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Natural Resources and Conservation

Selected Works

Articles 1 - 30 of 64

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Potential Economic Impacts Of Allocating More Land For Bioenergy Biomass Production In Virginia, Thomas O. Ochuodho, Janaki R. R. Alavalapati, Pankaj Lal, Domena A. Agyeman, Bernabas Wolde, Pralhad Burli Oct 2019

Potential Economic Impacts Of Allocating More Land For Bioenergy Biomass Production In Virginia, Thomas O. Ochuodho, Janaki R. R. Alavalapati, Pankaj Lal, Domena A. Agyeman, Bernabas Wolde, Pralhad Burli

Pankaj Lal

The growing attention to renewable energy and rural development has created greater demand for production of biomass feedstock for bioenergy. However, forest growth rates and the amount of land in most existing forests may not be sufficient to sustainably supply the forest biomass required to support existing forest products industries and the expanding bioenergy industry. Additionally, concerns about agricultural land use competition have dampened expansion of biomass production on agricultural land base. One of the ways to meet the growing forest biomass feedstock demand for bioenergy production is by allocating currently marginal non-forested land for growing bioenergy feedstocks. In Virginia ...


The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha Degroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff Oct 2019

The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha Degroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff

Jason Holderieath

BACKGROUND: Blackbird (Icteridae) damage to ripening sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been a persistent economic issue in the USA for the last five decades. To quantify losses, we surveyed blackbird damage from 2001 to 2013 (excluding 2004) to physiologically mature sunflower in eight states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Colorado, Kansas, and Vermont.

RESULTS:We pooled data gathered during the most recent 5 years (2009 to 2013) of the survey and found losses averaged $US2.5 million and $US11.3 million for confectionery and oilseed hybrids, respectively. Three states, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska, had sufficient acreage ...


Wildlife Conservation, Zoos And Animal Protection: A Strategic Analysis, Andrew N. Rowan Sep 2019

Wildlife Conservation, Zoos And Animal Protection: A Strategic Analysis, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

The publication consists of the proceedings of a workshop, sponsored by the Gilman Foundation, and held in April of 1994 at the White Oak Conservation Center in Florida. About thirty participants were invited from zoos, animal protection groups and academic institutions to discuss concepts such as wild, captive and tame; animal well-being in the wild and in zoos; and protecting individuals versus conserving populations. In order to maximize the time engaged in discussion, several individuals were identified to prepare target articles which were distributed to all participants before the meeting. These articles form the main chapters in this book. Other ...


The Relationship Of Animal Protection Interests To Animal Damage Management: Historic Paths, Contemporary Concerns And The Uncertain Future, John Hadidian Sep 2019

The Relationship Of Animal Protection Interests To Animal Damage Management: Historic Paths, Contemporary Concerns And The Uncertain Future, John Hadidian

John Hadidian, PhD

More than a decade ago Schmidt (1989) called for consideration of animal welfare to become a "firstorder" decision rule in wildlife management concerns, including animal damage control. Although there has been movement in that direction, this clearly has not yet come to pass. This paper takes a brief look at the interests we call animal damage management, animal welfare and protection, animal rights, and environmentalism in order to speculate about their shared concerns and the uncertain future before them. Since animal damage and the management of that damage cannot be abstracted from the environmental context in which they occur, this ...


Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. Mcloughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. Mcelligott Jul 2019

Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. Mcloughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, PhD

Vocalizations carry emotional, physiological and individual information. This suggests that they may serve as potentially useful indicators for inferring animal welfare. At the same time, automated methods for analysing and classifying sound have developed rapidly, particularly in the fields of ecology, conservation and sound scene classification. These methods are already used to automatically classify animal vocalizations, for example, in identifying animal species and estimating numbers of individuals. Despite this potential, they have not yet found widespread application in animal welfare monitoring. In this review, we first discuss current trends in sound analysis for ecology, conservation and sound classification. Following this ...


Introduction: Social-Ecological Resilience And Law, Ahjond S. Garmestani, Craig R. Allen, Craig Anthony Arnold, Lance H. Gunderson Apr 2019

Introduction: Social-Ecological Resilience And Law, Ahjond S. Garmestani, Craig R. Allen, Craig Anthony Arnold, Lance H. Gunderson

Craig Anthony (Tony) Arnold

Environmental law is intimately connected to ecological concepts and understanding. The legal instruments, institutions, and administration of law in the United States are predicated on assumptions that nature is globally stable and that the inherent variability in ecological systems is bounded. This current legal framework is based upon an understanding of ecological systems operating near an equilibrium, or if disturbed, moving back toward an equilibrium. Such assumptions make much current environmental law ill-suited for many pressing environmental issues (Ruhl 1999; Garmestani et al. 2009; Craig 2010; Verchick 2010; Benson and Garmestani 2011). Emerging environmental challenges, such as cross-boundary water governance ...


Quantifying Uncertainty And Trade-Offs In Resilience Assessments, Craig R. Allen, Hannah E. Birgé, David G. Angeler, Craig A. Arnold, Brian C. Chaffin, Daniel A. Decaro, Ahjond S. Garmestani, Lance Gunderson Apr 2019

Quantifying Uncertainty And Trade-Offs In Resilience Assessments, Craig R. Allen, Hannah E. Birgé, David G. Angeler, Craig A. Arnold, Brian C. Chaffin, Daniel A. Decaro, Ahjond S. Garmestani, Lance Gunderson

Craig Anthony (Tony) Arnold

Several frameworks have been developed to assess the resilience of social-ecological systems, but most require substantial data inputs, time, and technical expertise. Stakeholders and practitioners often lack the resources for such intensive efforts. Furthermore, most end with problem framing and fail to explicitly address trade-offs and uncertainty. To remedy this gap, we developed a rapid survey assessment that compares the relative resilience of social-ecological systems with respect to a number of resilience properties. This approach generates large amounts of information relative to stakeholder inputs. We targeted four stakeholder categories: government (policy, regulation, management), end users (farmers, ranchers, landowners, industry), agency ...


Barriers And Bridges To The Integration Of Social–Ecological Resilience And Law, Olivia Odom Green, Ahjond S. Garmestani, Craig R. Allen, Lance H. Gunderson, J.B. Ruhl, Craig A. Arnold, Nicholas A.J. Graham, Barbara Cosens, David G. Angeler, Brian C. Chaffin, C.S. Holling Apr 2019

Barriers And Bridges To The Integration Of Social–Ecological Resilience And Law, Olivia Odom Green, Ahjond S. Garmestani, Craig R. Allen, Lance H. Gunderson, J.B. Ruhl, Craig A. Arnold, Nicholas A.J. Graham, Barbara Cosens, David G. Angeler, Brian C. Chaffin, C.S. Holling

Craig Anthony (Tony) Arnold

There is a fundamental difference between the ways in which ecologists and lawyers view uncertainty: in the study of ecology, uncertainty provides a catalyst for exploration, whereas uncertainty is antithetical to the rule of law. This issue is particularly troubling in environmental management, where the tensions between law and ecology become apparent. Rather than acknowledge uncertainties in management actions, legal frameworks often force a false sense of certainty in linking cause and effect. While adaptive management has been developed to deal with uncertainty, laws and legal wrangling can be obstacles to implementation. In this article, we recommend resilience-based governance – “adaptive ...


Cropland Expansion Into Prairie Pothole Wetlands, 2001-2010, Carol A. Johnston Feb 2018

Cropland Expansion Into Prairie Pothole Wetlands, 2001-2010, Carol A. Johnston

Carol Johnston

No abstract provided.


Toward A Synthesis Of Conservation And Animal Welfare Science, David Fraser Nov 2017

Toward A Synthesis Of Conservation And Animal Welfare Science, David Fraser

David Fraser, PhD

Conservation biology and animal welfare science are multidisciplinary fields of research that address social concerns about animals. Conservation biology focuses on wild animals, works at the level of populations, ecological systems and genetic types, and deals with threats to biodiversity and ecological integrity. Animal welfare science typically focuses on captive (often domestic) animals, works at the level of individuals and groups, and deals with threats to the animals’ health and quality of life. However, there are many areas of existing or potential overlap: (i) many real-life problems, such as environmental contamination, urban development and transportation, create problems for animals that ...


Rating Harms To Wildlife: A Survey Showing Convergence Between Conservation And Animal Welfare Views, S. Dubois, D. Fraser Nov 2017

Rating Harms To Wildlife: A Survey Showing Convergence Between Conservation And Animal Welfare Views, S. Dubois, D. Fraser

David Fraser, PhD

Human activities may cause conservation concerns when animal populations or ecosystems are harmed and animal welfare concerns when individuals are harmed. In general, people are concerned with one or the other, as the concepts may be regarded as separate or even at odds. An online purposive survey of 339 British Columbians explored differences between groups that varied by gender, residency, wildlife engagement level and value orientation (conservation-oriented or animal welfare-oriented), to see how they rated the level of harm to wildlife caused by different human activities. Women, urban residents, those with low wildlife engagement, and welfare-orientated participants generally scored activities ...


Winter Grazing Management, Stephen K. Barnhart, James R. Russell, Douglas L. Karlen, Michael J. Tidman Jun 2017

Winter Grazing Management, Stephen K. Barnhart, James R. Russell, Douglas L. Karlen, Michael J. Tidman

Douglas L Karlen

Why winter grazing? Beef cow herd and sheep flock records show that winter feeding costs are livestock producers' single largest production expense. Managing through winter weather while keeping feeding costs low is an essential part of maintaining a profitable operation. Iowa's climate generally allows forage growth only during a 7-to-8 month period. Extending the grazing of this forage--even an extra 3 or 4 weeks in late autumn and winter--is an economical way to maintain or increase livestock profitability. Some producers extend the grazing season by using stockpiled forage, whereas others use crop residue, and many combine the use of ...


Where's The Beef: Predicting The Effects Of Climate Change On Cattle Production In Western U.S. Rangelands, Sue Miller, Matthew Clark Reeves, Karen Bagne, John Tanaka Dec 2016

Where's The Beef: Predicting The Effects Of Climate Change On Cattle Production In Western U.S. Rangelands, Sue Miller, Matthew Clark Reeves, Karen Bagne, John Tanaka

Karen Bagne

No abstract provided.


The Other Side Of Silence: Rachel Carson’S Views Of Animals, Marc Bekoff, Jan Nystrom Sep 2016

The Other Side Of Silence: Rachel Carson’S Views Of Animals, Marc Bekoff, Jan Nystrom

Marc Bekoff, PhD

The publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962 is widely regarded as one of the major events that launched the modern environmental movement. Silent Spring is a compelling blend of stories, natural history, human values, and biological facts. In this essay we consider Carson’s attitude toward animals in Silent Spring and in other texts. Despite the facts that she was raised to love Nature and animals, little direct attention has been given to Carson’s views about our moral responsibilities to, and the moral standing of animals. Carson favored responsible stewardship, was more of an animal welfarist ...


Compassion As A Practical And Evolved Ethic For Conservation, David Ramp, Marc Bekoff Sep 2016

Compassion As A Practical And Evolved Ethic For Conservation, David Ramp, Marc Bekoff

Marc Bekoff, PhD

The ethical position underpinning decisionmaking is an important concern for conservation biologists when setting priorities for interventions. The recent debate on how best to protect nature has centered on contrasting intrinsic and aesthetic values against utilitarian and economic values, driven by an inevitable global rise in conservation conflicts. These discussions have primarily been targeted at species and ecosystems for success, without explicitly expressing concern for the intrinsic value and welfare of individual animals. In part, this is because animal welfare has historically been thought of as an impediment to conservation. However, practical implementations of conservation that provide good welfare outcomes ...


Ignoring Nature: Why We Do It, The Dire Consequences, And The Need For A Paradigm Shift To Save Animals, Habitats, And Ourselves, Marc Bekoff, Sarah Bexell Sep 2016

Ignoring Nature: Why We Do It, The Dire Consequences, And The Need For A Paradigm Shift To Save Animals, Habitats, And Ourselves, Marc Bekoff, Sarah Bexell

Marc Bekoff, PhD

The article discusses the importance of biodiversity and on how people protect animals and habitats. It describes the conservation psychology and conservation social work. It suggests that there will be fewer people who will actually be able to make a positive difference in the relationships with animals and ecosystems.


In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer Jul 2016

In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

The objectives of this project were to measure corn yield response to applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer based on active canopy sensing during the mid-vegetative corn growth stage (V10) and compare yield and N use efficiency between pre-plant N (PP-N), pre-plant + sensor N (PP+S-N), split N strategy (SNS), and rescue N strategy (RNS).


In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer Jul 2016

In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

The objectives of this project were to measure corn yield response to applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer based on active canopy sensing during the mid-vegetative corn growth stage (V10) and compare yield and N use efficiency between pre-plant N (PP-N), pre-plant + sensor N (PP+S-N), split N strategy (SNS), and rescue N strategy (RNS).


In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer Jul 2016

In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

The objectives of this project were to measure corn yield response to applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer based on active canopy sensing during the mid-vegetative corn growth stage (V10) and compare yield and N use efficiency between pre-plant N (PP-N), pre-plant + sensor N (PP+S-N), split N strategy (SNS), and rescue N strategy (RNS).


In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer Jul 2016

In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

The objectives of this project were to measure corn yield response to applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer based on active canopy sensing during the mid-vegetative corn growth stage (V10) and compare yield and N use efficiency between pre-plant N (PP-N), pre-plant + sensor N (PP+S-N), split N strategy (SNS), and rescue N strategy (RNS).


In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer Jul 2016

In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

The objectives of this project were to measure corn yield response to applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer based on active canopy sensing during the mid-vegetative corn growth stage (V10) and compare yield and N use efficiency between pre-plant N (PP-N), pre-plant + sensor N (PP+S-N), split N strategy (SNS), and rescue N strategy (RNS).


In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer Jul 2016

In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

The objectives of this project were to measure corn yield response to applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer based on active canopy sensing during the mid-vegetative corn growth stage (V10) and compare yield and N use efficiency between pre-plant N (PP-N), pre-plant + sensor N (PP+S-N), split N strategy (SNS), and rescue N strategy (RNS).


Impacts Of Cover Crops On Phosphorus And Nitrogen Loss With Surface Runoff, Antonio Mallarino, Richard Cruse, Dan Jaynes, John Sawyer, Pablo Barbieri Jul 2016

Impacts Of Cover Crops On Phosphorus And Nitrogen Loss With Surface Runoff, Antonio Mallarino, Richard Cruse, Dan Jaynes, John Sawyer, Pablo Barbieri

John E. Sawyer

Iowa research has demonstrated that cover crops can improve soil productivity and water quality by increasing soil organic matter and reducing nitrate nitrogen (N) leaching. Other research has investigated and is investigating the agronomic and economic viability of using cereal rye cover crops in continuous corn or corn-soybean rotations. However, no Iowa research has evaluated under natural rainfall the impact of cover crops on phosphorus (P) and N loss with surface runoff interacting with other management practices. The need for this type of research was indicated in the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy documents. This effort assessed what would be needed ...


Impact Of 4r Management On Crop Production And Nitrate-Nitrogen Loss In Tile Drainage, Matthew Helmers, John Sawyer, Josh Sievers Jul 2016

Impact Of 4r Management On Crop Production And Nitrate-Nitrogen Loss In Tile Drainage, Matthew Helmers, John Sawyer, Josh Sievers

John E. Sawyer

Corn Belt corn and soybean producers are increasingly challenged to maximize crop production while addressing the contributions farm practices make to Gulf hypoxia. Based on the need for nitrate-N reductions to meet water quality goals, new management practices are needed to reduce nitrate-N losses at minimal cost and maximum economic benefits. This three-year field research and demonstration project is evaluating various promising N management methods and technologies by documenting the nitrate-N export and crop yield from various systems.


Human–Wildlife Conflict And Coexistence, Philip J. Nyhus Dec 2015

Human–Wildlife Conflict And Coexistence, Philip J. Nyhus

Philip J. Nyhus

Human interactions with wildlife are a defining experience of human existence. These interactions can be positive or negative. People compete with wildlife for food and resources, and have eradicated dangerous species; co-opted and domesticated valuable species; and applied a wide range of social, behavioral, and technical approaches to reduce negative interactions with wildlife. This conflict has led to the extinction and reduction of numerous species and uncountable human deaths and economic losses. Recent advances in our understanding of conflict have led to a growing number of positive conservation and coexistence outcomes. I summarize and synthesize factors that contribute to conflict ...


Wildlife Of The Gold Coast Wetlands, Shelley Burgin, Daryl Mcphee Aug 2015

Wildlife Of The Gold Coast Wetlands, Shelley Burgin, Daryl Mcphee

Daryl McPhee

Extract: Water in the landscape of the Gold Coast is dominated by marine and marine-influenced systems. The most obvious are the in-shore waters abutting the Gold Coast's world-famous beaches and estuaries. Little more than a glance at a map of the city also reveals the extensive canal estates built to take advantage of the marine waters, and indeed expand them. The waters of the rivers mix with the ocean's waters in the estuaries. These ecosystems are valuable nursery areas for marine wildlife, particularly, but not restricted to, fishes of commercial and recreational value.


In Conclusion, Something To Chew On: Native Plant Foods Of The Gold Coast, Simon Grigalius, Daryl Mcphee Aug 2015

In Conclusion, Something To Chew On: Native Plant Foods Of The Gold Coast, Simon Grigalius, Daryl Mcphee

Daryl McPhee

Extract: Ask most people what Gold Coast food is and you may hear answers like the ubiquitous prawn cocktail with avocado, a burger with ' fresh' pineapple available at the local surf club, or fish and chips (eaten on the beach to give it the seaside connection), with the fish often imported from New Zealand or Vietnam. None of this is the true food of the Gold Coast.


State Of The Environment, Tor Hundloe Aug 2015

State Of The Environment, Tor Hundloe

Tor Hundloe

Extract: What have we done? What have we learned? In this chapter we turn our attention to the people of the Gold Coast and their environmental impacts, as experienced in the 21st century. The past is gone. The damage is done. Dramatic change in landforms and ecological relationships are inevitable in building cities. From this we can only learn and do things better in the future. This is why there will never be another Gold Coast like the one we describe in this book.


Ignoring Nature: Why We Do It, The Dire Consequences, And The Need For A Paradigm Shift To Save Animals, Habitats, And Ourselves, Marc Bekoff, Sarah Bexell Jul 2015

Ignoring Nature: Why We Do It, The Dire Consequences, And The Need For A Paradigm Shift To Save Animals, Habitats, And Ourselves, Marc Bekoff, Sarah Bexell

Sarah M. Bexell, PhD

The article discusses the importance of biodiversity and on how people protect animals and habitats. It describes the conservation psychology and conservation social work. It suggests that there will be fewer people who will actually be able to make a positive difference in the relationships with animals and ecosystems.


Day 1: Wednesday, 17 August 2005: Biodiversity And Critical Habitat, Charles Bedford, Federico Cheever, Tim Sullivan Jun 2015

Day 1: Wednesday, 17 August 2005: Biodiversity And Critical Habitat, Charles Bedford, Federico Cheever, Tim Sullivan

Tim Sullivan

6 pages (includes color illustration). Contains references.