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Natural Resources and Conservation

Iowa State University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 538

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Developing Farmer Typologies To Inform Conservation Outreach In Agricultural Landscapes, Suraj Upadhaya, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lisa A. Schulte Feb 2021

Developing Farmer Typologies To Inform Conservation Outreach In Agricultural Landscapes, Suraj Upadhaya, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lisa A. Schulte

Sociology Publications

Understanding factors that motivate conservation behavior among farmers is crucial to addressing societal, soil, water, and wildlife conservation goals. Farmers employ soil conservation practices to maintain agricultural productivity while minimizing impacts to water and wildlife in the long-term. The majority of conservation programs are voluntary in nature and some farmers are more willing and/or able to implement conservation practices than others. To inform the development of more effective conservation outreach and incentive programs, we created a farmer typology using data from three waves (2015, 2016, 2018) of a longitudinal survey of 358 farmers from Iowa, a highly productive agricultural ...


Genome-Wide Snps Redefines Species Boundaries And Conservation Units In The Freshwater Mussel Genus Cyprogenia Of North America, Kevin Roe, Kyung Seok Kim Jan 2021

Genome-Wide Snps Redefines Species Boundaries And Conservation Units In The Freshwater Mussel Genus Cyprogenia Of North America, Kevin Roe, Kyung Seok Kim

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Detailed information on species delineation and population genetic structure is a prerequisite for designing effective restoration and conservation strategies for imperiled organisms. Phylogenomic and population genomic analyses based on genome-wide ddRAD-Seq data has identified three allopatric lineages in the North American freshwater mussel genus Cyprogenia. Cyprogenia stegaria is restricted to the Eastern Highlands and displays little genetic structuring within this region. However, two allopatric clusters of C. aberti in the Ozark and Ouachita highlands exhibit substantial levels (mean FST = 0.120) of genetic differentiation and each warrants recognition as a distinct evolutionary lineage. Lineages of Cyprogenia in the Ouachita ...


Monarch Butterfly (Danaus Plexippus) Life‐Stage Risks From Foliar And Seed‐Treatment Insecticides, Niranjana Krishnan, Yang Zhang, Melanie E. Aust, Richard L. Hellmich, Joel R. Coats, Steven P. Bradbury Jan 2021

Monarch Butterfly (Danaus Plexippus) Life‐Stage Risks From Foliar And Seed‐Treatment Insecticides, Niranjana Krishnan, Yang Zhang, Melanie E. Aust, Richard L. Hellmich, Joel R. Coats, Steven P. Bradbury

Entomology Publications

Conservation of North America's eastern monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population would require establishment of milkweed (Asclepias spp.) and nectar plants in the agricultural landscapes of the north central United States. A variety of seed‐treatment and foliar insecticides are used to manage early‐ and late‐season pests in these landscapes. Thus, there is a need to assess risks of these insecticides to monarch butterfly life stages to inform habitat conservation practices. Chronic and acute dietary toxicity studies were undertaken with larvae and adults, and acute topical bioassays were conducted with eggs, pupae, and adults using 6 representative insecticides: beta ...


Can Solar Energy Fuel Pollinator Conservation?, Adam G. Dolezal, Jacob Torres, Matthew E. O'Neal Jan 2021

Can Solar Energy Fuel Pollinator Conservation?, Adam G. Dolezal, Jacob Torres, Matthew E. O'Neal

Entomology Publications

As the expansion of solar power spreads through much of the United States, members of the solar industry are working to change how solar energy facilities are designed and presented to the public. This includes the addition of habitat to conserve pollinators. We highlight and discuss ongoing efforts to couple solar energy production with pollinator conservation, noting recent legal definitions of these practices. We summarize key studies from the field of ecology, bee conservation, and our experience working with members of the solar industry (e.g., contribution to legislation defining solar pollinator habitat). Several recently published studies that employed similar ...


Conservation Risks And Benefits Of Establishing Monarch Butterfly (Danaus Plexippus) Breeding Habitats Close To Maize And Soybean Fields In The North Central United States: A Landscape‐Scale Analysis Of The Impact Of Foliar Insecticide On Nonmigratory Monarch Butterfly Populations, Tyler J. Grant, Niranjana Krishnan, Steven P. Bradbury Jan 2021

Conservation Risks And Benefits Of Establishing Monarch Butterfly (Danaus Plexippus) Breeding Habitats Close To Maize And Soybean Fields In The North Central United States: A Landscape‐Scale Analysis Of The Impact Of Foliar Insecticide On Nonmigratory Monarch Butterfly Populations, Tyler J. Grant, Niranjana Krishnan, Steven P. Bradbury

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Establishing habitat in agricultural landscapes of the north central United States is critical to reversing the decline of North America's eastern monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population. Insecticide use could create population sinks and threaten recovery. Discouraging habitat establishment within a 38‐m zone around crop fields is a suggested risk mitigation measure. In Story County, Iowa, United States, this mitigation would discourage habitat establishment in 84% of roadsides and 38% of noncrop land. It is unclear if the conservation benefits from establishing habitat close to crop fields outweigh suppression of population growth owing to insecticide exposure. Consequently, monarch conservation ...


Factors Associated With Distributions Of Six Fishes Of Greatest Conservation Need In Streams In Midwestern Usa, Nicholas T. Simpson, Alexander P. Bybel, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce, Kevin J. Roe Jan 2021

Factors Associated With Distributions Of Six Fishes Of Greatest Conservation Need In Streams In Midwestern Usa, Nicholas T. Simpson, Alexander P. Bybel, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce, Kevin J. Roe

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

  1. Many fish species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) in Iowa and Minnesota, USA, have been in decline for decades. A key reason for the decline is the alteration and degradation of naturally flowing streams owing to land use changes resulting from agricultural practices. Populations of several fishes have been adversely affected by widespread stream channelization that has resulted in more homogeneous stream habitats throughout Iowa and Minnesota.
  2. The goal of this study was to determine the abiotic and fish assemblage characteristics associated with the presence of these rare fishes. Electrofishing and seining were used to sample fish assemblages and 43 ...


Working Landscapes Need At Least 20% Native Habitat, Lucas A. Garibaldi, Facundo J. Oddi, Fernando E. Miguez, Ignasi Bartomeus, Michael C. Orr, Esteban G. Jobbágy, Claire Kremen, Lisa A. Schulte, Alice C. Hughes, Camilo Bagnato, Guillermo Abramson, Peter Bridgewater, Dulce Gomez Carella, Sandra Díaz, Lynn V. Dicks, Erle C. Ellis, Matías Goldenberg, Claudia A. Huaylla, Marcelo Kuperman, Harvey Locke, Zia Mehrabi, Fernanda Santibañez, Chao-Dong Zhu Jan 2021

Working Landscapes Need At Least 20% Native Habitat, Lucas A. Garibaldi, Facundo J. Oddi, Fernando E. Miguez, Ignasi Bartomeus, Michael C. Orr, Esteban G. Jobbágy, Claire Kremen, Lisa A. Schulte, Alice C. Hughes, Camilo Bagnato, Guillermo Abramson, Peter Bridgewater, Dulce Gomez Carella, Sandra Díaz, Lynn V. Dicks, Erle C. Ellis, Matías Goldenberg, Claudia A. Huaylla, Marcelo Kuperman, Harvey Locke, Zia Mehrabi, Fernanda Santibañez, Chao-Dong Zhu

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

International agreements aim to conserve 17% of Earth's land area by 2020 but include no area-based conservation targets within the working landscapes that support human needs through farming, ranching, and forestry. Through a review of country-level legislation, we found that just 38% of countries have minimum area requirements for conserving native habitats within working landscapes. We argue for increasing native habitats to at least 20% of working landscape area where it is below this minimum. Such target has benefits for food security, nature's contributions to people, and the connectivity and effectiveness of protected area networks in biomes in ...


Mapping The Soil Vulnerability Index Across Broad Spatial Extents To Guide Conservation Efforts, Ellen M. Audia, Lisa A. Schulte, David E. James Jan 2021

Mapping The Soil Vulnerability Index Across Broad Spatial Extents To Guide Conservation Efforts, Ellen M. Audia, Lisa A. Schulte, David E. James

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

No abstract provided.


The Environmental Impact Of Ecological Intensification In Soybean Cropping Systems In The U.S. Upper Midwest, Andrea Cecchin, Ghasideh Pourhashem, Russ W. Gesch, Yesuf A. Mohammed, Swetabh Patel, Andrew W. Lenssen, Marisol T. Berti Jan 2021

The Environmental Impact Of Ecological Intensification In Soybean Cropping Systems In The U.S. Upper Midwest, Andrea Cecchin, Ghasideh Pourhashem, Russ W. Gesch, Yesuf A. Mohammed, Swetabh Patel, Andrew W. Lenssen, Marisol T. Berti

Agronomy Publications

Introducing cover crops is a form of ecological intensification that can potentially reduce local, regional and global environmental impacts of soybean cropping systems. An assessment of multiple environmental impacts (global warming potential, eutrophication, soil erosion and soil organic carbon variation) was performed on a continuous soybean system in the U.S. upper Midwest. Four sequences were assessed and compared: a soybean cropping system with winter camelina, field pennycress, or winter rye as cover crop, plus a control (sole soybean). Cover crops were interseeded into standing soybean in Year 1, while in Year 2 soybean was relay-cropped into standing camelina or ...


Iowa Farm Environmental Leaders' Perspectives On The U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs, Gabriel Medina, Catherine Isley, J. Arbuckle Sep 2020

Iowa Farm Environmental Leaders' Perspectives On The U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs, Gabriel Medina, Catherine Isley, J. Arbuckle

Sociology Publications

As stakeholders prepare to lobby future Farm Bills, this study reveals farmers' perspectives on federal conservation programs. In-depth interviews were held with ten farm environmental leaders, farmers who have extensive experience with conservation practices and federal conservation programs. Results reveal that conservation programs have played a limited but important role in incentivizing the adoption of and offsetting costs for establishing conservation practices. Programs' strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements were also explored; results reveal that most farmers believe existing conservation programs could be improved with relatively minor tweaks and adaptations, such as more flexibility in working land program requirements and adjustments ...


Promoting Sustainable Agriculture: Iowa Stakeholders’ Perspectives On The Us Farm Bill Conservation Programs, Gabriel Medina, Catherine Isley, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jan 2020

Promoting Sustainable Agriculture: Iowa Stakeholders’ Perspectives On The Us Farm Bill Conservation Programs, Gabriel Medina, Catherine Isley, J. Gordon Arbuckle

Sociology Publications

Farmers perceive a tension between short‐term profit and long‐term sustainability, which can be bridged by external investments in conservation. In the U.S., the Farm Bill plays an important role in providing this investment through conservation programs. Since the Farm Bill is influenced by various stakeholders, their perspectives tend to inform its programs and practices. We aim to understand influential stakeholders’ viewpoints on strengths and weaknesses of major conservation programs as a means for either incremental or transformative changes leading to policy improvements. Interviews were conducted with representatives from key stakeholder groups, including farmer and agribusiness groups, commodity ...


Exotic Species Drive Patterns Of Plant Species Diversity In 93 Restored Tallgrass Prairies, Andrew D. Kaul, Brian J. Wilsey Jan 2020

Exotic Species Drive Patterns Of Plant Species Diversity In 93 Restored Tallgrass Prairies, Andrew D. Kaul, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

A primary goal of restoration ecology is to understand the factors that generate variability in species diversity and composition among restorations. Plant communities may assemble deterministically toward a common community type, or they may assemble stochastically, ending differently because of weather conditions during establishment, soil legacy effects, or exotic species propagule pressure. To test these alternative hypotheses, we sampled plant communities and soil at 93 randomly selected restored prairies distributed throughout Iowa, USA. Five remnant sites were sampled as a reference. We tested our hypotheses using multiple regressions and investigated the strength of direct and indirect effects on species diversity ...


Estimates Of Common Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) Utilization By Monarch Larvae (Danaus Plexippus) And The Significance Of Larval Movement, Kelsey E. Fisher, Richard L. Hellmich, Steven P. Bradbury Jan 2020

Estimates Of Common Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) Utilization By Monarch Larvae (Danaus Plexippus) And The Significance Of Larval Movement, Kelsey E. Fisher, Richard L. Hellmich, Steven P. Bradbury

Entomology Publications

The population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has noticeably declined over the past two decades. The decline is due, in part, to loss of breeding and forage habitat in the Southern and Midwestern USA. To support a resilient overwintering population of six hectares of occupied forest canopy, approximately 1.6–1.8 billion additional ramets of milkweed are needed in the summer breeding range. Milkweed establishment that facilitates natural behavior of monarchs is necessary for effective conservation restoration. This study explored the effect of milkweed ramet density on larval search behavior, milkweed utilization, and survival without predation ...


Assessing Field‐Scale Risks Of Foliar Insecticide Applications To Monarch Butterfly (Danaus Plexippus) Larvae, Niranjana Krishnan, Yang Zhang, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Joel R. Coats, Steven P. Bradbury Jan 2020

Assessing Field‐Scale Risks Of Foliar Insecticide Applications To Monarch Butterfly (Danaus Plexippus) Larvae, Niranjana Krishnan, Yang Zhang, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Joel R. Coats, Steven P. Bradbury

Entomology Publications

Establishment and maintenance of milkweed plants (Asclepias spp.) in agricultural landscapes of the north central United States are needed to reverse the decline of North America's eastern monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population. Because of a lack of toxicity data, it is unclear how insecticide use may reduce monarch productivity when milkweed habitat is placed near maize and soybean fields. To assess the potential effects of foliar insecticides, acute cuticular and dietary toxicity of 5 representative active ingredients were determined: beta‐cyfluthrin (pyrethroid), chlorantraniliprole (anthranilic diamide), chlorpyrifos (organophosphate), and imidacloprid and thiamethoxam (neonicotinoids). Cuticular median lethal dose values for first ...


Comparing Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework (Acpf) Practice Placements For Runoff Mitigation And Controlled Drainage Among 32 Watersheds Representing Iowa Landscapes, Mark D. Tomer, Jessica D. Van Horn, Sarah A. Porter, David E. James, Jarad Niemi Jan 2020

Comparing Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework (Acpf) Practice Placements For Runoff Mitigation And Controlled Drainage Among 32 Watersheds Representing Iowa Landscapes, Mark D. Tomer, Jessica D. Van Horn, Sarah A. Porter, David E. James, Jarad Niemi

Statistics Publications

Precision conservation planning tools can use high-resolution data to identify conservation practice-placement options for watershed improvement plans. Use of these tools across multiple watersheds could help to identify regional conservation strategies. This study evaluated practice-placement options determined using the Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework (ACPF) ArcGIS tools for controlled drainage (CD), contour buffer strips (CBS), water and sediment control basins (WASCOBs), and grassed waterways (GWWs) across 32 headwater hydrological unit code (HUC)12 watersheds in Iowa. The watersheds represented three Major Land Resource Areas (MLRAs) and four Agro-Hydrologic Landscape (AHL) classes, with four watersheds randomly chosen from each of eight combined ...


Balancing Disturbance And Conservation In Agroecosystems To Improve Biological Control, John F. Tooker, Matthew E. O'Neal, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona Jan 2020

Balancing Disturbance And Conservation In Agroecosystems To Improve Biological Control, John F. Tooker, Matthew E. O'Neal, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona

Entomology Publications

Disturbances associated with agricultural intensification reduce our ability to achieve sustainable crop production. These disturbances stem from crop-management tactics and can leave crop fields more vulnerable to insect outbreaks, in part because natural-enemy communities often tend to be more susceptible to disturbance than herbivorous pests. Recent research has explored practices that conserve natural-enemy communities and reduce pest outbreaks, revealing that different components of agroecosystems can influence natural-enemy populations. In this review, we consider a range of disturbances that influence pest control provided by natural enemies and how conservation practices can mitigate or counteract disturbance. We use four case studies to ...


Estimating Arthropod Survival Probability From Field Counts: A Case Study With Monarch Butterflies, Tyler J. Grant, D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Teresa R. Blader, Richard L. Hellmich, Grace M. Pitman, Sam Tyner, D. Ryan Norris, Steven P. Bradbury Jan 2020

Estimating Arthropod Survival Probability From Field Counts: A Case Study With Monarch Butterflies, Tyler J. Grant, D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Teresa R. Blader, Richard L. Hellmich, Grace M. Pitman, Sam Tyner, D. Ryan Norris, Steven P. Bradbury

Entomology Publications

Survival probability is fundamental for understanding population dynamics. Methods for estimating survival probability from field data typically require marking individuals, but marking methods are not possible for arthropod species that molt their exoskeleton between life stages. We developed a novel Bayesian state‐space model to estimate arthropod larval survival probability from stage‐structured count data. We performed simulation studies to evaluate estimation bias due to detection probability, individual variation in stage duration, and study design (sampling frequency and sample size). Estimation of cumulative survival probability from oviposition to pupation was robust to potential sources of bias. Our simulations also provide ...


Ecological Embeddedness, Agricultural “Modernization,” And Land Use Change In The Us Midwest: Past, Present, And Future, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr. Jan 2020

Ecological Embeddedness, Agricultural “Modernization,” And Land Use Change In The Us Midwest: Past, Present, And Future, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr.

Sociology Publications

In this essay, I examine how socio-technical and economic choices and changes have increasingly disembedded agricultural systems from their local ecologies and transformed agricultural land use and impacted soil and water conservation over the course of US history. I propose that the primary characteristic of land use change, and land degradation in particular, is a fundamental concept I term “agroecological disembeddedness.” I begin with a definition and discussion of the concept of agroecological embeddedness. I then examine the history of North American agriculture up to mid-20th century, focusing primarily on what I consider to be the first major disembedding juncture ...


Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) Plant Detection Using Mobile Cameras, Koray Ozcan, Anuj Sharma, Steven P. Bradbury, Dana Schweitzer, Teresa Blader, Sue Blodgett Jan 2020

Milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca) Plant Detection Using Mobile Cameras, Koray Ozcan, Anuj Sharma, Steven P. Bradbury, Dana Schweitzer, Teresa Blader, Sue Blodgett

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) are host plants of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). It is important to detect milkweed plant locations to assess the status and trends of monarch habitat in support of monarch conservation programs. In this paper, we describe autonomous detection of milkweed plants using cameras mounted to vehicles. For detection, we used both aggregated channel features (ACF) for running the detectors on embedded computing platforms with central processing unit and faster region‐based convolutional neural network (Faster R‐CNN) with a ResNet architecture‐based detector that is suitable for graphics processing unit optimized processing. The ACF‐based model produced ...


Biomass Production With Conservation Practices For Two Iowa Watersheds, Miae Ha, May Wu, Mark D. Tomer, Philip W. Gassman, Thomas M. Isenhart, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Michael J. White, Esther S. Parish, Kevin S. Comer, Bill Belden Jan 2020

Biomass Production With Conservation Practices For Two Iowa Watersheds, Miae Ha, May Wu, Mark D. Tomer, Philip W. Gassman, Thomas M. Isenhart, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Michael J. White, Esther S. Parish, Kevin S. Comer, Bill Belden

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Hydrologic modeling was used to estimate potential changes in nutrients, suspended sediment, and streamflow in various biomass production scenarios with conservation practices under different landscape designs. Two major corn and soybean croplands were selected for study: the South Fork of the Iowa River watershed and the headwater of the Raccoon River watershed. A physically based model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, was used to simulate hydrology and water quality under different scenarios with conservation practices and biomass production. Scenarios are based on conservation practices and biomass production; riparian buffer (RB), saturated buffer, and grassed waterways; various stover harvest rates ...


Capacity And Distribution Of Water Stored In The Vadose Zone Of The Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanjun Zhu, Xiaoxu Jia, Jiangbo Qiao, Andrew Binley, Robert Horton, Wei Hu, Yunqiang Wang, Ming’An Shao Oct 2019

Capacity And Distribution Of Water Stored In The Vadose Zone Of The Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanjun Zhu, Xiaoxu Jia, Jiangbo Qiao, Andrew Binley, Robert Horton, Wei Hu, Yunqiang Wang, Ming’An Shao

Agronomy Publications

Water stored in the vadose (unsaturated) zone provides the majority of water required by plants and buffers water resources; thus, it is central to understanding ecological and hydrological processes in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) with its thick loess deposits. We used multisource data on soil water content (SWC) and vadose zone thickness, combined with a spatial interpolation method, to quantify the vadose zone water and further deduce the water resource composition in the CLP. Vadose zone water is approximately 3.1 times 1012 m3 (plus/minus 27.5%) in the CLP, 92.4% of which is stored ...


Occurrence, Abundance And Associations Of Topeka Shiners (Notropis Topeka) In Restored And Unrestored Oxbows In Iowa And Minnesota, Usa, Nicholas T. Simpson, Alexander P. Bybel, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce, Kevin J. Roe Oct 2019

Occurrence, Abundance And Associations Of Topeka Shiners (Notropis Topeka) In Restored And Unrestored Oxbows In Iowa And Minnesota, Usa, Nicholas T. Simpson, Alexander P. Bybel, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce, Kevin J. Roe

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

  1. In the USA, the Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka) is a federally listed endangered species that has been in decline for decades. A key reason for the decline is the alteration of naturally flowing streams and associated oxbow habitats resulting from land‐use changes. The focus of recent conservation efforts for Topeka shiners has been the restoration of oxbow habitats by removing sediment from natural oxbows until a groundwater connection is re‐established. This restoration practice has become common in portions of Iowa and south‐west Minnesota.
  2. The goals of this study were to compare the occurrence and abundance of Topeka ...


Status Of The Topeka Shiner In Iowa, Clay L. Pierce, Nicholas T. Simpson, Alexander P. Bybel, Courtney L. Zambory, Michael J. Weber, Kevin J. Roe Jul 2019

Status Of The Topeka Shiner In Iowa, Clay L. Pierce, Nicholas T. Simpson, Alexander P. Bybel, Courtney L. Zambory, Michael J. Weber, Kevin J. Roe

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The Topeka shiner Notropis topeka is native to Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, and South Dakota and has been federally listed as endangered since 1998. Our goals were to determine the present distribution and qualitative status of Topeka shiners throughout its current range in Iowa and characterize the extent of decline in relation to its historic distribution. We compared the current (2016–2017) distribution to distributions portrayed in three earlier time periods. In 2016–2017 Topeka shiners were found in 12 of 20 HUC10 watersheds where they occurred historically. Their status was classified as stable in 21% of the HUC10 ...


Design Implications For Surveys To Monitor Monarch Butterfly Population Trends, Karen E. Kinkead, Tyler M. Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Paul W. Frese, Kevin T. Murphy May 2019

Design Implications For Surveys To Monitor Monarch Butterfly Population Trends, Karen E. Kinkead, Tyler M. Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Paul W. Frese, Kevin T. Murphy

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The Iowa Multiple Species Inventory and Monitoring (MSIM) Program includes a protocol for monitoring butterfly density on conservation lands using transects. Most data are collected from sites chosen randomly; additional sites are chosen non-randomly for other reasons. We analyzed a 12-year dataset for monarchs to address how density (per 50 m2 transect section) responded to site selection (random vs. non-random), latitude, and measures of the amount of milkweed and canopy cover on survey transects. Between 2006 and 2017, we conducted 2,328 surveys on 420 sites and detected a total of 2,757 adult monarchs. Monarch densities peaked in 2010 ...


Overview Of Some Recent Advances In Improving Water And Energy Efficiencies In Food Processing Factories, Nooshin Nikmaram, Kurt A. Rosentrater Apr 2019

Overview Of Some Recent Advances In Improving Water And Energy Efficiencies In Food Processing Factories, Nooshin Nikmaram, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Rapid development of food factories in both developed and developing countries, owing to continued growth in the world population, plays a critical role in the food supply chain, including environmental issues such as pollution, emissions, energy and water consumption, and thus food system sustainability. The objective of this study was to briefly review various environmental aspects of food processing operations, including aquatic, atmospheric, and solid waste generation, and also to discuss several strategies that many companies are using to reduce these negative impacts as well as to improve water and energy efficiency. To obtain higher energy efficiencies in food processing ...


Research Gaps And Challenges In The Conservation And Use Of North American Wild Lettuce Germplasm, Aleš Lebeda, Eva Křístková, Miloslav Kitner, Ľuboš Majeský, Ivana Doležalová, Colin K. Khoury, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jinguo Hu, Daniel Carver, Harold A. Achicanoy, Chrystian C. Sosa Jan 2019

Research Gaps And Challenges In The Conservation And Use Of North American Wild Lettuce Germplasm, Aleš Lebeda, Eva Křístková, Miloslav Kitner, Ľuboš Majeský, Ivana Doležalová, Colin K. Khoury, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jinguo Hu, Daniel Carver, Harold A. Achicanoy, Chrystian C. Sosa

Horticulture Publications

The North American crop wild relatives (CWR) of lettuce (Lactuca L.) represent an underexplored pool of genetic diversity of potential value to breeding programs. The 10 species belong to three different groups: a native clade including at least six allotetraploid species [L. biennis (Moench) Fernald, L. canadensis L., L. floridana (L.) Gaertn., L. graminifolia Michx., L. hirsuta Muhl. ex Nutt., and L. ludoviciana (Nutt.) Riddell], a diploid clade with one species [L. tatarica (L.) C. A. Mey. subsp. pulchella (Pursh) Stebbins], and a clade related to the cultivated taxon (L. sativa L.) with three non‐native species (L. saligna L ...


Wild Lactuca Species In North America, A. Lebeda, E. Křístková, I. Doležalová, M. Kitner, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 2019

Wild Lactuca Species In North America, A. Lebeda, E. Křístková, I. Doležalová, M. Kitner, Mark P. Widrlechner

Horticulture Publications

This chapter presents a brief history of the uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its wild North American relatives, and reviews the agricultural importance of lettuce and challenges in its cultivation, in relation to nutritional quality, diseases, pests, and edaphic and climatic limitations. The evolution and taxonomy of the genus Lactuca are presented, with a primary focus on the wild Lactuca species of North America, their characterization, biogeography and distribution, habitat ecology, and genepools. Specific examples of phenotypic variability, genetic diversity and disease resistance of wild Lactuca taxa from both published reports and recent evaluations conducted in our laboratory ...


Spatially Representing Vulnerability To Extreme Rain Events Using Midwestern Farmers’ Objective And Perceived Attributes Of Adaptive Capacity, Maaz Gardezi, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr. Jan 2019

Spatially Representing Vulnerability To Extreme Rain Events Using Midwestern Farmers’ Objective And Perceived Attributes Of Adaptive Capacity, Maaz Gardezi, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr.

Sociology Publications

Potential climate‐change‐related impacts to agriculture in the upper Midwest pose serious economic and ecological risks to the U.S. and the global economy. On a local level, farmers are at the forefront of responding to the impacts of climate change. Hence, it is important to understand how farmers and their farm operations may be more or less vulnerable to changes in the climate. A vulnerability index is a tool commonly used by researchers and practitioners to represent the geographical distribution of vulnerability in response to global change. Most vulnerability assessments measure objective adaptive capacity using secondary data collected ...


Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Practices In The United States: Evidence From 35 Years Of Quantitative Literature, L. S. Prokopy, K. Floress, J. G. Arbuckle, S. P. Church, F. R. Eanes, Y. Gao, B. M. Gramig, P. Ranjan, A. S. Singh Jan 2019

Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Practices In The United States: Evidence From 35 Years Of Quantitative Literature, L. S. Prokopy, K. Floress, J. G. Arbuckle, S. P. Church, F. R. Eanes, Y. Gao, B. M. Gramig, P. Ranjan, A. S. Singh

Sociology Publications

This is a comprehensive review of all published, quantitative studies focused on adoption of agricultural conservation practices in the United States between 1982 and 2017. This review finds that, taken as a whole, few independent variables have a consistent statistically significant relationship with adoption. Analyses showed that variables positively associated with adoption include the farmer self-identifying primarily as stewardship motivated or otherwise nonfinancially motivated, environmental attitudes, a positive attitude toward the particular program or practice, previous adoption of other conservation practices, seeking and using information, awareness of programs or practices, vulnerable land, greater farm size, higher levels of income and ...


Estimating Density And Detection Of Bobcats In Fragmented Midwestern Landscapes Using Spatial Capture–Recapture Data From Camera Traps, Christopher N. Jacques, Robert W. Klaver, Tim C. Swearingen, Edward D. Davis, Charles R. Anderson, Jonathan A. Jenks, Christopher S. Deperno, Robert D. Bluett Jan 2019

Estimating Density And Detection Of Bobcats In Fragmented Midwestern Landscapes Using Spatial Capture–Recapture Data From Camera Traps, Christopher N. Jacques, Robert W. Klaver, Tim C. Swearingen, Edward D. Davis, Charles R. Anderson, Jonathan A. Jenks, Christopher S. Deperno, Robert D. Bluett

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Camera‐trapping data analyzed with spatially explicit capture–recapture (SCR) models can provide a rigorous method for estimating density of small populations of elusive carnivore species. We sought to develop and evaluate the efficacy of SCR models for estimating density of a presumed low‐density bobcat (Lynx rufus) population in fragmented landscapes of west‐central Illinois, USA. We analyzed camera‐trapping data from 49 camera stations in a 1,458‐km2 area deployed over a 77‐day period from 1 February to 18 April 2017. Mean operational time of cameras was 52 days (range = 32–67 days). We captured 23 ...