G. Nagaraja, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: Analyze the effects on performance when feeding a high-energy by-product-based diet to newly received growing cattle.

Description: A total of 400 Angus × Hereford heifers originating from Montana were used to determine the effects on performance when intake of a high-energy corn by-product-based diet is increased to near ad libitum intake.

The Bottom Line: One high-energy diet based on wet corn gluten feed can be offered to achieve a variety of gains efficiently by only altering the amount of feed offered.


Wet Distiller’S Grains And Wet Corn Gluten With Dry-Rolled Or Whole-Shelled Corn In High-Energy Limit-Fed Diets Do Not Affect Growing Cattle Performance, T. J. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, E. C. Titgemeyer, G. A. Hanzlicek, Christopher Vahl, T. G. Nagaraja, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi Jan 2018

Wet Distiller’S Grains And Wet Corn Gluten With Dry-Rolled Or Whole-Shelled Corn In High-Energy Limit-Fed Diets Do Not Affect Growing Cattle Performance, T. J. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, E. C. Titgemeyer, G. A. Hanzlicek, Christopher Vahl, T. G. Nagaraja, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: Compare wet distiller’s grains plus solubles and wet corn gluten feed with dry-rolled or whole-shelled corn in a novel programmed-feeding strategy being developed at the Kansas State University Beef Stocker Unit.

Description: A total of 320 crossbred steers were used to determine the effects of two corn by-products and methods of corn processing, utilizing a high-energy limit-fed feeding strategy.

The Bottom Line: Kansas producers have the option of feeding corn by-product and whether or not to process corn in a high-energy limit-fed feeding strategy without the risk of negatively affecting performance.


Increased Dietary Energy In Limit-Fed Diets Does Not Affect Immune Function, Inflammation, Or Stress, But Health Status Does, T. J. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, E. C. Titgemeyer, G. A. Hanzlicek, Christopher Vahl, T. G. Nagaraja, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi Jan 2018

Increased Dietary Energy In Limit-Fed Diets Does Not Affect Immune Function, Inflammation, Or Stress, But Health Status Does, T. J. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, E. C. Titgemeyer, G. A. Hanzlicek, Christopher Vahl, T. G. Nagaraja, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objectives: Measure effects of limit-feeding high-energy diets on the immune system, stress, and inflammation as well as differences in these parameters between healthy and sick animals under the dietary conditions.

Study Description: Heifers from 4 dietary treatments were used to study the effects of limit-feeding and increased dietary energy on immune function, inflammation (indicated by elevated levels of haptoglobin), stress, and differences in these parameters between healthy and morbid animals consuming the different diets.

The Bottom Line: Limit-feeding high-energy diets does not negatively affect immune function, cause stress, or promote inflammation, and morbid animals have significantly higher haptoglobin levels.


Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer Jan 2018

Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

MaxQ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, and a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system have been three of the most promising grazing systems evaluated at the Kansas State University Southeast Agricultural Research Center in the past 20 years, but these systems have never been compared directly in the same study. The objective of this study was to compare grazing and subsequent finishing performance of stocker steers that grazed these three systems.


Effects Of Interseeding Ladino Clover Into Tall Fescue Pastures Of Varying Endophyte Status On Grazing Performance Of Stocker Steers, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer Jan 2018

Effects Of Interseeding Ladino Clover Into Tall Fescue Pastures Of Varying Endophyte Status On Grazing Performance Of Stocker Steers, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Tall fescue, the most widely adapted cool-season perennial grass in the United States, is grown on approximately 66 million acres. Although tall fescue is well adapted in the eastern half of the country between the temperate north and mild south, presence of a fungal endophyte results in poor performance of grazing livestock, especially during the summer. Until recently, producers with high-endophyte tall fescue pastures had two primary options for improving grazing livestock performance. One option was to destroy existing stands and replace them with endophyte-free fescue or other forages. Although it supports greater animal performance than endophyte-infected fescue, endophyte-free fescue ...


Effects Of Supplementation With Corn Or Dried Distillers Grains On Gains Of Heifer Calves Grazing Smooth Bromegrass Pastures, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer Jan 2018

Effects Of Supplementation With Corn Or Dried Distillers Grains On Gains Of Heifer Calves Grazing Smooth Bromegrass Pastures, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Distillers grains, a by-product of the ethanol industry, have tremendous potential as an economical and nutritious supplement for grazing cattle. Distillers grains contain a high concentration of protein (25 to 30%), with more than two-thirds escaping degradation in the rumen, which makes it an excellent supplement for younger cattle. Recent advancements in the ethanol manufacturing process have resulted in extraction of a greater amount of fat; therefore, creating distillers grains that may contain less energy than corn. This research was conducted to compare performance of stocker cattle supplemented with corn or DDG at 0.5% body weight per head daily ...


Evaluation Of Supplemental Energy Source For Grazing Stocker Cattle, L. W. Lomas, J. K. Farney, J. L. Moyer Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Supplemental Energy Source For Grazing Stocker Cattle, L. W. Lomas, J. K. Farney, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Supplementation of grazing cattle is most economically feasible when cattle prices are high relative to the price of grain. Energy supplementation of grazing ruminants may reduce forage intake and digestibility, but energy supplementation at low levels (less than 0.4% bodyweight) has been shown to have little effect on forage intake when crude protein was not limiting. Several studies have evaluated the effect of supplementation on stocker cattle gains and forage utilization during the grazing phase, but few have evaluated the effects of supplementation during the grazing phase on subsequent finishing performance and carcass traits. This research seeks to obtain ...


Total Tract Dry Matter Digestibility And Proportions Of Ruminal Propionate Are Increased In High-Energy Limit-Fed Diets Based Primarily On Wet Corn Gluten Feed, T. J. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, E. C. Titgemeyer, G. A. Hanzlicek, Christopher Vahl, T. G. Nagaraja, K. T. Cavalli, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi Jan 2018

Total Tract Dry Matter Digestibility And Proportions Of Ruminal Propionate Are Increased In High-Energy Limit-Fed Diets Based Primarily On Wet Corn Gluten Feed, T. J. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, E. C. Titgemeyer, G. A. Hanzlicek, Christopher Vahl, T. G. Nagaraja, K. T. Cavalli, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objectives: Study digestion and characteristics of digestion of high-energy limit-fed diets based primarily on wet corn gluten feed.

Study Description: Six ruminally-cannulated Jersey crossbred steers were used to measure total tract diet digestibility, passage rate, volatile fatty acid, and ammonia production, and ruminal pH when limit-feeding high-energy diets based primarily on wet corn gluten feed.

The Bottom Line: High-energy limit-fed diets based primarily on wet corn gluten feed are 15% more digestible and produce a higher concentration of energy yielding volatile fatty acid compared to low-energy full-fed diets without apparent disruptions in ruminal fermentation or health.


Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer Jan 2017

Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 280 mixed black yearling steers were used to compare grazing and subsequent finishing performance from pastures with ‘MaxQ’ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, or a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue, wheatbermudagrass, or wheat-crabgrass were similar (P > 0.05) in 2010 and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed MaxQ fescue in 2011 and 2012. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that ...


Effects Of Supplementation With Corn Or Dried Distillers Grains On Gains Of Heifer Calves Grazing Smooth Bromegrass Pastures, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer Jan 2017

Effects Of Supplementation With Corn Or Dried Distillers Grains On Gains Of Heifer Calves Grazing Smooth Bromegrass Pastures, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 90 heifer calves grazing smooth bromegrass pastures were used to compare supplementation with 0.5% of body weight per head daily of corn or dried distillers grains (DDG) in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Daily gains of heifers supplemented with corn or DDG were similar (P > 0.05).


Effects Of Interseeding Ladino Clover Into Tall Fescue Pastures Of Varying Endophyte Status On Grazing Performance Of Stocker Steers, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer Jan 2017

Effects Of Interseeding Ladino Clover Into Tall Fescue Pastures Of Varying Endophyte Status On Grazing Performance Of Stocker Steers, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sixty-four yearling steers grazing tall fescue pastures were used to evaluate the effects of fescue cultivar and interseeding ladino clover on grazing gains and available forage. Fescue cultivars evaluated were high-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ low-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ ‘HM4,’ and ‘MaxQ.’ Steers that grazed pastures of low-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ ‘HM4,’ or ‘MaxQ’ gained significantly more (P < 0.05) and produced more (P < 0.05) gain/a than those that grazed high-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31’ pastures. Gains of cattle that grazed low-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ ‘HM4,’ or ‘MaxQ’ were similar (P > 0.05). High-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31’ pastures had more (P < 0.05) available forage than lowendophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ ‘HM4,’ or ‘MaxQ’ pastures.


Evaluation Of Supplemental Energy Source For Grazing Stocker Cattle, L. W. Lomas, J. K. Farney, J. L. Moyer Jan 2017

Evaluation Of Supplemental Energy Source For Grazing Stocker Cattle, L. W. Lomas, J. K. Farney, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 108 steers grazing smooth bromegrass pastures were used to evaluate the effects of supplemental energy source on available forage, grazing gains, subsequent finishing gains, and carcass characteristics in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Supplementation treatments evaluated were: no supplement, a supplement with starch as the primary source of energy, and a supplement with fat as the primary source of energy. Supplements were formulated to provide the same quantity of protein and energy per head daily. Supplementation with the starch-based or fat-based supplement during the grazing phase resulted in higher (P < 0.05) grazing gains than feeding no supplement during all three years. In 2014 and 2016, grazing gains of steers supplemented with the starch-based or fat-based supplement were similar (P > 0.05). In 2015, steers supplemented with the ...