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Dietary Lysine-To-Energy Ratios For Managing Growth And Pubertal Development In Replacement Gilts, C. A. Lents, C. Supakorn, A. E. Dedecker, C. E. Phillips, R. D. Boyd, J. L. Vallet, G. A. Rohrer, G. R. Foxcroft, W. L. Flowers, N. L. Trottier, J. L. Salak-Johnson, F. F. Bartol, Kenneth J. Stalder Oct 2020

Dietary Lysine-To-Energy Ratios For Managing Growth And Pubertal Development In Replacement Gilts, C. A. Lents, C. Supakorn, A. E. Dedecker, C. E. Phillips, R. D. Boyd, J. L. Vallet, G. A. Rohrer, G. R. Foxcroft, W. L. Flowers, N. L. Trottier, J. L. Salak-Johnson, F. F. Bartol, Kenneth J. Stalder

Animal Science Publications

Objective: Our objective was to determine growth rates, body composition, and pubertal development of replacement gilts fed diets with different ratios of standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine to ME.

Materials and Methods: Diets with low, medium, and high ratios of SID lysine to ME (grower: 2.3, 2.6, and 2.8; and, finisher; 1.7, 1.9, and 2.1 g/Mcal) were fed from 100 to 200 d of age, after which gilts were moved from the gilt development unit to sow farms. Boar exposure and estrus detection began at 160 d of age and continued until first ...


Transcriptome Analysis And Expression Of Selected Cationic Amino Acid Transporters In The Liver Of Broiler Chicken Fed Diets With Varying Concentrations Of Lysine, Collins N. Khwatenge, Boniface M. Kimathi, Samuel N. Nahashon Aug 2020

Transcriptome Analysis And Expression Of Selected Cationic Amino Acid Transporters In The Liver Of Broiler Chicken Fed Diets With Varying Concentrations Of Lysine, Collins N. Khwatenge, Boniface M. Kimathi, Samuel N. Nahashon

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Amino acids are known to play a key role in gene expression regulation. Amino acid signaling is mediated via two pathways: the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and the amino acid responsive (AAR) pathways. Cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) are crucial in these pathways due to their sensing, signaling and transport functions. The availability of certain amino acids plays a key role in the intake of other amino acids, hence affecting growth in young birds. However, the specific mechanism for regulating lysine transport for growth is not clear. In this study, we analyze the transcriptome profiles and mRNA ...


Improving Performance Of Finishing Pigs With Added Valine, Isoleucine, And Tryptophan: Validating A Meta-Analysis Model, H. R. Kerkaert, H. S. Cemin, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, K. D. Haydon, C. Hastad, Z. Post Jan 2020

Improving Performance Of Finishing Pigs With Added Valine, Isoleucine, And Tryptophan: Validating A Meta-Analysis Model, H. R. Kerkaert, H. S. Cemin, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, K. D. Haydon, C. Hastad, Z. Post

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Based on a recent meta-analysis, we hypothesized that increased dietary Val, Ile, or Trp could correct possible amino acid interactions caused by high dietary Leu in diets containing high levels of corn protein, namely dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). A total of 1,200 pigs (PIC TR4 × (Fast LW × PIC L02); initially 74.0 ± 1.38 lb) were used in a 103-d study. The 6 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal- DDGS-based diets as follows: 1) low level of Lys-HCl (HSBM), 2) high Lys-HCl and moderate Ile, Val, Trp (NC; AA above NRC4 estimates), 3) moderate Lys-HCl and high Ile ...


Evaluation Of Nutritional Strategies To Reduce Growth Rate Of Pigs Beyond 200 Lb Body Weight, Z. X. Rao, J. T. Gebhardt, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband Jan 2020

Evaluation Of Nutritional Strategies To Reduce Growth Rate Of Pigs Beyond 200 Lb Body Weight, Z. X. Rao, J. T. Gebhardt, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 356 finishing pigs (DNA; 241 × 600; initially 196.3 ± 2.43 lb) were used in a 44-d growth trial to evaluate nutritional strategies to reduce growth rate of pigs beyond 200 lb body weight. A total of 3 diets were manufactured (control, Lys-deficient, and corn) and arranged into 4 nutritional strategies. In stage 1 (d 0 to 28), pens received one of two dietary treatments (control or Lys-deficient). Then on d 28, pens of pigs previously fed the control diet were separated into 2 groups, one fed the control diet and the other the corn diet. Pens ...


Evaluation Of Compensatory Growth Of 200 Lb Finishing Pigs Previously Fed A Low Lysine Diet, Z. X. Rao, J. T. Gebhardt, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, Robert D. Goodband Jan 2020

Evaluation Of Compensatory Growth Of 200 Lb Finishing Pigs Previously Fed A Low Lysine Diet, Z. X. Rao, J. T. Gebhardt, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, Robert D. Goodband

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 346 pigs (241 × 600, DNA, Columbus, NE; initially 195.3 lb) were used in a 44-d trial to evaluate the compensatory growth of 200 lb finishing pigs previously fed a low lysine diet. Two diets were manufactured (control and corn diet) and arranged into 4 nutritional strategies. One group of pigs (control) was fed the control diet from d 0 to 44. The other three groups of pigs were fed the corn diet for 2, 3, or 4 weeks and then switched to the control diet until d 44. The control diet contained 13.0% crude protein ...


Effect Of Varying Dietary Concentrations Of Lysine On Growth Performance Of The Pearl Grey Guinea Fowl, Sarayu Bhogoju, Samuel N. Nahashon, Joseph Donkor, Boniface M. Kimathi, Dekarra Johnson, Collins N. Khwatenge, Thyneice Taylor-Bowden Dec 2019

Effect Of Varying Dietary Concentrations Of Lysine On Growth Performance Of The Pearl Grey Guinea Fowl, Sarayu Bhogoju, Samuel N. Nahashon, Joseph Donkor, Boniface M. Kimathi, Dekarra Johnson, Collins N. Khwatenge, Thyneice Taylor-Bowden

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Lysine is the second limiting essential amino acid in poultry nutrition after methionine. Understanding the lysine requirement of poultry is necessary in guiding formulation of least cost diets that effectively meet the nutritional needs of individual birds. The lysine requirement of the Pearl Grey guinea fowl (PGGF) is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the appropriate lysine levels required for optimal growth attributes of the PGGF. In a 12-week study, 512 one-day-old Pearl Grey guinea keets were weighed individually and randomly assigned to electrically heated battery brooders. Each battery contained 12 compartments housing 15 birds ...


Expression Of Lysine-Mediated Neuropeptide Hormones Controlling Satiety And Appetite In Broiler Chickens, Collins N. Khwatenge, Boniface M. Kimathi, Thyneice Taylor-Bowden, Samuel N. Nahashon Dec 2019

Expression Of Lysine-Mediated Neuropeptide Hormones Controlling Satiety And Appetite In Broiler Chickens, Collins N. Khwatenge, Boniface M. Kimathi, Thyneice Taylor-Bowden, Samuel N. Nahashon

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Lysine is the second most limiting amino acid after methionine and is considered the most limiting amino acid for growth in poultry. Lysine requirement for broiler chickens has changed over the years. Leptin and adiponectin represent 2 adipokines that mediate metabolism by eliciting satiety effects whereas ghrelin peptide hormone influences appetite. We hypothesize that this affects growth performance of chicks. This study evaluates the effect of varying dietary lysine homeostasis on performance of broiler chickens through satiety- and appetite-mediating hormones. In 3 replications, 270 one-day-old chicks were reared for 8 wk feeding on diets comprising 0.85, 1.14, and ...


Broiler Breeder Amino Acid Levels And Progeny Nutritional Status, Leasea Butler May 2019

Broiler Breeder Amino Acid Levels And Progeny Nutritional Status, Leasea Butler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Crude protein needs of chickens have changed due to genetic line differences and selection of those lines for differing broiler traits. Standard commercial broiler strains have been selected to be used to meet multiple processing categories typically at live body weights less than 3.5 kg. In the last two decades high-yielding broiler strains were introduced into the commercial market. These breeds are known as the Cobb 700 and Ross 708. The works included within are focused on the Cobb 700 high-yielding broiler strain, and its response to crude protein, with emphasis on digestible lysine.


Ruminal Protection And Intestinal Availability Of Rumen-Protected Methionine And Lysine In Lactating Dairy Cows, Sara Menchu May 2019

Ruminal Protection And Intestinal Availability Of Rumen-Protected Methionine And Lysine In Lactating Dairy Cows, Sara Menchu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rumen protected Methionine (MET) and Lysine (LYS) are critical for milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. N-acetyl-L-methionine (NALM) is a MET derivative that consists of L-Met protected with an acetyl group that is attached to the α-amino group.N-acetyl-L-lysine (NALL) is a LYS derivative that is similarly protected. The objectives of these studies were to quantify the gastrointestinal availability of NALM and NALL. Three experiments were run as 3 × 3 Latin square using 3 second lactation Holstein cows that have been fitted with cannulas in the rumen and duodenum. The cows were fed diets containing the supplements for two weeks ...


Effect Of Feeding Duration Of Increased Lysine And Energy Prior To Farrowing On Sow Performance And Colostrum Quality, K. M. Gourley, A. J. Swanson, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband Jan 2019

Effect Of Feeding Duration Of Increased Lysine And Energy Prior To Farrowing On Sow Performance And Colostrum Quality, K. M. Gourley, A. J. Swanson, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 467 sows were used in a study to evaluate the effect of feeding duration of increased lysine (Lys) and energy prior to farrowing on sow and litter performance, piglet survival, and colostrum quality. Sows were blocked by body weight and parity category on d 106 of gestation, and allotted to one of three dietary treatments: 1) 4.5 lb/d gestation feed (12.5 g SID Lys and 6.5 Mcal ME) until d 113 of gestation, then 6 lb/d lactation feed (28 g SID Lys and 9.4 Mcal ME) until parturition; 2) 4.5 ...


Effect Of Phase-Feeding Strategies On Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Growing-Finishing Pigs: Strategies To Reduce Dietary Phases Using A Field Approach On Lysine Levels, M. B. Menegat, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband Jan 2019

Effect Of Phase-Feeding Strategies On Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Growing-Finishing Pigs: Strategies To Reduce Dietary Phases Using A Field Approach On Lysine Levels, M. B. Menegat, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether simplification of phase-feeding strategies using a field approach with lysine specifications slightly below the estimated requirement for maximum growth rate is possible without compromising overall performance and carcass characteristics of grow-finish pigs. A total of 1,188 pigs (PIC; 359 × 1050; initially 63.5 lb body weight (BW)) were used in a randomized complete block design with 27 pigs per pen and 11 pens per treatment under commercial research conditions. Treatments consisted of four feeding programs with lysine specifications set at 98.5% of estimated requirements for maximum growth rate and ...


Evaluating Soybean Meal Quality Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy, K. M. Dunmire, J. Dhakal, K. Stringfellow, C. R. Stark, C. B. Paulk Jan 2019

Evaluating Soybean Meal Quality Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy, K. M. Dunmire, J. Dhakal, K. Stringfellow, C. R. Stark, C. B. Paulk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this study was to establish a range of soybean meal quality to evaluate the correlations between official analytical methods and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). Crushed soybean white flakes (Mark Hershey Farms, Lebanon, PA) exposed to mechanical oil extraction, but not heat processing, were used in this experiment. Ground samples (500 g) were put into cotton bags and autoclaved at 262°F for 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at 29 PSI. This was done to simulate varying degrees of heat processing. A total of 2 samples per treatment were autoclaved in 3 separate blocks ...


Efficiency Of Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine Utilization For Whole Body Protein Deposition In Pregnant Gilts And Sows During Early, Mid And Late Gestation, Christian Daniel Ramirez-Camba Jan 2019

Efficiency Of Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine Utilization For Whole Body Protein Deposition In Pregnant Gilts And Sows During Early, Mid And Late Gestation, Christian Daniel Ramirez-Camba

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The total daily amino acid (AA) requirements for pregnant sows are based of Lys which is the first-limiting AA in swine diets. The SID Lys requirements are estimated by the NRC (2012) gestating sow model as the sum of those required for maintenance and protein retention divided by the efficiency of SID Lys utilization. The NRC (2012) gestating sow model assumed AA efficiency is constant across stages of gestation and parities; however, this does not reflect the change in metabolic demand of various age sows at different stages of gestation. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of ...


Leucine Supplementation Did Not Improve Protein Deposition Or Lysine Utilization In Growing Steers, K. A. Pearl, H. F. Speer, M. D. Miesner, E. C. Titgemeyer Jan 2018

Leucine Supplementation Did Not Improve Protein Deposition Or Lysine Utilization In Growing Steers, K. A. Pearl, H. F. Speer, M. D. Miesner, E. C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: This study was conducted to determine if leucine supplementation could improve protein deposition and lysine utilization in growing steers.

Study Description: Ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (380 lb) were provided treatments of postruminal infusions of 0 or 0.212 oz/day of lysine, and 0, 0.529, or 1.058 oz/day of leucine, with all 6 combinations tested. Ruminal infusions of volatile fatty acids and abomasal infusions of glucose provided energy, and all essential amino acids, except lysine, were infused abomasally to make lysine the sole limiting amino acid. Urine and fecal collections were used to measure nitrogen retention ...


Effects Of Increasing Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine During Gestation On Growth And Reproductive Performance Of Gilts And Sows Under Commercial Conditions, L. L. Thomas, L. K. Herd, R. D. Goodband, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, M A. Gonçalves, D. B. Jones Jan 2018

Effects Of Increasing Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine During Gestation On Growth And Reproductive Performance Of Gilts And Sows Under Commercial Conditions, L. L. Thomas, L. K. Herd, R. D. Goodband, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, M A. Gonçalves, D. B. Jones

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A study was conducted on a commercial sow farm to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) intake in gestation on sow performance and piglet birth weight. A total of 936 females (498 gilts, 438 sows; Camborough, PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were group-housed (approximately 275 females per pen) and individually fed with electronic sow feeders (ESF). Scales were located in the alleyway after the feeding stations returning into the pen. Females were moved from the breeding stall to pens on d 4 of gestation and were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments on d 5 ...


Effect Of Feeding Three Lysine To Energy Diets On Growth, Body Composition And Age At Puberty In Replacement Gilts, J. A. Calderón Díaz, J. L. Vallet, R. D. Boyd, C. A. Lents, T. J. Prince, A. E. Dedecker, C. E. Phillips, G. Foxcroft, K. J. Stalder Sep 2017

Effect Of Feeding Three Lysine To Energy Diets On Growth, Body Composition And Age At Puberty In Replacement Gilts, J. A. Calderón Díaz, J. L. Vallet, R. D. Boyd, C. A. Lents, T. J. Prince, A. E. Dedecker, C. E. Phillips, G. Foxcroft, K. J. Stalder

Animal Science Publications

This study evaluated the effect of diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine on lysine intake, growth rate, body composition and age at puberty on maternal line gilts. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 641) were fed corn-soybean diets differing in SID lysine concentration (%, g SID lysine:Mcal ME); diets were not isocaloric. Gilts received three grower, finisher diet combinations: low (0.68% lysine grower, 0.52% lysine finisher), medium (0.79% lysine grower, 0.60% lysine finisher) or high (0.90% lysine grower, 0.68% lysine finisher). Grower diets were fed from 100 until 142 days of age ...


Supplemental Effects Of Ruminal Bypass Arginine And Lysine For Improving Meat Quality And Oxidative Stability Of Aged Beef Loins, Jacob Tuell, Hyun-Wook Kim, Juliana Guedes, Derico Setyabrata, Jin-Kyu Seo, Jon Schoonmaker, Yuan H. Brad Kim Aug 2017

Supplemental Effects Of Ruminal Bypass Arginine And Lysine For Improving Meat Quality And Oxidative Stability Of Aged Beef Loins, Jacob Tuell, Hyun-Wook Kim, Juliana Guedes, Derico Setyabrata, Jin-Kyu Seo, Jon Schoonmaker, Yuan H. Brad Kim

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Postmortem aging is widely practiced in the beef industry to improve eating quality characteristics. However, the oxidative stability of aged beef muscle could be negatively affected by extending aging period. The use of ruminal bypass amino acids allows levels of crude protein in the diet to be lowered and may also positively impact oxidative stability of aged beef muscle. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ruminal bypass arginine (Arg) and lysine (Lys) supplementation on meat quality and oxidative stability of beef loins (M. longissimus lumborum, LL) under two durations of postmortem aging (14 and 28 days). A ...


Sid Lysine Requirement Of Immunologically And Physically Castrated Male Pigs During The Grower, Early And Late Finisher Periods, A. J. Elsbernd, C. F. M. De Lange, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, John F. Patience Mar 2017

Sid Lysine Requirement Of Immunologically And Physically Castrated Male Pigs During The Grower, Early And Late Finisher Periods, A. J. Elsbernd, C. F. M. De Lange, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The main objective of this experiment was to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys requirement of immunologically castrated (IC) and physically castrated (PC) male pigs during 3 growth phases. An additional objective was to compare the ADFI of PC and IC after the second anti-gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) injection. Three hundred male pigs (PIC 359 × C29), 150 each of IC and PC, were allotted to 1 of 5 treatments: 80, 90, 100, 110, or 120% of the estimated Lys requirement using the NRC (2012) modeling program. Pigs remained on the same treatment throughout each of the 3 phases. Lysine ...


Effects Of Increasing Dietary Lysine On Performance Of Lactating Sows In Commercial Conditions, K. M. Gourley, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband, S. J. Kitt, E. W. Stephenson Jan 2017

Effects Of Increasing Dietary Lysine On Performance Of Lactating Sows In Commercial Conditions, K. M. Gourley, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband, S. J. Kitt, E. W. Stephenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 710 mixed parity sows (Line 241; DNA, Columbus, NE) were used in a 21-d study to determine the effect of standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) intake during lactation on sow and litter performance and subsequent reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous sows housed in a commercial production system. On d 112 of gestation, females were weighed and blocked by BW within expected farrowing date and parity (1 to 7) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments within blocks. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based and consisted of increasing SID Lys (0.75, 0.90, 1 ...


Effects Of Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine On 15- To 25-Lb Nursery Pigs, G. E. Nichols, C. M. Vier, A. B. Clark, M. B. Menegat, H. S. Cemin, C. K. Jones, J. M. Derouchey, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, J. C. Woodworth, S. S. Dritz Jan 2017

Effects Of Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine On 15- To 25-Lb Nursery Pigs, G. E. Nichols, C. M. Vier, A. B. Clark, M. B. Menegat, H. S. Cemin, C. K. Jones, J. M. Derouchey, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, J. C. Woodworth, S. S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 300 pigs (DNA 241 × 600; initial pen average BW of 15.4 lb) were used in a 22-d growth trial to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) requirement of nursery pigs from 15- to 25-lb. Pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d of age and allotted to pens based on BW and gender. There were 10 replicate pens per treatment and 6 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed a common pelleted diet for 10 d post-weaning. Subsequently, pens of pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 experimental diets in a randomized complete block design ...


Effects Of Amino Acid Ratios And Lysine Level On Nursery Pig Growth Performance, A. B. Clark, M. D. Tokach, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, R. D. Goodband, K. J. Touchette Jan 2017

Effects Of Amino Acid Ratios And Lysine Level On Nursery Pig Growth Performance, A. B. Clark, M. D. Tokach, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, R. D. Goodband, K. J. Touchette

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 2,268 pigs (PIC 327 × L42, initially 16.2 lb BW) was used in a 28-d growth study with 54 pigs per feeder (experimental unit) and 6 replications per treatment. Pigs were randomly allotted to pens at weaning and fed a common starter diet for 8 d. Pens were then blocked by BW and allotted to 1 of 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in two levels of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys (low,1.25% and high, 1.35%) and SID amino acid (AA) ratios relative to Lys (industry, 95 ...


Lysine Bioavailability Of Two Lipid Coated Lysine Products After Exposure To Silages With Different Acidity, Jessica N. Reiners Jan 2017

Lysine Bioavailability Of Two Lipid Coated Lysine Products After Exposure To Silages With Different Acidity, Jessica N. Reiners

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Three experiments were conducted to determine bioavailability of 2 lipid coated Lys products (EB and EC). In an initial experiment, Lys disassociation from 2 lipid coated Lys products was best described by a first-order kinetic model after incubation in alfalfa- or corn-silage at 2 different amounts of acidity. Greater amounts of Lys immediately disassociated from EC (15.7%) than EB (4.9%; P < 0.05). Lysine that initially disassociated in corn silage at low pH (0.5%) was less than corn silage at a more neutral pH (18.7%), whereas Lys that initially disassociated in alfalfa silage was not affected (P = 0.26) by pH. Lysine that slowly disassociated from lipid coated Lys differed by product (P = 0.01), and acidity (P < 0.01) affected amounts of Lys that slowly disassociated differently within alfalfa- or corn-silage (pH × silage = 0.02). Greater amounts of Lys disassociated from acidic corn silage (79%) than neutral corn silage (32%; P = 0.01). However, amounts of Lys that slowly disassociated from alfalfa silage was not impacted by acidity (P = 0.40). Additionally, amounts of Lys that did not disassociate (P < 0.04) within 24 h were greater (P < 0.04) when lipid coated Lys was mixed with neutral silages (44%) compared to acidic silages (21%). However, rate of Lys disassociation from lipid coated Lys products was not affected by acidity or exposure to alfalfa- or corn-silage (P = 0.21). In a second experiment, we measured in vitro ammonia release from EB and EC after mixing with alfalfa- or corn-silage at different amounts of acidity with or without monensin. Ammonia release from Lys increased (Quadratic < 0.01) with greater amounts of time; however, differences between in vitro cultures with added Lys and negative control were not detected until 36 h of incubation. By 36 h, all cultures containing added Lys were greater than the negative control. After 42 h of incubation, ammonia release from Lys was greatest from EC and when lipid and Lys-HCl in amounts identical to EB were provided to cultures; EB, Lys-HCl, and lipid and Lys in amounts identical to EC were intermediate. After 48 h of incubation, ammonia release from Lys in EB was greatest and Lys-HCl was least, but EC and amounts of lipid and Lys-HCl identical to either EB or EC were intermediate. Ammonia release from Lys were less from cultures containing monensin after 48 h of incubation. In experiment 3, 9 white-faced ewes (70.1 ± 5.2 kg BW; 5.3 ± 0.6 yr) were used to measure Lys bioavailability by a slope-ratio analysis from 2 lipid coated Lys products and Lys-HCl after mixing in corn silage. Plasma Lys concentrations increased (Linear < 0.01) in response to abomasal infusion of Lys, and bioavailability of EB, EC, and Lys- HCl were calculated to be 10.74%, 18.82%, and 11.87%, respectively. However, increases in plasma Lys from EB (Linear = 0.41) and Lys-HCl (Linear = 0.36) were not different from plasma Lys supported by diet alone, but the rate of increase in plasma Lys in response to EC tended (Linear = 0.15) to be greater than plasma Lys levels from diet. Evidently, manufacturing method among lipid coated Lys products as well as physical and chemical characteristics of diet can impact availability of Lys from lipid coated Lys products.


The Effect Of Heat Stress And Essential Amino Acids On Production And Metabolism Of Lactating Dairy Cattle, Kimberly Rose Kassube Aug 2016

The Effect Of Heat Stress And Essential Amino Acids On Production And Metabolism Of Lactating Dairy Cattle, Kimberly Rose Kassube

Masters Theses

Heat stress (HS) causes decreases in production of lactating cattle that is only partially explained by decreases in intake. Evidence suggests that changes in energy and protein metabolism occur to cope with the impact of HS. The objective of this thesis was to determine if the effect of jugular infusion of essential amino acids (AA) ameliorated the negative effects of HS in milk production and metabolism. Twelve multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover design to evaluate the effect of thermoneutral (THN) and HS environments along with the absence (CTL) or presence (ML+BCAA) of essential AA infusion ...


Effects Of Dietary Amino Acid Supplementation On Measures Of Whole-Body And Muscle Protein Metabolism In Aged Horses, Christine M. Latham Jan 2016

Effects Of Dietary Amino Acid Supplementation On Measures Of Whole-Body And Muscle Protein Metabolism In Aged Horses, Christine M. Latham

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Sarcopenia is a condition that is most common in aged animals, and is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass and integrity, and can lead to physical disability and poor quality of life. Since skeletal muscle protein synthesis can be limited by the availability of amino acids, supplementation of limiting amino acids to ameliorate the progression of sarcopenia has become a topic of interest in companion animal research. Although there is some data to support the idea that amino acid supplementation improves maintenance of muscle mass in aged horses, the cellular mechanisms behind that improvement have yet to be ...


Effects Of Lysine On Performance Of Lactating Primiparous Sows, K. M. Gourley, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband Jan 2016

Effects Of Lysine On Performance Of Lactating Primiparous Sows, K. M. Gourley, J. C. Woodworth, J. M. Derouchey, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 111 primiparous sows (Line 241; DNA, Columbus, NE) were used in a 21-d study to determine the effect of lysine (Lys) intake during lactation on sow and litter performance and subsequent reproductive performance of primiparous sows. At d 110 of gestation, sows were weighed and randomly assigned to treatment based on weight block. Dietary treatments consisted of increasing levels of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys (0.80, 0.95, 1.10, and 1.25% with other AA meeting or exceeding NRC [2012] recommendations as a ratio to Lys). All other nutrients met or exceeded the NRC (2012 ...


Ruminally-Protected Lysine (Safegain) Improves Performance Of Growing Beef Cattle, V. A. Veloso, C. L. Van Bibber-Krueger, J. S. Drouillard Jan 2016

Ruminally-Protected Lysine (Safegain) Improves Performance Of Growing Beef Cattle, V. A. Veloso, C. L. Van Bibber-Krueger, J. S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Lysine frequently is cited as the first-limiting amino acid for cattle diets. Synthetic lysine, while routinely added to pig diets, is ineffective in fulfilling lysine requirements of cattle due to extensive degradation by microbes within the rumen. Lysine can be encapsulated with compounds, such as saturated fats, that minimize degradation by ruminal microbes, thereby assuring that a greater proportion of the amino acid is available for absorption post-ruminally. The purpose of this experiment was to measure the impact of SafeGain (H.J. Baker & Bro. Inc., Little Rock, AR), an encapsulated form of lysine sulfate, on rate of gain and feed ...


Effects Of Increasing Dietary Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine On 15 To 24 Lb Nursery Pigs, A. B. Clark, M. D. Tokach, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband, J. C. Woodworth, K. Touchette Jan 2016

Effects Of Increasing Dietary Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine On 15 To 24 Lb Nursery Pigs, A. B. Clark, M. D. Tokach, J. M. Derouchey, S. S. Dritz, R. D. Goodband, J. C. Woodworth, K. Touchette

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 300 nursery pigs (PIC 327 × 1050, initially 14.8 lb BW) were used in a 28-d growth trial to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) on nursery pig growth performance. Pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d of age and allotted to the pens according to BW and gender. A common starter diet was fed for 6 d, then pens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were fed for 14 d followed by a common diet for 14 d. The 6 dietary ...


Diet Formulation Method Influences The Response To Increasing Net Energy For Growing-Finishing Pigs, D. Marcal, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, R. D. Goodband, J. M. Derouchey Jan 2016

Diet Formulation Method Influences The Response To Increasing Net Energy For Growing-Finishing Pigs, D. Marcal, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, R. D. Goodband, J. M. Derouchey

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of increasing dietary net energy (NE) in growing-finishing diets with maintaining a standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys:NE ratio or not adjusting this ratio and keeping SID Lysine (Lys) constant across increasing NE density. A total of 150 pigs (Line 600 Duroc × Line 241, DNA, Columbus, NE) were used in a 91-d trial. Pens of pigs were blocked by gender and BW before being randomly assigned to treatments with 2 pigs per pen and 15 pens per treatment. Treatment diets included a low-energy negative control diet and a 2 × 2 ...


Optimal Dietary Energy And Amino Acids For Gilt Development: Growth, Body Composition, Feed Intake, And Carcass Composition Traits, J. A. Calderón Díaz, J. L. Vallet, T. J. Prince, C. E. Phillips, A. E. Dedecker, K. J. Stalder Mar 2015

Optimal Dietary Energy And Amino Acids For Gilt Development: Growth, Body Composition, Feed Intake, And Carcass Composition Traits, J. A. Calderón Díaz, J. L. Vallet, T. J. Prince, C. E. Phillips, A. E. Dedecker, K. J. Stalder

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to determine if body composition of developing gilts could be altered at the onset of estrus by ad libitum feeding diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine and ME using levels that are within those used in practice by pig producers in the United States. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1,221), housed in groups, were randomly allotted to 6 corn–soybean diets in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement formulated to provide 2 SID lysine and 3 ME levels. Gilts received grower diets formulated to provide 0.86 (low) or 1.02 ...


Effects Of Commercial Formaldehyde Inclusion And Lysine Level On Pig Performance Of 35- To 50-Lb Nursery Pigs, R. A. Cochrane, L. G. Sica, J. C. Woodworth, S. S. Dritz, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones Jan 2015

Effects Of Commercial Formaldehyde Inclusion And Lysine Level On Pig Performance Of 35- To 50-Lb Nursery Pigs, R. A. Cochrane, L. G. Sica, J. C. Woodworth, S. S. Dritz, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 299 pigs (DNA 400 × 200; initial BW 33.6 lb) were used in a 14-d study to determine the effects of two separate commercial formaldehyde products (Termin-8; Anitox Corp, Lawrenceville, GA and SalCURB; Kemin Industries, Inc., Des Moines, IA) on nursery pig performance. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial design with three formaldehyde inclusions: none vs. 6.5 lb/ton SalCURB vs. 6.0 lb/ton Termin-8 and 2 Lys levels: Standard (1.25% SID Lys) vs. Low (1.10% SID Lys). Formaldehyde treatments were established based on supplier recommendations and diets were treated ...