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Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Animal Sciences

Particle size

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Influence Of Particle Size Of Enogen Feed High Amylase And Conventional Yellow Dent Corn On Lactating Sow Performance, H. R. Williams, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, R. D. Goodband, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, C. B. Paulk, H. I. Calderón Jan 2020

Influence Of Particle Size Of Enogen Feed High Amylase And Conventional Yellow Dent Corn On Lactating Sow Performance, H. R. Williams, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, R. D. Goodband, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, C. B. Paulk, H. I. Calderón

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 107 sows (Line; 241 DNA; Columbus, NE) were used in a study to evaluate the effect of Enogen Feed corn and conventional yellow dent corn ground to different particle sizes in lactation diets on sow and litter performance. On d 107 of gestation, sows were blocked by body weight and parity and allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments. Dietary treatments consisted of 2 corn sources (Enogen Feed corn and conventional yellow dent) and 2 ground corn particle sizes (600 and 900 microns). A common diet was fed to sows from time of arrival into the farrowing ...


Influence Of Particle Size Of Enogen Feed High Amylase And Conventional Yellow Dent Corn On Nursery Pig Performance, H. R. Williams, H. R. Kerkaert, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, R. D. Goodband, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, C. B. Paulk, H. I. Calderón Jan 2020

Influence Of Particle Size Of Enogen Feed High Amylase And Conventional Yellow Dent Corn On Nursery Pig Performance, H. R. Williams, H. R. Kerkaert, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, R. D. Goodband, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, C. B. Paulk, H. I. Calderón

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 360 pigs (DNA 200 × 400; initially 14.5 lb) were used in a 35-d growth trial to evaluate the influence of particle size of Enogen Feed high amylase (Enogen, Syngenta Seeds, LLC, Downers Grove, IL) and conventional yellow dent corn on nursery pig performance. Pigs were randomly assigned to pens (5 pigs per pen) and pens were allotted by weight to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 12 pens per treatment. Treat­ments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of corn source (high amylase or conventional yellow ...


Influence Of Particle Size Of Enogen Feed High Amylase And Conventional Yellow Dent Corn On Finishing Pig Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Stomach Ulceration, H. R. Williams, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, R. D. Goodband, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, V. Shivanna, C. B. Paulk, H. I. Calderón Jan 2020

Influence Of Particle Size Of Enogen Feed High Amylase And Conventional Yellow Dent Corn On Finishing Pig Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Stomach Ulceration, H. R. Williams, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, R. D. Goodband, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, V. Shivanna, C. B. Paulk, H. I. Calderón

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 323 pigs (DNA 241 × 600; initially 109.8 lb) were used in an 83-d growth trial to evaluate the influence of particle size of Enogen Feed corn (Enogen, Syngenta Seeds, LLC, Downers Grove, IL) and conventional yellow dent corn on finishing pig performance. Pigs were randomly assigned to pens (9 pigs per pen) and pens were allotted by weight to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 6 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of corn source (Enogen Feed corn or conventional yellow dent ...


Effects Of Pre-Cutting Round Alfalfa Hay Bales On Forage Quality And Processing Time, W. E. Brown, E. Harms, J Heimsoth, J. Mcginnis, C. I. Vahl, B. J. Bradford, M. J. Brouk Jan 2020

Effects Of Pre-Cutting Round Alfalfa Hay Bales On Forage Quality And Processing Time, W. E. Brown, E. Harms, J Heimsoth, J. Mcginnis, C. I. Vahl, B. J. Bradford, M. J. Brouk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Round hay balers with knives that cut the hay as it enters the baling chamber reduce the particle size upon baling, and eliminate the need for a tub grinder. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a round hay baler with knives on forage quality of alfalfa hay at baling and after storage, and the effects of the processing method on nutrient composition and particle size distribution. Alfalfa hay was baled (560 M Megawide HC2, John Deere, Moline, IL) with knives every 4 inches (CUT; theo­retical length of cut) or without knives (NORM). At baling ...


Effects Of Grinding Corn With Different Moisture Concentrations On Subsequent Particle Size And Flowability Characteristics, M. B. Braun, K. M. Dunmire, C. E. Evans, C. R. Stark, C. B. Paulk Jan 2019

Effects Of Grinding Corn With Different Moisture Concentrations On Subsequent Particle Size And Flowability Characteristics, M. B. Braun, K. M. Dunmire, C. E. Evans, C. R. Stark, C. B. Paulk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of whole corn moisture and hammermill screen size on subsequent ground corn moisture, particle size, and flow- ability. Whole yellow dent #2 corn was used for this experiment. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial design with two moisture concentrations (as-received and high) each ground using 2 hammermill screen sizes (1/8 and 1/4 in). Corn was ground using a laboratory scale 1.5 HP Bliss Hammermill (Model 6K630B) at 3 separate time points to create 3 replications per treatment. Increasing initial whole corn moisture was accomplished by ...


Effect Of Mill Type And Particle Size Variation On Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finishing Pigs, M. B. Braun, H. K. Wecker, A. Yoder, J. C. Woodworth, C. R. Stark, C. B. Paulk Jan 2018

Effect Of Mill Type And Particle Size Variation On Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finishing Pigs, M. B. Braun, H. K. Wecker, A. Yoder, J. C. Woodworth, C. R. Stark, C. B. Paulk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of mill type used to grind corn and its particle size variation on diet flowability and subsequent finishing pig growth performance and carcass characteristics. A total of 200 pigs (DNA Line 241 × 600; initially 121.9 lb) were used in a 75-d growth trial. Pigs were randomly assigned to pens with either 5 barrows or 5 gilts per pen. Pens were then randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments balanced by weight and gender with 10 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 mill ...


Particle Size Of Dry-Rolled Corn Affects Starch Digestibility But Not Feedlot Performance, E. F. Schwandt, J. Wagner, T. Engle, S. J. Bartle, D. U. Thomson, C. D. Reinhardt Jan 2017

Particle Size Of Dry-Rolled Corn Affects Starch Digestibility But Not Feedlot Performance, E. F. Schwandt, J. Wagner, T. Engle, S. J. Bartle, D. U. Thomson, C. D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Dry-rolling corn is a common practice in feedlots located in the Midwestern and Northern Plains regions of the United States. Optimizing total digestive tract starch utilization in diets containing dry-rolled corn is essential for maximizing efficiency. However, recommendations often suggest that grain be coarsely cracked to avoid producing an excessive amount of fine material that could potentially increase the rate of fermentation, reduce rumen pH, and cause digestive disturbances.

Wet distillers byproducts may be effectively used as a protein and energy source for feedlot finishing cattle and can replace a portion of the dry-rolled corn in the diet. The average ...


The Effect Of Hammermill Screen Hole Diameter And Hammer Tip Speed On Particle Size And Flowability Of Ground Corn, M. Saensukjaroenphon, C. E. Evans, K. H. Sheldon, C. K. Jones, C. B. Paulk, C. R. Stark Jan 2017

The Effect Of Hammermill Screen Hole Diameter And Hammer Tip Speed On Particle Size And Flowability Of Ground Corn, M. Saensukjaroenphon, C. E. Evans, K. H. Sheldon, C. K. Jones, C. B. Paulk, C. R. Stark

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A variable frequency drive can be installed on the motor of a hammermill to adjust motor speed and ultimately hammer tip speed. This enables particle size adjustments to be made externally without requiring screens to be changed, therefore reducing idle time. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of screen hole diameter and tip speed on geometric mean diameter (dgw), geometric standard deviation (Sgw), and angle of repose (AoR). Treatments were arranged as a 3 × 3 factorial in a completely randomized design using three screen hole diameters and three hammer tip speeds. Each treatment replicate ...


The Effects Of Cold Pelleting And Separation Of Fine Corn Particles On Growth Performance And Economic Return In Nursery Pigs, C. E. Evans, M. Saensukjaroenphon, C. K. Jones, J. M. Derouchey, J. C. Woodworth, M. D. Tokach, C. B. Paulk, C. R. Stark Jan 2017

The Effects Of Cold Pelleting And Separation Of Fine Corn Particles On Growth Performance And Economic Return In Nursery Pigs, C. E. Evans, M. Saensukjaroenphon, C. K. Jones, J. M. Derouchey, J. C. Woodworth, M. D. Tokach, C. B. Paulk, C. R. Stark

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 320 pigs (DNA 241 × 600; initially 22.5 lb BW) were used in a 21-d experiment to determine the effects on pelleting technique and removing fine corn particles (< 150 microns) on nursery pig growth performance. There were 5 pigs per pen and 8 pens per treatment and diets were all manufactured using corn ground to 400 microns. Diets were fed as a mash or pelleted using a traditional vertical die pellet mill equipped with a steam conditioner (steam pellet) or a horizontal pellet die with hot water conditioning prior to pelleting (cold pellet). Therefore, the 8 treatments were: 1) ground corn diet fed as mash, 2) ground corn diet steam pelleted, 3) ground corn diet cold pelleted, 4) ground corn with fines less than 150 microns removed from the diet and the diet fed as mash, 5) ground corn with fines less than 150 microns removed from the diet and the diet without fines was steam pelleted, 6) ground corn with fines less than 150 microns removed from the diet and the diet without fines was cold pelleted, 7) fines less than 150 microns were steam pelleted then proportionally added back to ground corn and fed as a mixture of pellets and mash, and 8) fines less than 150 microns were cold pelleted then proportionally added back to ground corn and fed as a mixture of pellets and mash. Removal of fines less than 150 microns from the corn improved the flowability characteristics of the diets as indicated by improved composite flow index values. The best flowability was achieved when fines were pelleted and added back to the mash diets. Pigs fed steam- or cold-pelleted diets had decreased (P < 0.02) ADG, ADFI, and d-21 BW, total feed cost, revenue, and income over feed cost (IOFC) compared to those fed mash diets. Pigs fed steam pelleted diets had decreased (P < 0.006) ADG, d-21 BW, revenue, and IOFC compared to those fed cold pelleted diets. There were no growth performance differences between pigs fed ground corn diets or ground corn diets with fines removed. Pigs fed diets with fines removed, pelleted, and subsequently added back had increased (P < 0.05) ADFI, F/G, and feed cost compared to all other treatments. It is assumed that this response resulted from increased feed wastage resulting from pigs sorting pellets mixed with mash diets. The results of this study indicate that removing particles less than 150 microns improved the flowability of a mash diet without sacrificing growth performance. Additionally, cold pelleting was a viable option to steam pelleting in the current experiment. However, pelleting diets reduced pig performance compared to pigs fed mash diets. Further research is needed to validate the response to cold pelleting when the expected response to pelleting using steam conditioning is achieved.


A Survey Of Dry Processed Corn Particle Size And Fecal Starch In Midwestern U.S. Feedlots, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, S. J. Bartle, C. D. Reinhardt Jan 2017

A Survey Of Dry Processed Corn Particle Size And Fecal Starch In Midwestern U.S. Feedlots, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, S. J. Bartle, C. D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Optimizing grain processing practices in cattle feeding operations is critical to reaching maximum feed utilization efficiency. An increased degree of grain processing has consistently shown improved dry matter and starch digestibility; however, it exists with conflicting results on improving performance in finishing cattle. These inconsistencies are likely due to diet composition, such as roughage and co-product level, that could offset the effects of reduced particle size on rate of fermentation thus reducing the risk of digestive dysfunction.

Finishing diets are commonly formulated with processed grain to increase utilization of starch and improve animal performance. Processing methods including steam-flaking, grinding, or ...


Effect Of Sample Preparation And Extended Mix Times With Different Salt Particle Sizes On The Uniformity Of Mix Of A Corn-Soybean Meal Swine Diet, M. Saensukjaroenphon, C. K. Jones, C. H. Fahrenholz, C. R. Stark Jan 2016

Effect Of Sample Preparation And Extended Mix Times With Different Salt Particle Sizes On The Uniformity Of Mix Of A Corn-Soybean Meal Swine Diet, M. Saensukjaroenphon, C. K. Jones, C. H. Fahrenholz, C. R. Stark

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The uniformity of a feed mixture is determined from the coefficient of variation (CV) of 10 samples in a single batch of feed. The feed industry standard is a CV of less than 10% using a single source tracer, such as salt, trace minerals, or iron filings. The objectives of these experiments were to determine the effects of 1) extended mix time, 2) particle size of the marker, and 3) sample preparation on the CV in a corn-soybean meal swine diet. In Experiment 1, treatments were arranged in a 3 × 7 factorial with main effects of 3 salt particle sizes ...


Effects Of Grinding Corn Through A 2-, 3-, Or 4-High Roller Mill On Pig Performance And Feed Preference Of 25- To 50-Lb Nursery Pigs, J. T. Gebhardt, J. A. De Jong, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband, K. F. Coble, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones, S. S. Dritz Jan 2015

Effects Of Grinding Corn Through A 2-, 3-, Or 4-High Roller Mill On Pig Performance And Feed Preference Of 25- To 50-Lb Nursery Pigs, J. T. Gebhardt, J. A. De Jong, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband, K. F. Coble, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones, S. S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 410 pigs were used in two experiments to determine the effects of grinding corn through various roller mill configurations on feed preference and performance of nursery pigs.

In Exp. 1, 320 pigs (DNA 400 × 200, initially 23.6 lb) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 16 pens per treatment and 5 pigs per pen for a 21-d growth trial. The 4 dietary treatments used the same corn-soybean meal-based formulation that was mixed from the same batch of ingredients. Corn was ground through the same 4-high roller mill, but using different roller configurations. Experimental ...


Finely Grinding Cereal Grains In Pelleted Diets Offers Little Improvement In Nursery Pig Growth Performance, G. E. Bokelman, J. A. De Jong, J. R. Kalivoda, A. Yoder, C. R. Stark, J. C. Woodworth, C. K. Jones Jan 2015

Finely Grinding Cereal Grains In Pelleted Diets Offers Little Improvement In Nursery Pig Growth Performance, G. E. Bokelman, J. A. De Jong, J. R. Kalivoda, A. Yoder, C. R. Stark, J. C. Woodworth, C. K. Jones

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Five experiments were conducted to determine the effects of corn particle size and diet form on nursery pig performance and feed preference. In Exp. 1, 192 nursery pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 14.7 lb and 26 d of age) were used in a 35-d experiment. Pens of pigs were balanced by BW and allotted to 1 of 4 treatments with 6 pigs per pen and 8 pens per treatment. The same corn and soybean meal-based diet formulation was used for all treatments. The 2 × 2 factorial consisted of the main effects of corn particle size (400 vs. 700 μ ...


Evaluating The Accuracy Of The 3-Sieve Particle Size Analysis Method Compared To The 12-Sieve Method, G. E. Bokelman, S. C. Stewart, A. L. Baldridge, J. C. Woodworth, S. S. Dritz, J. R. Kalivoda, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones Jan 2015

Evaluating The Accuracy Of The 3-Sieve Particle Size Analysis Method Compared To The 12-Sieve Method, G. E. Bokelman, S. C. Stewart, A. L. Baldridge, J. C. Woodworth, S. S. Dritz, J. R. Kalivoda, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The 3-sieve particle size analysis method was developed to estimate the particle size of ground grain within feed mills without the time and expense required for a 12-sieve analysis. The 3-sieve method is more simplistic because it is hand-shaken and uses fewer sieves but has drawbacks because it is not as precise as the 12-sieve method. Because shaking is not automated, technician variation may impact results. Furthermore, the accuracy of the original 3-sieve method has been questioned because the method was developed for corn between 400 to 1,200 μm, and the industry now grinds various grains more finely ...


Effects Of Grinding Corn Through A 2-, 3-, Or 4-High Roller Mill On Milling Characteristics, And Commercial Finishing Pig Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics, J. T. Gebhardt, K. F. Coble, M. D. Tokach, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband, J. C. Woodworth, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones, S. S. Dritz Jan 2015

Effects Of Grinding Corn Through A 2-, 3-, Or 4-High Roller Mill On Milling Characteristics, And Commercial Finishing Pig Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics, J. T. Gebhardt, K. F. Coble, M. D. Tokach, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband, J. C. Woodworth, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones, S. S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 922 pigs [PIC TR4 × (FAST Large white × PIC Landrace), initially 88.3 lb] were used in a 97-d experiment to determine the effects of grinding corn through various roller mill configurations on milling characteristics as well as growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs in a commercial setting. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 experimental treatments by initial BW with 11 pens per treatment and 21 pigs per pen. All diets were fed in 5 phases with the same corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 20% dried distiller’s grains with solubles. Experimental treatments included: (1 ...