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Work for hire

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Uncertainty In Employee Status Across Federal Law, Ryan G. Vacca Sep 2019

Uncertainty In Employee Status Across Federal Law, Ryan G. Vacca

Law Faculty Scholarship

Numerous federal statutes rely on a distinction between employees and independent contractors. Based on a series of Supreme Court decisions from 1968 through 2003, courts and administrative agencies have used a common law multifactor test to draw this distinction. In an effort to enhance predictability and certainty within and across legislation, these cases have rejected a purposive approach in applying the test. But the Supreme Court has never said which, if any, of the factors are the most important in the analysis, nor has anyone determined whether the underlying purpose—enhancing predictability and certainty—has been attained.

This empirical Study uses content …


Code Revision Commission V. Public.Resource.Org And The Fight Over Copyright Protection For Annotations And Commentary, David E. Shipley Jan 2019

Code Revision Commission V. Public.Resource.Org And The Fight Over Copyright Protection For Annotations And Commentary, David E. Shipley

Scholarly Works

This article is about the Eleventh Circuit’s 2018 decision in Code Revision Commission v. Public.Resource.Org concerning the public edicts doctrine and holding that the State of Georgia’s copyright on the annotations, commentary and analyses in the Official Code of Georgia Annotated is invalid. About a third of the States claim copyright in the annotations to their codes so the potential impact of this decision is substantial. The U.S. Supreme Court granted Georgia’s petition for a writ of certiorari on Monday, June 24.

The article’s thesis is that the Eleventh Circuit was wrong and should be reversed. It first discusses the …


Martha Graham, Professor Miller And The "Work For Hire" Doctrine: Undoing The Judicial Bind Created By The Legislature, Nancy S. Kim Oct 2016

Martha Graham, Professor Miller And The "Work For Hire" Doctrine: Undoing The Judicial Bind Created By The Legislature, Nancy S. Kim

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

The current work for hire doctrine, as embodied by 17 U.S.C. Sections 101 and 201 and interpreted by the judiciary, provides a default rule of copyright ownership in favor of employers where a work is created by an employee in the scope of employment. In the absence of a written agreement, a finding that an engagement is a work for hire under the statute automatically results in all ownership being vested in the employer. This result often contradicts business norms and the understanding of one or both of the parties. In this Article, the author advocates abolishing the all-or-nothing concept …


Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca Jan 2015

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Akron Law Faculty Publications

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further guidance on …


Ip Basics: Copyright For Digital Authors, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Copyright For Digital Authors, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarship

Written for computer artists and programmers, this paper addresses the basics, as well as the registration of multiple works, difference between works that are and are not prepared "for hire," and other matters of interest to entrepreneurs as well as to free-lance programmers and artists.


Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca Jan 2015

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Ryan G. Vacca

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further guidance on …


Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca Jan 2015

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Law Faculty Scholarship

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further guidance on …


Sufficiently Supervised Commissioned Workers: Mythical Beasts Sculpted From Old Law, Alexander Lambrous Jan 2013

Sufficiently Supervised Commissioned Workers: Mythical Beasts Sculpted From Old Law, Alexander Lambrous

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Applying The Doctrine Of Work For Hire And Joint Works To Website Development, Han Sheng Beh Dec 2012

Applying The Doctrine Of Work For Hire And Joint Works To Website Development, Han Sheng Beh

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


You Don't Own Me: Why Work For Hire Should Not Be Applied To Sound Recordings, William Henslee, Elizabeth Henslee Jan 2011

You Don't Own Me: Why Work For Hire Should Not Be Applied To Sound Recordings, William Henslee, Elizabeth Henslee

Journal Publications

Many recording artists and songwriters never reap the rewards of their work. America's first professional songwriter died in poverty at the age of thirty-seven. At the Congressional level the situation has described recording artists as "one group of creators who get ripped off more than anybody else in any other industry". As we approach 2013, there will be a new line of cases that deal with authors of sound recordings attempting to terminate their copyright assignment to the record companies. While the most efficient and frugal solution would be legislative action, the most probable outcome is expensive, fact-intensive litigation. Congress …


Who Owns Bratz? The Integration Of Copyright And Employment Law, Michael D. Birnhack Oct 2009

Who Owns Bratz? The Integration Of Copyright And Employment Law, Michael D. Birnhack

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Recording Artists, Work For Hire, Employment, And Appropriation, Matt Stahl Jan 2008

Recording Artists, Work For Hire, Employment, And Appropriation, Matt Stahl

Studio for Law and Culture

Authorship and ownership exist in a curious relation in U.S. copyright law. In theory and common sense, authorship underwrites and is the condition of ownership, but in practice ownership can establish authorship retroactively. Distinctions between proprietary and non-proprietary creative cultural workers, in this view, turn in no essential way on evidence of “creativity” or the investment of “personality” in cultural creation. This paper examines a legislative struggle between recording artists and the recording industry over the status of their stock-in-trade, sound recordings. In 2000, recording artists obtained the repeal of a 1999 law allocating authorship and ownership of recordings to …


Intellectual Property Rights In An Attorney’S Work Product, Ralph D. Clifford Jan 2008

Intellectual Property Rights In An Attorney’S Work Product, Ralph D. Clifford

Faculty Publications

This paper addresses the main intellectual property consequences of practicing law and whether attorneys can prevent others from using their work-product. The article does not assume that the reader is an expert in intellectual property law; instead, it is designed to answer the types of questions practitioners have about their rights.


Law Reviews And Technology: Copyright Law From Noah Webster To Tasini And The Importance Of Written Contracts, Lynn Mclain Mar 2001

Law Reviews And Technology: Copyright Law From Noah Webster To Tasini And The Importance Of Written Contracts, Lynn Mclain

All Faculty Scholarship

This handout from a 2001 presentation for the National Conference of Law Reviews outlines the intersection between copyright and contract law, particularly as it pertains to authors assigning the copyright of law review articles to the journal publishing the article.


Performer's Rights And Digital Sampling Under U.S. And Japanese Law, Jessica D. Litman Jan 1988

Performer's Rights And Digital Sampling Under U.S. And Japanese Law, Jessica D. Litman

Articles

A year or two ago, one of my copyright students called to my attention a problem that seemed to him to pose unique difficulties for the copyright statute. The problem arises because of a technology called digital sampling.' Digital sampling is a new threat to performers' rights that has grown out of the combination of digital recording technology with music synthesizer technology. This threat is a very recent one. Indeed, the digital sampling problem is so new that copyright lawyers haven't yet figured out how to think about it.